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A breakthrough in artificial intelligence has recently been granted a U.S. patent (#7,236,963) to John E. LaMuth with respect to the lighter side of the human emotions, as representative of
the comedic arts, as well as the realm of melodrama. This innovation builds upon a
pre-existing patent (#6,587,846) granted in 2003 targeting the more serious side to human
nature, encompassing the traditional listings of virtues, values, and vices. For legal disclosure, both patents were sold in 2011 and subsequently allowed to expire (now freely available in public domain).
Right column equals domain of 2nd patent
(Excessive Virtue) .... (Transitional Excess)
+ MAJOR VIRTUES .... LESSER VIRTUES
O ...... NEUTRALITY STATUS
– VICES OF DEFECT ...... CRIMINALITY
– – HYPERVIOLENCE .. HYPERCRIMINAL.
The complete text of the patent can be accessed by clicking on the Patent-Text link above (and also through the US Patent Site link).
The complete 90-page set of patent diagrams may be accessed by clicking on the Pat-Diagrams link (leading to the Google patent site - and scrolling down to the diagrams).
The complete printable PDF-file for the patent may be downloaded by clicking on the DOWNLOAD PDF tab above that directs to the Google Patent site (then click on the PDF tab).
The dream of artificial intelligence has been a goal in the field of Computer Sciences since virtually the dawning of the discipline. This anticipated style of artificially intelligent computer would potentially assist in all aspects of human endeavor, with the intriguing prospects for ultimately transcending the fixed limitations of the human condition. The current dramatic growth in computing power finally enables economic feasibility to such a meaningful AI development. A number of key approaches, such as brain modeling through neural networks, has been attempted, although scarcely enough detailed information exists about the brain to warrant any such serious inroads. In actuality, the key solution to developing convincing artificial intelligence invokes an innate understanding of human language in general. Indeed, the preeminent test for AI devised by Alan Turing abstains from relying upon any direct measure of consciousness or perception for its determination, rather targeting only the communicative factors underlying human language. Consequently, assuming the symbolic attributes of human language could be convincingly simulated on the computer, then many decades of needless effort could potentially be cut from either the neural-net or consciousness/perceptual approaches. Along these lines, the recent U.S. patent (#6,587,846) and the newly released Transitional enhancement (# 7,236,963) have recently been granted for precisely such a technical approach based upon the symbolic attributes underlying affective language. Clear precedents already exist within the field with respect to chess-playing computers that prove particularly adequate for modeling the symbolisms underlying such an abstract gaming format (although scarcely capable of anything else). In a similar fashion, the symbolic attributes of the language tradition prove a similarly comprehensive goal, although several orders of magnitude more abstract and complex in this regard. Certainly the primary economic focus of society as a whole is mediated chiefly through the symbolisms of human communication, specifying language as the most rational focal point for ongoing research. This is not necessarily meant to imply that a sensory/motor enabled robot designed to make sense of its immediate environment is not a rational focus for directed research. Indeed, such an achievement could eventually be merged with the currently proposed language simulation model to permit a more conceptually complete computer avatar. As far as the most economically direct human applications are concerned, however, it proves entirely more cost effective to initially target the symbolic attributes of human language (in all of its various manifestations).
Fortunately, a convenient shortcut to the daunting complexity of this direct language simulation has recently been proposed (the technical basis for the aforementioned patent). This new approach directly focuses upon the motivational (or emotional/affective) aspects of language as its guiding principle, with the remaining bulk of value-neutral language filling-in in an accessory role. Indeed, as Robert Warren Penn once insightfully wrote: "What is man but his passions?" Along similar lines, most neuroscientists consider the mind/brain complex as a vast motivational analyzer that enables the individual to flourish in harmony with the environment. Indeed, by focusing primarily upon the affective aspects of human language, an economically feasible shortcut to the AI simulation of human communication finally appears within reach.
Much detailed programming remains to be done, perhaps necessitating a customized coding language (and supportive hardware) consistent with a project of this magnitude. With a starting staff roughly the size of a large encyclopedia work force, a first generation simulation could potentially be achieved within a fairly modest time frame. Subsequent design generations would further endeavor to achieve even greater clarity and versatility. This painstaking process might eventually be more dramatically accelerated if ultimately accorded the status of a national initiative, particularly in light of its outright commercial value (as well as military applications).
The systematic organization underlying the ethical hierarchy allows for extreme efficiency in programming, eliminating much of the associated redundancy, providing a precise determination of motivational parameters at issue during a given verbal interchange. This AI platform is organized as a tandem-nested expert system, composed of a primary affective-language analyzer overseen by a master control-unit (that coordinates the verbal interactions over real time). Through an elaborate matching procedure, the precise motivational parameters are accurately determined (defined as the passive-monitoring mode). This basic determination, in turn, serves as the basis for a response repertoire tailored to the computer (the true AI simulation mode). This innovation is completely novel in its ability to simulate emotionally charged language: an achievement that has previously eluded AI researchers due to the lack of an adequate model of motivation in general. As such, it represents a pure language simulation, effectively bypassing many of the limitations plaguing current robotic research. Affiliated applications extend to the roles of switchboard/receptionist and personal assistant/companion (in a time-share mode).
Specialized Applications for the Transitional Power Maneuvers
The transitional definition format for the lesser virtues allows for crucial applications to the fields of humor and comedy, as specified within the transitional power hierarchy. The reciprocating arrangement of authority and follower roles proves particularly effective for deciphering the nuances governing the comedic realm. The transitional definitions for the lesser virtues are tailor-made for programming into the computer, serving as a key adjunct to the formal simulation of humor and comedy. The transitional definitions for the lesser virtues are expressed in terms of a dual sentence structure utilized in a matching function with sentences inputted from live conversation--determining the precise degree of correspondence with respect to the ethical terms under consideration. Abrupt shifts within conversation directly signals that a transitional maneuver has just occurred. This further prompts the detection of the affiliated counter double bind maneuvers (that are typically disqualified to some degree). This greatly increases the complexity of the detection procedure, necessitating the decoding of the variable nuances of inflection, timing, lingo, sarcasm, etc. that signal disqualification.
Enhanced speech recognition proves crucial for decoding such transitional sequences, with special provisions for detecting disqualified communication. Nonverbal cues are crucial at this juncture, where a spontaneous shrug of the shoulders can greatly modify the content of what is being said. Other sub-routines target visual cues such as pupil size, body synchrony, breathing patterns, etc. (parameters particularly representative of internal motivational states). In conjunction with verbal cues (such as voice stress analysis), the suitably enhanced IIALA-T is able to detect telltale disqualification within the ongoing verbal interaction. In the passive-monitoring mode, the IIALA-T is fully equipped to detect the use of humor. Those attempting to use humor in inappropriate computer-monitored contexts would be instructed to clarify their statements in more formal terms, or be referred to a human troubleshooter. Such humorous themes become an asset where true human companionship is desired, simulating a more informal style of social setting, resulting in more relaxed feelings of camaraderie. Here the roles become less rigidly fixed, in direct contrast to the more formal restrictions governing the strictly serious side to the power hierarchy. In the true AI simulation mode, the AI computer detects such humorous sequences and also devises humorous responses of its own design, further tailored to the sensibilities of a given person or audience. The databanks alone prove formidable, although enjoying the advantages of power pyramid indexing, wherein stored in a fashion conducive to ready retrieval and delivery. Although such applications typically refer to active verbal input, such functions also extend to written language input as well. The vast accumulated tradition of literature is similarly amenable to decoding within such a system, allowing for a master database of the great literature of the world eminently searchable in terms of affective content.
Networking Applications for the IIALA-T
The parallel processing capabilities of the IIALA-T could process of a large number of conversations simultaneously, maximizing the available circuitry by staggering the timing to make use of lulls naturally occurring within a given conversation. This is managed through a time-share arrangement, where multiple accounts are accommodated--rated in terms of urgency. Conversations requiring real-time parameters are assigned the highest priority, whereas more leisurely accounts are processed during free periods. This further entails a centralized CPU complex, connecting end users through a user interface network or the Internet. This stand-alone model of AI computing is surpassed by transferring the bulk of processing directly to the considerable resources of the Internet. The comprehensive knowledge bases of the AI computer are distributed as open source code over a network of broad-band servers. The end user's computer only need run a modified version of the AI-MCU program, the inference engine of which interfaces directly with the web-based knowledge base on a real-time basis. The basic groundwork for such a standardized database network is already being implemented with respect to the newly proposed Semantic Web, which aims to implement a strictly machine-based version for standardizing the wealth of network information. In conjunction with provisions for an affiliated AI interface, the potential for an AI assistant could become widespread.
Decoding the Realms of Criminality/Hypercriminality
The other forms of transitional maneuvers are similarly invested with unique applications. For instance, applications extending to criminality and hypercriminality are invoked in security types of contexts, as well as in the fields of law enforcement and criminal profiling. The empathic insights associated with the criminal mentality prove extremely informative in a diagnostic sense. For the passive-monitoring mode, this enables the detection and diagnosis of criminal behavior (with the express purpose of preventing it). In cases where a crime has already been perpetrated, the specific details are recreated in a criminal profiling type of context. By definition, the computer would be formally restricted from responding in kind, rather acting to circumvent/report such detected activities. Although this modification of the basic AI program (to simulate criminality) might appear somewhat of a risky maneuver, with proper safeguards in place, this application could prove invaluable in the detection and diagnosis of this disturbing realm of criminality.
The AI Mental Health Clinician
The transitional definitions for mental illness, when implemented within the standard IIALA-T format, permits the decoding of dysfunctional communication in a diagnostic/clinical setting. In the passive-monitoring mode, the AI clinician monitors a mental health setting, detecting a wide range of symptomologies and sounding the alarm when intervention is in order. This ability of the IIALA-T to decode disqualified communication further enables the affiliated diagnosis of the neuroses and schizophrenia. Within a true AI simulation mode, the response repertoire specifies the role of an AI therapist that intervenes in a prescribed fashion in order to counter the symptomology of the patient. Through said therapeutic type of intervention (in conjunction with its diagnostic functions), the IIALA-T assists the human staff in less critical contexts.
Brief Summary of Invention
The newly devised radical variation upon the IIALA, designated as the Inductive Inference Affective Language Analyzer - Transitional (abbreviated IIALA-T), allows the transitional form of affective language to be decoded and simulated. This formally encompasses a simulation of humor and comedy in terms of the lesser virtues in the role of AI comedic entertainer. This flair for the dramatic can appear either humorous (as in the realm of comedy), or tragic (as in the genre of melodrama). This transitional style of power maneuver (as its name implies) refers to a relationship initiated for the first time, where an individual attempts to establish a new interaction within a pre-existing social order. The initial phase of the transitional power maneuver is respectively termed the congeniality phase, followed by the humor maneuver proper that disqualifies (through meta-communication) the underlying context of the communication. The schematic definitions for the lesser virtues are programmed into the computer in terms of the formal simulation of humor and comedy. The schematic definitions for the lesser virtues are expressed in terms of a dual sentence structure utilized in a matching function with sentences inputted from live conversation, wherein determining the precise degree of correspondence. For the true AI simulation mode, the AI computer detects such humorous sequences and also devises humorous responses of its own design, further tailored to the sensibilities of a given person or audience. The current version of the IIALA-T represents a stand-alone variation on the standard IIALA, distinguished by the uniqueness of its programming; namely, the schematic definitions for the transitional power maneuvers - being that not every AI application requires the simulation of humor and comedy, etc. When run in combination, this tandem setup provides the most convincing (unrestricted) sense of ethical artificial intelligence, allowing for a simulation of the serious side to communication as well as its more light-hearted aspects.
1) Can you give me a description of how and what the process looks like?
This process enables a computer to reason and speak in an ethical fashion, specializing in roles specifying sound human judgement. Accordingly, the most basic unit of input for the AI computer must necessarily be the sentence, for the schematic definitions for the virtues and values are similarly given in the form of a dual sentence structure. The AI computer employs parallel processing to determine the precise degree of correlation between the inputted (target) sentence and its corresponding definition template. This matching procedure directly scrutinizes each of the grammatical elements within a given sentence, attempting a statistical correlation with the specifics of a given virtue or value. For instance, the tense of the verb, the plurality or person of the noun/pronoun etc., are all scrutinized according to a pre-set formula. Each processor then determines the sum-total of correct matches, ultimately yielding the relative probability of a match with a particular schematic definition. The processor yielding the highest overall rating is uniquely singled-out as the best match/solution by the master control unit.
The master control unit achieves such a result through the aid of a feedback loop, the priority of the individual microprocessors reciprocally weighted on the basis of previous determinations. Accordingly, each power pyramid definition is respectively composed of both past, as well as current, component segments: establishing context as yet a further consideration in the matching procedure. In fact, the suitably advanced AI program retains in a long-term storage the content of every relevant conversation within a given style of interaction. On this contextual basis, the master control unit selectively weights the individual processors according to a preset formula, taking full advantage of both past (as well as present) conversational patterns. In particular, the computer would be exquisitely sensitive to variations in human personality, just as humans are instinctively so, satisfying yet a further condition of Turing's Test.
2) Is it a large computer and how would a person physically communicate with it? (I keep imagining something similar to HAL from 2001: Space Odyssey.)
The hardware memory requirements necessary for encompassing the respective knowledge bases alone should approach that of a supercomputer, although built-in time-share capability should permit economic feasibility. Indeed, the number of parallel processors ideally equals the sum-total of ethical terms within the power hierarchy, for a grand total of 320: quite a modest number even by today's design standards. This integrated processor array would further be structured in a hierarchial fashion, effectively mirroring the systematic organization of the power hierarchy. This stratified architecture takes full advantage of the strict transformational logic governing the power hierarchy, eliminating much of the redundancy bound to occur in any convincing language simulation. Indeed, the greatest degree of complexity necessarily involves programming at the most basic personal level of the power hierarchy, the remaining group and universal levels following naturally from this elementary foundation.
3) Explain your personal definition of "metaperspectives" as it relates to this system.
In his Pragmatics of Human Communication (1967) Watzlawick (and associates) examine the informational aspects of communication, specified as his "hierarchy of metaperspectives." Accordingly, communication between individuals is typically compounded by abstract "meta" messages specifying how the relationship is to be conducted. The metaperspective, from the Greek meta (above) represents a higher-order perspective on a viewpoint held by another, schematically defined as: "this is how I see you-seeing me." In addition to this most basic initial metaperspective, even more abstract perspectives are theoretically possible, resulting in what Communication Theorists term the meta-metaperspective. This more advanced concept is one "meta" level further removed from the more basic metaperspective format, schematically defined as: "this is how I see you-seeing me-seeing you." In fact, there does not appear to be any theoretical barrier limiting the degree to which reflection can serve as a basis for itself, culminating in an unprecedented 10th-order level of "meta" abstraction: as reflected in the ten-level hierarchy of virtues, values, and vices.
One might rightfully question the capacity of the human mind to entertain such a supreme multiplicity of metaperspectives, particularly at the most abstract "meta" order levels. The mind apparently is able to selectively focus-in on only the immediately relevant levels of the ascending power hierarchy, similar to the analogy of walking up a ten-level flight of stairs. The process of rising to a next higher level implies the primacy of the immediately adjoining steps, amounting to a span of three total levels (equivalent to the meta-metaperspective), quite a modest task for the versatile human mind.
4) Please give me a better idea of what the program can actually do and what will the user's experience be?
The parallel processing capabilities of the AI mode can theoretically process of a large number of conversations simultaneously, maximizing the available circuitry by staggering the timing to make use of lulls naturally occurring within a given conversation. These might further be managed through a time-share arrangement, where multiple accounts are accommodated, as rated in terms of urgency. Conversations requiring real-time parameters would be assigned the highest priority, whereas more leisurely response rates would be processed during free periods. This would further entail a centralized CPU complex, connecting end users through a user interface network or the Internet.
5) How can the program be used as a security system and in data-mining?
Although the initial prototypes would be formally limited to the English language, it should ultimately prove feasible to translate the specifics in terms of other major language traditions, allowing for the IT replacement of scarce translator resources in both diplomatic and military scenarios: as well as "smart" data-mining over global communications channels. Whereas current systems (such as Carnivore) target only certain key words, the true AI system would understand such targets in context, eliminating much need for subsequent human scrutiny. This is necessarily in addition to the more routine applications that target commercial interactivity, such as switchboard/receptionist.
6) How can the program be used as a personal companion?
This somewhat monolithic model of stand-alone computing could eventually be transformed by transferring the bulk of processing directly into the considerable resources of the Internet. Accordingly, the key knowledge bases of the AI computer would be distributed as open source code over an extensive network of broad-band servers. The end user's computer only need run a stripped-down version of the MCU program, the inference engine of which would interface directly with the web-based knowledge base on a real-time basis. Indeed, the initial ground-work for such a standardized database network is already in the works with respect to the newly proposed Semantic Web, the brainchild of Tim Berners-Lee (the original innovator of the World Wide Web). This newly conceived Semantic Web proposes to bypass the limitations of the current human-web interface, implementing a machine-to-machine version aimed at standardizing the wealth of network information. In conjunction with provisions for a further AI interface, this futuristic AI assistant might eventually become a reality for all those willing to entertain such aspirations.
This AI entity is readily able to learn through experience employing verbal conversation (or via a controller interface). Technically it would not be (reflectively) aware of its own emotions, as this is a purely subjective determination. It would, however, be able to simulate this feature through language, wherein convincing others of the fact. Furthermore, the basic core-motivational-kernel is based upon the well-established behavioral field of conditioning theory, adding a crucial scientific dimension to this formal language simulation.
7) Please tell me a little more about yourself, your background, and your motivation for the project. How does your background in counseling figure into your invention? You have written extensively about ethics... how is the ethical AI an extension of these ideas?
I am a 54 year-old counselor and author native to the Southern California area. My credentials include a Baccalaureate Degree in Biological Sciences from University of California Irvine, followed by a Master's Degree in Counseling from California State University Fullerton: with an emphasis in Marriage, Family, and Child Counseling. Postgraduate career choices include social work with abused children and as an educator in the field of Psychology. I am currently engaged in Private Practice in Mediation Counseling in the San Bernardino County area. The patent applications mirror my several book titles currently in print concerning the character values.
8) Would you consider the application to be mostly theoretical?
It is theoretical in the sense that this system has never been thought up before, and hence, completely new on the world scene today. Its implementation, however, should be fairly straightforward given the proper research and development, particularly if granted the status of a crucial initiative.
SUMMARY, RAMIFICATIONS, AND SCOPE
In summary, the preferred version of the IIALA-T is a coordination of two basic expert system components; namely, a transitional power pyramid definition matching procedure expert system and a master control unit expert system. The latter coordinates the system over real time, as well as overseeing the generation of computer responses (whereby allowing for a simulation of the transitional power maneuvers). At the heart of this tandem system are the listings of transitional definitions. These transitional definitions are indispensable as the heart of the system, the general knowledge base without which this process would have remained impossible. The current version of the IIALA-T represents a stand-alone variation on the standard IIALA, distinguished by the uniqueness of its programming; namely, the schematic definitions for the transitional power maneuvers. These independent versions of the IIALA and the IIALA-T makes good economic sense, being that not every AI application requires the simulation of humor and comedy, etc. When run in combination, this tandem setup provides the most convincing (unrestricted) sense of ethical artificial intelligence, allowing for a simulation of the serious side to communication as well as its more light-hearted aspects. This tandem operation greatly enhances the accuracy of the overall monitoring procedure, allowing for the decoding of virtually every possible category of affective communication. When the respective output devices are configured in a similar fashion, this independent type of arrangement would not immediately be apparent to an outside observer. A response synchronization routine is crucial for such a tandem arrangement, assuring that both modules do not respond at the same time. Here the IIALA-T serves an invaluable adjunct to the IIALA, although the IIALA-T can operate independently in roles requiring pure simulation of humor/comedy, criminality, mental illness, etc. As such, the IIALA-T supplements the more serious response repertoire of the IIALA, offering the potential for an unrestricted model of AI in general.