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Current status: Synonym of Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus 1766)
Serrasalmo immaculatus Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos, Soc, Phila XVII, 1877-78 (May 17, 1878) p. 692. Cotypes, Nos, 21,505. A .N. S.P. Peruvian Amazon. Prof J. Orton:
Width of head 2 1/4 in its length; interorbital space 2 7/8 in head, measured from the tip of upper jaw. Body strongly compressed, and predorsal and postdorsal regions, to adipose fin, with a slight median ridge. Upper and Lower surfaces of caudal peduncle a little compressed convexly. Head compressed. Snout borad and surface convex. Teeth 5-5, 7-7, Palatine teeth 7 on each side. Gill opening forward opposite middle of orbit. Rakers x + viii rounded scabrous processes and each with a short denticulation. Filaments about equal eye. Color in alcohol brownish, more or less dull and uniform or only with slight silvered reflections, and greenish tints on head and fins evidently due to preservative. Iris a little reddish-brown. Length 7 5/8 inches (caudal damaged).
The others show: head 2 2/3 to 2 1/5; depth 1 3/4; D, I, ii, 13, i to 16, i; A. I, iii, 28, i to 31, i; scales about 67 to 78 in lateral line to base of caudal, and 6 to 8 more on latter; mandible 1 2/5 to 2 3/5 in head; pectoral 1 2/3 to 1 3/4; ventral 2 3/4 to 3 1/5; least depth of caudal peduncle 3 1/2 to 3 3/4; base of dorsal 1 2/3 to 1 3/5; snout 4 1/5 to 4 1/2 in head, measured from tip of upper jaw; eye 4 1/3 to 5; maxillary 2 3/5 to 2 7/8; interorbital space 3 to 3 1/6; greatest width of infraorbital rim 2 4/5 to 3; length of body (caudal damaged( 6 1/4 to 6 7/8 inches, the numerous lead-colored spots on the back are not.
Serrasalmo immaculatus Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 1878, p. 692 (Peruvian Amazon); Eigenmann & Eigenmann, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, 1891, p. 60; Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1906, p. 471, fig. 54 (Peruvian Amazon, notes on the types); Eigenmann, Reports Princeton Univ. Exp. Patagonia, Vol. III, 1910, p. 442.
Distribution.—Guianas and Amazons.
The type of immaculatus figured by Fowler shows it to be a rhombeus. It is possible that the smaller cotypes are humeralis.
The S. albus is said to differ in having twenty dorsal rays. I have found nineteen in one specimen of rhombeus and until we find a species in the Orinoco with the characters assigned to albus, differing from rhombeus, albus may be put as a synonym of rhombeus.
5784 a. C. M. 174 mm. to end of lateral line. Manaos, Nov. 15, 1909. Haseman.
5785 a-b. C. M. 205 mm. Santarem, Dec. 11, 1909. Haseman. 5793 a. C. M. 305 mm. Santarem, Dec. 20, 1909. Haseman.
Haseman remarks of the last specimen "that it is jet black and goes by the name 'Piranha negro.'"
Cope, E. D. 1878 (26 or 27 June) Synopsis of the fishes of the Peruvian Amazon, obtained by Professor Orton during his expeditions of 1873 and 1877. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101): 673-701.
Böhlke, E. B. 1984 Catalog of type specimens in the ichthyological collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Spec. Publ. 14: i-viii + 1-246
Fowler, H. W. 1907 (7-16 Jan.) Further knowledge of some heterognathous fishes. Part II. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 58: 431-483. [Issue date on separate 13 Jan., mailing date on volume is 7 Jan. for pp. 431-460 and 16 Jan. for pp. 461-483.]
Reis, R. E., S. O. Kullander and C. J. Ferraris, Jr. 2003 Check list of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. CLOFFSCA. Checklist of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. CLOFFSCA 2003: i-xi + i-729.
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