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A version of this chapter was published in "Infinite Energy" Vol 1, #5 & #6 1996.



The genesis of the universe has been a subject of study and speculation by the greatest minds in philosophy and science. The original ideas on genesis were developed by Greek philosophers. It became apparent to the Greeks that all things came from other things. The Greek Empedocles (495-435 BC) announced that only fools (who have no far-reaching thoughts) can believe that something came out of nothing. The noted Greek philosopher Plato (427-347 BC) described the concept of a form. According to Plato the form was the property that made a thing what it was. Aristotle (384-322 BC) developed the idea of forms and concluded that each form was composed of a substance. The form of a substance could be changed but the substance itself was eternal. So where then did the original substance come from? The conclusion that the ancient Greeks drew was that a prime mover created the original substance. This prime mover was God. In the Middle Ages the greatest thinkers on the subject of creation were theologians. One of these theologians was St. Augustine (354-430 AD). It became apparent to St. Augustine, like it did to the Greeks, that all things come from other things. If the substance of the universe was not created, then this substance must have always been. If the substance of the universe has always been, then time had no beginning. Every event is proceeded by a prior event. Without a first event everything that could have happened should have happened in the infinite past.

For current time to have meaning, the chain of events leading to the events of today must have a started at some point. St. Augustine described this starting point as the first event. The genesis of the universe occurred during the first event. St. Augustine used a Latin word to describe this genesis process called "ex-nihilo". This word means to create something out of nothing. St. Augustine concluded that an infinite source or prime mover created the universe ex-nihilo. This infinite source was God.
"Only fools with no far reaching thoughts could ever believe that something could come from nothing" Empedocles (495-435 BC)

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Today scientists are studying the process of creation. Scientists have rules by which they work by called conservation laws. Some of these conservation laws are the conservation of momentum, energy, and charge. Science does not address the question of who created the universe. Science asks the question; how could the universe have formed within the framework of possibilities allowed by the conservation laws? According to current theory and experimental evidence these conservation laws hold true anywhere, everywhere, and all the time.

The scientific principle of the conservation of energy was established in 1847 by Mayer and Von Helmholtz. It restates the old idea that something cannot come from nothing. According to the accepted theory of the big bang the universe sprang from nothing 15 billion years ago. In 1973, the distinguished contemporary scientist Edward P. Tryon demonstrated how the universe could have materialized without violating the principle of the conservation of energy.1

Tryon theorized that the total energy of the universe is zero. He said that the positive energy of everything that exists is balanced by negative gravitational energy. Let's explore his idea. When something falls, it loses gravitational potential energy. Take, for example, the energy produced by falling water at a hydro-electric power plant. The energy produced by the falling water is equal to the product of the weight of the falling water and the distance through which it falls. The relationship between energy, force, and distance is:

Energy = Force x Distance

                                (M) [UNIVERSE]
According to Tryon's theory if a mass (M) were to fall to the edge of universe from an infinite distance away, the gravitational potential energy lost by the mass will equal its mass energy.

The mathematics used in this computation is applied on a grand scale, however, its formulation is the same as the mathematics used in a simple water fall calculation.2 The universe, for the purpose of calculation, will be considered to be one large, round sphere. 3

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The force of gravity is not constant. It varies inversely with the square of the distance away from its source. In order to compute the energy lost by a mass that is pulled from an infinite distance away by a force that changes with distance, Newton's invention of calculus must be used. The right side of the equation below gives the work produced when a force acts through a distance stated with calculus. The left side of the equation below Einstein's famous equation for rest energy. Equation #2 states that the gravitational potential energy a mass loses upon falling into the universe equals its rest energy.

mc2 = - (G) (Mu) (m)[integral](1 / r2) • dr

If you don't know calculus, don't fret, I've solved the problem for you.) The solution is:

Mu = 2.0 x 1053 kg

If this is the mass of the universe then the total energy of the universe is zero. To check this result the mass of the universe was calculated from its density and volume. Again the universe was considered to be a sphere. The radius of the visible universe equals the product of its age and the speed of light. (The current radius of the universe is a bigger since it has subsequently expanded, however, only the visible "light like" universe is sensable to force fields.) The visible universe was considered to be a sphere has a radius of 13.3 billion light years and is filled with matter of the same density as the density of space in our galactic neighborhood. This "local" density is equivalent to 4/10 of a proton of ordinary matter and eight protons of "dark" matter per cubic meter. 4 Given that the radius of a sphere 13.3 billion light years in diameter is.

ru = 1.26 x 1026 m

The mass of the universe was also be derived from the product of its density and volume.

Mu = [ (.4 protons/m3 ) + (8 proton masses dark matter/m3) ] (volume)(mass of the proton)

The mass of the universe according to this second argument is:

Mu = 1.7 x 1053 kg

Amazingly both resultant masses agree (to within 15% ) even though they were determined by entirely different methods. The magnitude of agreement demonstrates that the universe has a total energy of zero. Edward Tryon's ideas on the genesis of the universe are correct.

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In the nineteenth century, Ernst Mach (1838-1916) proposed that inertia results from the influence of distant matter in the universe. For example, spinning matter experiences a centripetal force. Mach maintained that fixed local matter would also experience a centripetal force if the universe started to spin around it. The argument commonly used to dispel the idea that distant objects produce local effects is based on the velocity of light. Essentially this argument asserts that no influence can travel faster than the speed of light. Given that distant regions of the universe are millions of light years away, these regions could not possibly influence local phenomena.

If Edward Tryon's supposition is correct and local energy is balanced by the negative gravitational potential of the universe, local phenomena must be influenced by distant matter. The validity of Mach's principle will now be demonstrated. For the sake of argument let's first assume that forces propagate instantaneously. The movement of local matter, in such a system, immediately affects distant regions of the universe. All forces are equal and opposite. Momentum is always conserved. No additional forces, other than the original exchange forces, are required.

In the real universe forces do not propagate instantaneously. It takes time for the gravitational field of matter to establish itself throughout space. Moving matter immediately experiences the force produced by the established gravitational field of other matter. The field of the moving matter requires a finite amount of time to propagate outward. For a period of time, distant matter will continue to be attracted to the moved matter's old position. During this period, a single force is not capable of conserving the system's momentum. Additional forces are required to bring about the conservation of momentum.

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Faraday discovered that a moving electrical charge generates a magnetic field. Similarly, Einstein's equations demonstrate that moving matter generates a gravitomagnetic field. The magnitude of the magnetic field produced by the movement of an electrical charge is proportional to the charge's velocity. If a moving electron passes through a changing electrical field, a second magnetic field is produced. The magnitude of this second field is proportional to the rate of change of the external electrical field. A force is produced through the interaction of these two magnetic fields. This additional force balances the momentum of the system. A similar interaction takes place between the gravitomagnetic fields in a gravitational system.5

Pick the icon to view how the various induced fields conserve momentum.

In a system consisting of moving force producing bodies, momentum is conserved through the induction of additional forces. Faraday expected that a static magnetic field would impose a continuous electrical potential. He discovered that only varying magnetic fields produced electrical potentials. Faraday did not know why the electromagnetic interaction was coupled with time. The element of time must be coupled with the process of induction in order to conserve momentum within a universe in which forces propagate at finite velocities.

Gravitational linkages couple local events to remote regions of the universe.6 This coupling is accomplished through the introduction of additional forces. These additional forces act as a reservoir of momentum and energy. This reservoir stores energy and momentum until it can be transferred to distant regions of the universe. Local positive energy is linked to the negative gravitational potential of the universe through an interplay of transient interactions. These interactions enable a week long range force, like gravity, to immediately exchange a significant amount of energy. In time, the books balance, the reservoir is depleted, and energy is conserved.

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New scientific arguments have shown that it is energetically possible to create substance from nothing. These arguments have tremendous philosophical implications. If man understands the creation process, can he create something out of nothing? Inventors have been trying to do this for many years. In fact, the patent offices currently reject all applications for patents on such perpetual motion machines (including this authors).
" Joe Newman made one contribution to society in his lifetime, by suing the Patent Office for denying him a patent. The 1986 decision in Newman v. Quigg (the Patent Commissioner) is now cited as the authority for denying patent applications for perpetual motion machines out of hand. "   Dr. Robert Park
The birth of the universe was the first quantum transition(s). This transition conserved energy by balancing the positive energy and negative gravitational potential of the universe. It established the amount of positive energy in the universe. All subsequent transitions have maintained this total quantity of positive energy. The central question is; why did the first transition conserve energy in a different way? Did God make a personal appearance and invalidate the principle of the conservation of energy? Did the process require exotic conditions like those that prevailed during the birth of the universe? Can genesis occur today and if so, under what conditions? 7

Power factor capacitors match the impedance of the power lines through which the electrical energy flows to your computer. Matching transformers match the impedance of the signals that bring this information to your computer. Energy flows freely within systems containing similar motion constants. In the upcoming chapters, it will be demonstrated that the process of quantum transition matches the motion constants associated with the nuclear, gravitational, and electromagnetic forces. Znidarsic theorem describes the process of quantum transition. Znidarsic theorem is: "The constants of the motion associated with the various forces converge in a Bose condenstate that is stimulated at a dimensional frequency of one megahertz-meter. " 13, 14 It will be shown that a pinch of angular momentum is all that separates an ordinary quantum transition from one that incorporates genesis. These arguments become increasingly mathematical. Mathematics is the ultimate form of rational thought. When it comes to creation, this author's rational secular arguments supersede arguments based on divine intervention. We will have to wait and see what comes from these latest ideas. If man finally creates substance from nothing, he will have ventured into a realm that was, since antiquity, reserved for the Gods.

[Lake Norman hydroelectric plant.]

This hydroelectric plant harnesses the earth’s gravitational attraction to the water to generate electrical power. A genesis machine would harness the new energy's gravitational attraction to the universe to produce power. The genesis process conserves energy. It does not conserve angular momentum.

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  1. Edward P. Tryon, NATURE VOL 246, December 14, 1973.

  2. Technically, nothing can exist outside of the universe. The universe is a closed structure in which, according to the cosmological principle, all positions are equivalent. The model presented in this paper, in which an object falls from an infinite distance away to the edge of the universe, does not represent reality. The model does, however, allow for the calculation of the negative gravitational potential shared by all objects within the universe.

  3. "...the Universe is, in fact, spherical..." Lisa Melton, SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, July 2000, page 15

  4. Fritz Zwicky proposed that 90% of the matter in the universe is "dark" in 1933. He came to this conclusion from the study of clusters of galaxies.

    Vera Rubin confirmed that 90% of the universe's matter is composed of the so called "dark matter" from her study of the rotational speeds of galaxies in 1977.

    Solgaila and Taytler found that the universe contains 1/4 proton of ordinary matter and 8 protons of dark matter per cubic meter.
    "New Measurements of Ancient Deuterium Boost the Baryon Density of the Universe"
    Physics Today, August 1996, Page 17

  5. A satellite gyroscope experiment actually measured the gravitomagnetic field. Schwinger "Einstein's Legacy" Page 218, The Scientific American Library.

  6. "Inertial is a much-discussed topic. The Graneaus give a beautiful account in which they relate theories of inertia back to those of Mach at the beginning of the century. They view inertia as the result of the gravitational interaction of all particles in the universe on the body in question..."

    Professor John O' M. Bockris Journal of Scientific Exploration, Spring 1995

  7. The genesis process may currently be creating particles in inter-steller space. "Energy from Particle Creation in Space" Cold Fusion (12/94) No. 5, page 12; Wolff, Milo 6. Paul Davies and John Gribbin, "THE MATTER MYTH" Touchstone publishing 1992.

  8. Hal Puthoff, PHYSICAL REVIEW A, March 1989
    Hal Puthoff, D.C. Cole, PHYSICAL REVIEW E, August 1993.
    Hal Puthoff, OMNI, "Squeezing Energy From a Vacuum" 2/91

    Puthoff manufactured very dense plasma while working with Jupiter Technologies 1990. "Compendium of Condensed-Charge Technology Documentation" Internal report, Jupiter Technologies 1989. A patent on the process was obtained by Ken Shoulders #5018180.

  9. A ball lightning experiment in Japan appeared to produce excess energy. Y.H. Ohtsuki & H. Ofuruton, NATURE VOL 246, March 14, 1991

  10. Dr. McKurbe's cold fusion experiments at SRI in the USA continue to produce unexplained excess energy.
    Jerry E. Bishop, The WALL STREET JOURNAL 7/14/94.

  11. Dr. Miley of the Hot Fusion Studies Lab at the University of Illinois developed his theory, "The Swimming Electron Theory" This theory shows that high density electron clouds exist in the CETI cold fusion cell.

  12. Andrei Sakharov SOVIET PHYSICS DACKLADI Vol 12, May 1968, Page 1040

  13. V Arunasalam, " Superfluid Quasi Photons in the Early Universe "
    Physics Essays vol. 15, No. 1, 2002

  14. See Chapter 12 Pg 1 " Is Radiation of Negative Energy Possible? ",
    F.X.. Vacanti and J. Chauveheid, Physics Essays , Vol. 15. , Number 4, 2002

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Additional reading on synthetic life

" In the Business of Synthetic Life ", James J. Collins, Scientific American , April 2005

" Yikes! It's Alive! , Bennett Daviss, Discover , December 1990

In 1953 in Chicago Stanley Miller produced the first synthitic amino-acids, since then scientists have manufactured synthetic proteins.

Since April 2005 this page has been called times.

// end of chapter 5 .............................................................................