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Practical exams
Up Course Syllabus Basic Chemical and Cellular Biology Organization of the Body and Body Tissues Integumentary System;Bones and Skeletal Tissue The Skeleton and Joints The Muscular System Cardiovascular System: Blood Cardiovascular System: The Heart Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels Test Scores/Final Grades Practical exams



Practical Examination: The skeletal System (October 28th)


Answer questions concerning the following bones forming the skeletal system.  Questions can be on bone identification, function, and bone land marks.

I) The Bones of the Skull

The cranial bones:

Frontal bone (includes the anterior cranial fossae, the glabella, the supraorbital margins and foramen, frontonasal suture)

Occipital bone: (includes the posterior cranial fossa, the foramen magnum, the occiptal condyles, the hypoglossal canal, external occipital protuberance, external occipital crest, superior and inferior nuchal lines).

Temporal Bone: includes the squamous region (zygomatic process, zygomatic arch, mandibular fossa, temporomandibular joint), the tympanic region (external auditory meatus, styloid process), the mastoid region (mastoid process, stylomastoid foramen, mastoid sinuses), the petrous region (middle cranial fossae, jugular foramen, carotid canal, foramen lacerum, internal acoustic meatus).

Sphenoid bone: includes the body (sphenoid sinuses, sella turcica, hypophyseal fossa, tuberculum sellae, dorsum sellae, the posterior clinoid processes), the greater wings (middle cranial fossa), the lesser wings (anterior cranial fossa pterygoid processes, optic canals, superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, foramen spinosum).

Ethmoid bone: includes the cribiform plate, olfactory foraminia, crista galli, perpendicular plate, lateral mass, ethmoid sinuses, superior and middle basal conchae, orbital plates).

The sutures: coronal, sagital, squamous, and lambdoid sutures

The facial bones:

The mandible: includes the rami (mandibular notch, coronoid process, mandibular condyle), and the body (alveolar margin, mandibular symphysis, mandibular foramina, mental foramina)

The maxilla: (includes the maxillary bones, palatine processes, incisive fossa, frontal processes, maxillary sinuses, zygomatic processes, inferior orbital fissure, infraorbital foramen)

The zygomatic bones

The nasal bones

The lacrimal bones: (includes the lacrimal fossa)

The palatine bones: (includes the pyramidal, sphenoidal, and orbital processes, along with the horizontal and perpendicular plates).

The vomer


The inferior nasal conchae

The paranasal sinuses

The hyoid bone ( includes the body, the lesser horns and the greater horns)

II) The Vertebral Column

The divisions of the vertebral column (includes the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrate, along with the sacrum, and the coccyx) (also includes the four curvatures: the cervical, lumbar, thoracic, and sacral curvatures)

Vertebrate characteristics (includes the body or centrum, vertebral arch, vertebral foramen, the laminae, the spinous process, the transverse process, the superior and inferior articular processes, and vertebral foramen)

Specific vertebrate : the atlas (c1) and the axis (c2), cervical, thoracic, , and the coccyx from a whole and/or a disarticulated skeleton

The sacrum (includes the superior articular processes, dorsal sacral median sacral foramen, rest, lateral sacral crest, body, base, transverse lines, ventral sacral foramina, the ala, the sacral promontary, sacral canal, sacral hiatus)

III) The Bony Thorax

The sternum (includes the manubrium, the body, the xiphoid process, the jugular notch, the clavicular notch, the sternal angle, the xiphisternal joint)


I) The clavicle (includes the sternal and acromial end

II) The scapula: the dorsal surface (includes the subscapular fossae, superior, medial, and lateral borders along with the glenoid cavity, the superior angle, the lateral angle, and the inferior angle), the anterior or costal surface (includes the supraspinous fossae, the spine, the acromion, the acromioclavicular joint, the coracoid process, the suprascapular notch).

III) The upper limb

The arm: the humerous (includes the medial and lateral epicondyle, capitulum, radial fossa, lateral superacondylar ridge, medial supracondylar ridge, coronoid fossa, deltoid tuberosity, radial groove, surgical neck, anatomical neck, head, greater tubercle, lesser tubercle, intertubercular groove)

The forearm: the ulna (includes the olecranon and coronoid processes, the trochlear notch, the radial notch, head, styloid process), the radius (includes the head, radial tuberosity, ulnar notch, styloid process)

The hand: the carpus or wrist (includes the carpals: scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, pisiform, trapesium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate), the metacarpus or palm, the phalanges or digits including the pollex or thumb.

IV) The pelvic (hip) girdle

The ilium (includes the body, ala, iliac crests, anterior superior iliac spine, posterior superior iliac spine, greater sciatic notch, gluteal surface, the posterior, anterior, and inferior gluteal lines, the iliac fossa, auricular surface, the arcuate line, the pelvic brim)

The ischium (includes the body, the inferior ramus, ischial spine, lesser sciatic notch, the ischial tuberosity)

The pubis ( includes the superior and inferior rami, body, pubic crest, pubic turbercle, the obturator foramen, the pubic symphysis, the pubic arch)

The acetabulum

V) The lower limb

The thigh or femur (includes the head, the fovea capitis, greater and lesser trochanter, intertrochanteric line, intertrochanteric crest, the gluteal  tuberosity, the linea aspera, the lateral and medial condyles, the medial and lateral epichondyles, the adductor tubercle, pateller surface, the intercondylar notch, the patella)

The leg: the tibia (includes the medial and lateral condyles, the intercondylar eminences, the tibial tuberosity, anterior crest, medial malleolus, and the fibular notch) and the fibula (includes the head, the lateral malleolus).

VI) The foot

The tarsus (includes the tarsal bones: the talus, the calcaneus, the cuboid, the navicular, the anterior, medial, intermediate and lateral cuneiform bones.

The metatarsus (includes the metarsal bones)

The phalanges of the toes



Answer questions involving the following muscles from a cat specimen.  Questions can be on muscle identification, and function.

Clavotrapezius                    Spinotrapezius        Latissimus dorsi

Sternomastoid                    Acromiotrapezius    clavodeltoid

Levator scapulae                Acromiodeltoid        Spinodeltoid

Triceps brachii                    Splenius                    Rhomboidus capitus

Rhomboideus major          Rhomboidus minor    Infraspinatus

Supraspinatus                     Acromiodeltoid        Brachialis

Teres major                          Seraatus ventralis        Serratus dorsalis

External oblique                   Internal oblique                                  

Rectus abdominis                Transverse abdominis   

Scalenes medius                    External intercostals

Pectoralis minor                     Pectoantibrachialis

Pectoralis major                    Sternohyoid

Epitrochlearis                        Xiphihumeralis            Biceps brachii

Pronator teres                        Flexor digitorum profundus

Brachioradialis                     Flexor carpi radialis

Palmaris longus                   

Extensor carpi radialis longus       

Extensor carpi radialis brevis

Flexor carpi ulnaris            Extensor carpi ulnaaris

Extensor digitorum lateralis       

Pectineus                             Adductor longus  

Sartorius                                Adductor femoris

Gracilis                                    Gastrocnemius

Semitendonosus                        Semimembraneous

Quadraceps group:  Vastus lateralis, Rectus femoris and Vastus medialis

Tensor fasciae latae (fascia lata)                 Biceps femoris

Gluteus medius                        Gluteus maximus

Caudovemoralis                        Soleus

Flexor digitorum longus           Tibialis anterior

Plantaris                                        Flexor hallicus longus

Extensor digitorum longus        Peroneus longus

Peroneus brevis                            tendons


Use textbook pages 679-681 to locate the gross anatomy features of the heart and pages 747 and 759 to locate major veins and arteries (location of certain blood vessels differ somewhat in the cat specimen--a handout will be provided to illustrate the differences)


Identify from a cow, and/or a sheep heart :

visceral pericardium (epicardium), myocardium, endocardium, right atrium, right auricle, left atrium, left auricle, right ventricle, left ventricle, superior vena cava, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary veins, bracheocephalic artery, trabeculae carnae, tricuspid valve, interventricular septum, aortic semilunar valve, inferior vena cava, pulmonary arteries, aorta, pectinate muscles, papillary muscles, bicuspid (mitral) valve, chordae tendonae, pulmonary semilunar valve, fossa ovalis, coronary arteries.


Identify the following from a dissected cat specimen:    

VEINS:   superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, right and left bracheocephalic, right and left subclavian, external jugular, great saphenous vein, cephalic vein, common iliac, external and internal iliac, renal, hepatic, hepatic portal

ARTERIES:  left and right common carotid, ascending and descending aorta, bracheocephalic, left and right subclavian, renal, common iliac, external and internal iliacs, common hepatic.