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# Chapter 12

## STATES OF THE ELECTRON

### Bohr's quantum condition

Bohr's quantum condition forms the foundation of modern physics. Bohr's quantum condition states that the momentum around any closed loop is an integer multiple of Planck's constant.

nħ = P •ds

"Bohr emphasized the point of view that the quantization of angular momentum was a postulate, underivable from any deeper law, and that its validity depended simply on the agreement of his model with experimental spectra." 1

Bohr's quantum condition expresses the value of a stationary quantum state. It says nothing about the path of the quantum transition.
"When the electron undergoes transition, we don't know what path it takes."
Quote from "What is quantum Mechanics" The LEX foundation
Znidarsic developed his model from the observation of cold fusion experiments and the analysis of the elastic limit of space. His model is based on the idea that quantum states are pinned in at discontinuities. Discontinuities are produced when the intensity of the matter wave exceeds the elastic limit of space. Znidarsic's theorem emerges from this model. The theorem describes the process of quantum transition. It states that quantum transitions progress at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters [c / (2*137)]. This is a vital new understanding. It is fundamental to Bohr's quantum condition. During transition the nuclear, gravitational, and electromagnetic motion constants converge. The process can be induced in a macroscopic Bose condensate. The constants of the motion converge in a Bose condensate of electrons or protons that is vibrationally stimulated at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters.

The capacitance of an isolated sphere was employed to describe the basic geometry of the stationary quantum state. This capacitance is given below.

Cs = 4 p eo r   Farads

The derivative of the above equation expresses the velocity of the transitional quantum state.

d(Cs ) / dt = 4 p eo ( dr / dt )   Farads/second

Znidarsic constant of 1.094 megahertz-meters describes the velocity of the transitional quantum state. Substituting Znidarsic’s constant for ( dr / dt ) yields.

d(Cs ) / dt = 4 p eo ( 1.094 x 10 6 )   Farads / second

The energy E contained by a capacitor with a charge of one is given below.

E = ˝ q2 / C   Joules

Please note that the value of capacitance associated with the transitional quantum state is expressed in Farads / second. The inclusion of seconds produces a result in units of joules-seconds. Angular momentum P is expressed in units of joules-seconds. Substituting the dynamic capacitance of the transitional quantum state for C yields.

P = ˝ q2 / [ 4 p eo 1.094 x 10 6 ]   joules-second

The redustion of the above equation produced a quantity of angular momentum P.

P = 6.625 x 10 -34 / 2 p   joules-seconds

The result P is Planck's constant. Planck’s constant describes the angular momentum of the stationary quantum state. Znidarsic's constant describes the velocity of the transitional quantum state. The relationship, between these two constants, was exposed.

The isotropic capacitance of a quantum state is an affect of its geometry. This author qualifies the geometry of a transitional quantum state in units of capacitance. The geometry of the stationary quantum state is fixed. The geometry of the transitional quantum state is in flux. The capacitance of the transitional state varies with the change in its geometry. This rate of this change is constant. The change is described by Znidarsic’s megahertz-meter relationship. Znidarsic’s constant is not fundamental. The constant is an expression of the velocity of sound within the nucleus. ### THE BIRTH OF THE UNIVERSE

The greatest minds have studied the birth of the universe. This author cannot even begin to appreciate the great works of these geniuses. This author is an Electrical Engineer whose designs have always worked. Given a burst of confidence from this, I have tried to find new sources of energy and space propulsion. This quest has taken me into the field of physics and directly into the realm of the great geniuses. I want to stay where I belong as an engineer working with low energy machinery. I do, however, want this low energy machinery to produce limitless free energy and to propel us to the stars. That goal forces me to look squarely at the birth of the universe. I don’t want or need to know everything about the birth of the universe. I only need to understand the process of energy creation. Energy flows through a series of cascading quantum transitions. The birth of the universe was a flow of energy. This flow of energy proceeded through the process of quantum transition(s). This transition(s), as all transitions, progressed at a dimensional frequency of one megahertz-meter. Energy was conserved during the moment of creation. The positive energy of the universe was balanced by its negative gravitational potential. All quantum transitions conserve energy, however, the first transition was different from the later ones. The first transition established the amount of positive energy contained within the universe. All subsequent quantum transitions have conserved this quantity of positive energy. Why did the principle of the conservation of energy change the way in which it is expressed? Mainstream physicists tend to look for answers to this question at high energy. I look to the conservation laws for an answer to this fundamental question. The loosening of the energy conservation laws must have been precipitated by a loosening of the momentum conservation laws.

In this I have been inspired by the work of V. Arunasalan ( “ Superfluid Quasi Photons in the Early Universe “, Physics Essays Vol 5, #1, 2002) Arunasalan writes:
..The Universe had a brief period of extraordinary rapid inflation, or expansion, during which its diameter increased by a factor of 10 to the 50th power…In the course of this stupendous growth all of the matter and energy in the universe could have been created from virtually nothing.
Arunasalan describes a superfluid early universe. The superfluid state was mediated by photons not phonons. The superfluid state is that of single body. The strength of the natural forces, within this single body, was equal. The principle of the conservation of angular momentum does not make sense for the single bodied early universe. This could be the key understating that will enable mankind to make substance form nothing. This author has already shown that the forces interact strongly during the quantum transition. This strong interaction can be induced in a macroscopic Bose condensate through stimulation at the dimensional frequency of one megahertz-meter. The strong interaction can be employed for propulsion and to induce low level nuclear reactions. This equalization in the strength of the force fields mimics that of the early universe, however, a special ingredient needs to be added to produce substance from nothing. As I presented at the First Conference on Future Energy; that ingredient is angular momentum. 2
" A process in which a spin one photon and a spin two graviton are simultaneously emitted does not conserve angular momentum. "

Frank Znidarsic The Journal of New Energy. , Vol. 1, No. 2, 1996

Genesis progresses through a process in which the quantum transition absorbs angular momentum. Planck's quantity of angular momentum is remnant of this process. The velocity of quantum transition 1.094 million meters per second is also a remnant of this process.

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New particles have been formed, from the available energy, in the lab. These particles are always accompanied by antiparticles. The universe seems to be populated by particles. Where are the antiparticles? The process of formation conserves angular momentum. The angular momentum of the antiparticle conserves the momentum of the system. The conservation of angular momentum was not a restraint in the early single bodied universe. Matter was created through a process of formation that did not conserve angular momentum. This process is genesis. Antimatter was not required.

Can man create substance in the lab at low energy? At the very lowest energy two phonons of opposite spin would be produced. I have an idea on how to do this. I keep the practicable embodiments of this and many other processes to myself.

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### The Double Slit Experiment

The electron appears to be a particle in many experiments. The path of the particle like electron can be clearly seen in a cloud chamber. The formulations of Heisenberg and Bohr produce results with a construct that considers the electron to be a particle.

The formulations of Schrödinger and deBroglie produce results from a construct that considers the electron to be a wave. The electron appears as a wave in the double slit experiment. The double slit experiment projects the electron through two closely spaced slits and onto a screen. The wave pattern associated with the electron can clearly be seen on the screen. Electrons that are passed one at a time through the double slit experiment produce a dot as they impact a screen. This dot is characteristic of a particle. After many electrons have passed through the double slit arrangement a pattern emerges from the collection of dots. The pattern is characteristic of a wave. It appears that the nature exhibits both a wave and a particle nature. What is observed depends on the nature of the observer. How can the electron be both a particle and a wave?

Born attempted to clarify this mystery by stating that electrons are particles. The position of these particles is a function of probability. This clarification is known as the Copenhagen interpretation. Newton’s laws of motion are deterministic. They leave no room for probabilistic positions. Einstein realized this and stated, "God does not play dice!". Schrödinger never accepted Born's interpretation. In spite of these objections Born's interpretation is now central to man's understanding of the quantum nature of the universe.

Hugh Everett came up with a different interpretation. His construct is known at the many worlds theory. This theory states that electron passes through both slits each following separate timelines into different universes. How can anyone believe this?

Other interpretations suggest that the electron contains hidden variables. These variables retain the particle nature of the wave and the wave nature of the particle. Ouch!

Frank Znidarsic contends that all of these interpretations are wrong! The scope of the wrongness has inhibited man’s technology for over 100 years. Znidarsic contends that the electron is a boundless wave. It interferes with itself as it passes simultaneously through both slits in the double slit experiment. The electron wave consists of the gravitational, electrical, leptonic, and magnetic fields. These fields have vastly differing strengths, ranges, and motion constants. The differing strength of the motion constants prevent the various fields from strongly interacting with the slit. A non-interactig unmeasured electron exhibits a wave like behavior.

A measurement of the electron's position requires a flow of energy. This energy flows upon a convergence of the motion constants. A electron exhibits particle behavior upon this convergence. Znidarsic’s theorem describes the process of quantum measurement, "The gravitational, nuclear, and electromagnetic motion constants converge within a Bose condensate that is stimulated at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters." The required vibration is supplied by random vacuum flocculations. The electron impacts the screen as a wave. The process of detection transfers this energy to another state. This energy flows with the motion constants of the system. A convergence in the motion constants is quite a dramatic event; half of the information contained in the original quantum wave is irrevocably lost in the crash. A dot is produced on the screen at the point where a convergence in the motion constants has occurred. Born would state that the probability wave collapsed. This author contends that the quantum transition is not associated with Born's probability wave. The uncertainty is associated with action of the transitional quantum state. Animation, "The Path of the Quantum Transition. "

This author's interpretation is classical. No adjustments, to Newton’s laws of motion, are required.

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## The Wave Particle Nature of Light

In the 16 Century, Christiaan Huygens proposed that light was a wave. According to his model, the color of light is proportional to its frequency and the intensity of light is proportional to its amplitude. The experiments of Thomas Young, in the 17 Century, demonstrated the wave nature of light. Young showed that light passing two narrowly spaces slits exhibited an interference pattern when it was projected on a screen. The interference pattern is characteristic of a wave. The formulations of James Clerk Maxwell qualified the nature of the light wave. This understanding allowed Guglielmo Marconi to develop the radio. The wave nature of light becomes very pronounced at low frequencies. The amplitude and the frequency of a radio wave can be directly observed on an oscilloscope screen.

Isaac Newton proposed that light was a corpuscular particle in the 17 Century. Albert Einstein demonstrated, in the 20th Century, that the photo electric effect was an affect of the particle nature of light. The particle nature of light becomes very pronounced at high frequencies. Clicks can be heard on a gagger counter as particles of gamma ray light impact the detector.

How can light be both a particle and a wave? The Copenhagen interpretation states the property of that is exhibited depends on who is looking. The interpretation is based on the construct of Max Born. Born’s interpretation states that the probability of finding a particle at a particular location is proportional to the amplitude of its wave function squared. Frank Znidarsic disagrees with the Born’s interpretation. Znidarsic’s interpretation states that the probability of transition is proportional to the amplitude of the wave function (at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters ) squared.

The interaction of light within the Mach-Zehnder interferometer exposes the fundamentally exposes the nature of wave particle duality. Light is passed through a half silvered mirror. The beam is split in two. The beam is then recombined and an interference a pattern is observed. The interference pattern is a property of a wave. If a single photon is passed through the interferometer it also splits in two and interferers with itself as it is recombined. If one of the paths in the interferometer is blocked, and the photon passes along the other path, no interference pattern is observed. According to Born’s hypothesis the particle of light had some probability of being in the blocked path. It was either there or it was not. If it was not there, how did the blockage produce a measurable result? Znidarsic’s hypothesis states that light took both paths. Its amplitude along one path was not sufficient to produce a convergence in the motion constants. This photon was not detected. The photon was, however, subjected to interference as it encountered the blockage in the path. This interference was produced by a superposition of the various quantum states. The interaction perturbed the wave sufficiently to destroy the interference pattern that appears at the junction of the two paths at the end of the interferometer.

Znidarsic’s model is classical. The spins of the entangled states are locked together through the action of the megahertz-meter relationship. How them does the wavefuction collapse at speeds greater than the speed of light? The energy contained by a photon is a function of its positive electrical energy and its negative

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### THE SPECTRAL INTENSITY

Bohr’s semi-classical atomic model could not account for the intensity of the spectral lines. Werner Heisenberg arranged the properties of the electron on a matrix. Planck’s empirical constant was inserted ad-hoc into the formulation as a commutative property of matrix multiplication. Heisenberg’s solution produced the intensity of the spectral emission. The particle like solution established the field of quantum physics, however, it did not provide visual image of the process. Lewis deBroglie proposed that matter is a wave. Erwin Schrödinger incorporated deBroglie’s electron waves into a solution that also produced the intensity of spectral emission. The introduction of the deBroglie wave produced a cleaner solution but, in the process, it introduced a conceptual problem. How do the discrete properties of matter emerge from a continuous wave? Schrödinger proposed that the superposition of an infinite number of waves localized the wave function. Wave patterns repeat at intervals. The solution suggests that the particle appears at intervals in remote locations. Matter’s particle nature did not spontaneously emerge from the analysis and Planck’s empirical constant had to be, once again, injected ad-hoc into the solution. A particle emerges, from the probability wave, upon the immediate collapse of the wavefunction. The solution attempted to extract a particle out of a wave and to solve the problem of wave particle duality. The interpretation did not provide for a mechanism to bind the electron to a state, disclose the whereabouts of configuration space, or explain how a wavefunction collapses at superluminal velocities The great scientists knew nothing of the path of the quantum transition. Their solutions did not incorporate the probability of transition. Znidarsic claims to have discovered the path of the quantum transition. His construct is centered upon the probability of transition. The amplitude (displacement) of vibration at the dimensional frequency of Vt squared is proportionate to the probability of transition. The transitional electronic state may be described in terms of its circumferential velocity. The equation below describes the spin.

wt rt = Vt = 1.094x106   meters/second

As seen before in the energy levels of the hydrogen atom, harmonics of the angular frequency of the transitional electron were determined using the electron’s elastic constant and mass.

nwt rt = n (K-e/M-e)1/2 rp   meters/second

The equation above was squared resulting in the equation below. It expresses the angular velocity of the transitional quantum state squared.

(nwt rt)(nwt rt) = n2 (K-e/M-e) rp2   meters-squared/seconds-squared

The angular velocity of the transitional quantum state was expressed in terms of its frequency and displacement below.

nwt rt =Vt

Inserting Vt includes the condition that the quantum transition must proceed at the velocity of sound within the nucleus.

(nwt rt)(Vt) = n2 (K-e/M-e) rp2   meters-squared/seconds-squared

The elastic constant of the electron was expressed, below, in terms of the size of the transitional quantum state.

K-e = 29.05/ rt

The electronic elastic constant of the electron above was placed into equation double above resulting in the equation below.

(nwt rt)(Vt) = n2 ([29.05/rt]/M-e) rp2   meters/second

The equation was squared, reduced, and solved for r. The numerator and denominator were multiplied by 4 p. The result expresses the probability of transition in terms of the amplitude of the transitional state squared.

rt2 = n [29.053*4prp2/Vt] / 8p2M-eft

The factors in the [ ] equals Planck's constant. The result is the square of the classical amplitude of the electron squared. This amplitude expresses the intensity of an energy flow. The amplitude (displacement) of vibration at the dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters squared is proportionate to the probability of transition.

rt2 = n h/( 8p2M-eft)  meters-squared

The velocity of the transitional quantum state can be expressed as the product of frequency and amplitude. The amplitude squared of the transitional quantum state is proportional to the probability of transition. The known intensity of harmonic motion has been produced as function of the probability of transition.

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### THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM

Equation (below) gives the radii of the atomic orbits as points of matching impedance. The radius of the orbit n2rg increases with the square of the principle quantum number n and holds the Compton frequency of the electron constant. The atomic radii are given in multiples of the ground state orbit rg.

Z1/21,094,000 = (n) [ ( 29.053 /n2rg ) (1 / M-e) ] 1/2 rp

Points of matching impedance are given, as before, in (above). No points of matching impedance exists below the ground state orbit rg therefore shrunken atoms are not found in nature. Positive and negative radii ±rg exist. Points of matching impedance reside along these radii. The two electrons of the ground state orbit of an atom rest at points of matching impedance.

The radius of the second orbit (n=2) of the atom is four times (22) that of the first. Equation (above) suggests that points of matching impedance exist at integer multiples of the ground state radius. Eight points of matching impedance (±22) reside in the second principle orbit of the atom. The second principle atom orbit can hold eight electrons. This analysis can be extended to all of the atomic orbits.

The distribution of the electrons within the atom is determined from the Newtonian parameters of mass, elasticity, and elastic limit.

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The Stern and Gerlach Experiment

In 1922, Stern and Gerlach passed a beam of atoms through a nonlinear magnetic field. The beam split into distinct two rays. One half of the atoms were deflected up, the other half were deflected down. This experiment is historically important because it was the first to demonstrate a non-spectroscopic quantum effect. Classical theory predicts that the atoms should have been deflected through a continuous range of angles. Why did the beam separate into two distinct and equal rays? This question is central to the quantum mystery. Quantum theory addresses this problem by assigning a +˝ or - ˝ spin to the electron. No other spins are allowed. This assignment has no classical analog. It is add-hoc.

As per the prior section, the capacitance of a system determines if it is classical or quantum. The capacitance of the accelerating atoms equals n*Cq. A system containing an amount of capacitance that exceeds its isotropic capacitance is quantum. The isolated atom is a quantum system. Energy flows, within such systems, proceed through the process of quantum transition. Znidarsic’s theorem describes the process of quantum transition. Quantum transitions proceed at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters.

2 p Fc l = 1.094 x 106  [(+ -)hertz]-meters

The electron vibrates at its Compton frequency Fc. The classical radius of the election is

2 prp meters. The product of these two factors is 1.094 megahertz-meters.

(2 p rp ) Fe = 1.094 x 106   [(+ -)hertz]-meters

The constant 1.094 megahertz-meters also expresses a velocity of 1.094 meters/second. The translational velocities of the atoms within the Stern and Gerlach experiment are low. The velocity of quantum transition is achieved through a cork screwing effect. A cork screwing effect is produced when electron’s spin lies at right angles to its acceleration. The alignment of the electron’s spin, within the transitional quantum state, generates the magnetic interaction that produces the two emergent beams. The beam splitting that Stern and Gerlach observed is an affect of the transitional quantum state.

The experiment illustrates another important point. All energy flows progress at a velocity of 1.094 million meters / second. The velocity is associated with the spin of quantum system. The spin is an affect of a convergence in the motion constants. Sound, light, gravitomagnetism, electromagnetism, and the nuclear forces are all strongly coupled with within the state of the spin.

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THE EXCITED STATES OF THE ELECTRON

The harmonic oscillator describes the motion of the electron in a linear restraining force. The energy levels for the harmonic electronic oscillator are commonly found using Schrödinger's wave equation. This is done by inserting a value for potential energy "PE" into Schrödinger's equation.

PE = kx

The potential energy is restricted to states that have an angular momentum "M" equal to:

M = n h / 2 p

The result is mathematically elegant, however, it cannot explain why atomic states are restricted. Schrödinger's method describes the properties of the emitted particle. This author's method describes the geometry of the emitter. This author's method provides a classical explanation for the quantum condition. The author qualifies the effective geometry of the emitter in terms of its capacitance.

A quantum state can be described by its potential and kinetic energy. The total energy (KE + PE) of the stationary quantum state is static. The dynamic energy of the transitional state crystallizes into the static energy of the stationary state. The kinetic and potential energy of the transitional state are set at crystallization. As in the static atomic state, the minimum kinetic energy of the transitional state equals half of its potential energy. The relationship between the kinetic "KE" and potential "PE" energy of the ground transitional quantum state is expressed below.

KE = PE / 2

The kinetic energy of the transitional state is fixed by the megahertz-meter relationship. The potential energy of the transitional resides at harmonics of the ground state. The equation below expresses the total energy "U" of the transitional state.

U = n PE + KE

Substituting

U = n PE + PE / 2

The potential energy of the electron is determined by the capacitance "C" of the emitting structure.

PE = q2 / 2C

Substituting

U = n q2 / 2C + q2 / 4C

U = [ q2 / C ] (n / 2 + 1/4 )

The isotropic capacitance of a conductive sphere was used to represent the effective geometry of the emitting structure.

C = 4 p eo r

therefore

U = [ q2 / (4 p eo r)] (n /2 + 1/4)

The process of quantum transition will now be exposed. The constants of the motion converge at a dimensional frequency of one megahertz-meter. Atomic states can only be entered and exited at points where the motion constants converge. This phenomena, not angular momentum, limits the available states within atoms. The dimensional frequency of one megahertz-meter expresses the relationship between the frequency and the linear displacement of a quantum system during transition. This relationship is:

2 r = ( 1.093 x 106 ) / f

substituting

U = [ q2 / (4 p eo 1.093 x 106) ] f (n + 1/2)

The term within the bracket [ ] equals Planck's constant.

U = h f (n + 1/2)   joules

The energy levels of electronic harmonic motion have been found with a technique employing the elastic limit of space. The flow of the mathematics revealed the structure of the transitional state. This author's construct demonstrates that the energy levels of the electron are determined by the process of quantum transition. The method does not require the ad-hoc injection of Planck's constant.

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THE ELECRON IN A BOX

Schrödinger's wave equation is used to find the energy levels of an electron in a box. The is done by setting the potential energy level equal to zero and solving the differential equation. Using this method the energy levels are given by equation 2B.

E = h2 / 8L2m

In 1989, in his book "Elementary Antigravity" Znidarsic introduced the elastic limit of space. The concept may be applied to generate a very clear visual image of an electron in a box. Znidarsic has shown that the deBrogle wave is a beat note. In order to maintain the structure of the beat note the electron must keep moving. Schrödinger called to the zero point irrational motion of the electron zitterbewegung. Pick the icon to view the relationship between the velocity and wavelength of the DeBroglie beat note.

The relationship between the velocity and wavelength of the beat note is given by equation 3B.

ld = h / Mv

When confined in a box the electron must jiggle to maintain its velocity. Solving equation 3B for velocity yields equation 4B.

v = h / ( M ld )

The kinetic energy of this motion is given by equation 5B.

E = (˝) M v2

Substituting the velocity given in equation 4B into equation the equation for kinetic energy 5B yields equation 6B.

E = (˝) M [ h / ( M ld ) ] 2

The fundamental mode of vibration is ˝ wavelength. Substituting 2 L for wavelength yields equation 7B.

E = (˝) M [ h / (M 2L ) ]2

Simplifying equation 7 B yields equation 8B. Equation 8B expresses the energy levels of the electron in a box.

E = h2 / 8L2m    joules

This analysis produces a very clear visual image. The deBrogle wave is a beat note. In order to maintain its structure the electron must juggle when confined. The motion has kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of the motion equals the energy of an electron in a box.

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### The Mining of the Dark Matter

Ninety percent of the universe is composed of dark matter. This matter does not interact with ordinary matter. It, in fact, may be currently passing directly though your body. The author’s understanding of the process of quantum transition may enable him to mine this dark matter. Why doesn’t dark matter participate in the quantum transitions of ordinary matter? This author's megahertz-meter relationship describes the quantum transitions of ordinary matter. Does dark enter into transition at another dimensional frequency? Can we couple dark matter to ordinary matter through the stimulation of Bose condensate at another dimensional frequency? I don’t know these answers. I do, however, know how to construct the experiments that may find them. I hope to live long enough to see an interstellar space ship that gains momentum by expelling dark matter.

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### Some Closing Thoughts

Man's understanding of low energy physics is considered to be complete. The physics community has developed a bias into looking at higher and higher energies for new science. High energy technologies are not of direct economic value. A high energy quest for unification has ensued.

Roger S. Jones in his book “Physics for the Rest of US” presents an overview of this quest.
“Furthermore, the temperatures and energies at which all four forces are unified is another factor of a million higher than the GUT values. One of the biggest objections to current theoretical speculations on unification is the almost certain impossibility of any timely experimental verification…The ultimate goal of the unification program is to combine all four forces of nature into one unified field. Such a theory would unify GUT with gravity and reach the highest level of symmetry…..The particles that sense the force and the particles that transmit the force are interchangeable. In effect, there is no meaningful difference between the particles and the forces. They are one and the same.”
It is commonly held that the control of gravity will require a unification of the forces. The energy at which such a unification occurs will forever be beyond the reach of man.

Yes, it is true man will never be able to unify the forces of nature. The electric field will always be an electric field and the gravitational field will always be a gravitational field. Man can, however, modify the range and the strength of the natural forces. For example, a dielectric medium easily alters the range and strength of the electric field. The process of range modification does not violate any conservation law. It is not energetically possible, however, to make an electrical field that mimics gravity. Each of the force fields are subject to the same fundamental restraints. There is a dielectric that affects the range and strength of the gravitational and the nuclear forces. I discovered this dielectric (or diForceField if you like ) in my observation of cold fusion experiments and my analysis of the path of the quantum transition. This dielectric is dynamic. It is a Bose condensate vibrating at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters.

A common objection to a gravitational dielectric is that such a dielectric would constitute a gravitational shield. The principle of the conservation of energy excludes gravitational shielding. Again this reasoning is flawed. Shielding requires fields of the opposite polarity. Gravity has only one polarity. A gravitational dielectric does not constitute a gravitational shield. The existence of a gravitational dielectric does not violate any conservation laws.

The existence of a gravitational and nuclear dielectric will allow man to classically control each of the four natural forces. The nuclear technologies that become possible include; the transmutation of the elements, the conversion of mass directly into energy, and the reduction of nuclear waste. The gravitational technologies that become possible include a propulsion system based on a strong, repulsive gravitomagnetic field. Genesis itself may be within man’s grasp.

I cannot envision where this will lead any more than Faraday could envision an electronic computer. I do believe that there may be a limit to technology. I do see, however, that man has only begun to exploit this limit. The bounty of the universe is at hand.
"Absolute zero may be unreachable, but by exploring further and further towards this ultimate destination of cold, the most fundamental secrets of matter have been revealed. If our past was defined by our mastery of heat, perhaps our future lies in the continuing conquest of cold. "

NOVA narrator "Absolute Zero" 2008
The earth is currently in danger of overheating from global warming. James Lovelock, environmental scientist, has projected that the only inhabitable zone on the earth, within 100 years, will be at the poles. It is well past the time that we must get on with these technologies. We must succeed. I know this is a good work, however, I can tell by my monitoring programs that nobody is reading or cares. Please help expedite this process by forwarding a link of my work on to interested parties.

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## CONCLUSION

Discontinuities are produced when the intensity of a force field exceeds the elastic limit of space. The natural forces are pinned into the structure of matter by these discontinuities. This is the condition of the stationay quantum state. The stimulation of a quantum system at the dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters releases the elastic limit's grip on the natural forces. The forces slip into another configuration. This is the process of quantum transition. These affects establish the quantum condition of the universe. These concepts have been applied from the energy levels of the atomic states (a few electron volts) to the energy levels associated with the nuclear transmutations (millions of electron volts).

This understanding reveals several revolutionary technologies. This author keeps the practicable embodiments of these technologies to himself.

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## NOTES

```
1.    Serway, Moses, Moyer  "Modern Physics" 1997

2.    http://users.erols.com/iri/speakerlist.html
```

end of chapter 15 ...............................