Communication Breakdown: Decoding the Riddle of Mental Illness

The communicational factors underlying mental illness remain one of mankind's most enduring mysteries. The widespread distribution of these disorders across the general population proves to be of crucial concern to the social safety net. Mental illness is primarily regarded as a physical disorder or a chemical imbalance, although clear-cut signs within the brain have eluded convincing documentation. Indeed, the most obvious outward signpost is a disturbance in the ability to communicate in an interpersonal sense, often in an exaggerated or bizarre fashion. The emotions are similarly affected to extreme degree, as witnessed in profound nature of the mood disorders such as mania or melancholy.

An overall communicational model of mental illness has conspicuously been lacking due to the daunting conceptual challenges at issue. As with many other such great enigmas, the solution often emerges from advances in a parallel field of inquiry. Here, great strides in Communications Theory prove highly relevant in this regard, particularly that encompassing the field of counseling psychotherapy. In terms of a recent sequence of publications by the Editor, a breakthrough in the understanding of affective (or emotionally charged) language has recently been proposed: wherein incorporating the communicational factors underlying mental illness within a general eight-part schematic: as partially depicted in the compact diagram immediately below.

+ + VICES OF EXCESS MENTAL ILLNESS (Excessive Virtue (Transitional Excess) + MAJOR VIRTUES LESSER VIRTUES (Virtuous Mode) (Transitional Virtue) ___________________________________ O - NEUTRALITY STATUS ___________________________________ – VICES OF DEFECT CRIMINALITY (Absence of Virtue) (Transitional Defect) – – HYPERVIOLENCE HYPERCRIMINALITY (Excessive Defect) (Transit. Hyperviolence)

This diagram actually represents a radical expansion upon Aristotle's enduring Theory of the Mean (originally defined as a more basic three-part model). According to Aristotle’s original paradigm, the realm of the virtues (such as courage) represent mean values interposed between the vices of defect and those of excess: in this case, the vices of cowardice and rashness, respectively.
The resultant expanded format ultimately accounts for the entire 408-part complement of ethical terms (please refer to the MASTER DIAGRAM link below).

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The most salient feature of the recent modification is the centralized zone of neutrality, that default status representing the formal initiation point for all new classes of communication to follow (whether positive or negative in nature). The upper segments of the diagram (bordering on the zone of neutrality) represent the positive relationship aspects based upon cooperation, as further reflected in the dual categories of major and lesser virtues. The lower pair of segments, alternately, is based within the domain of conflict/punishment; namely, Aristotle’s vices of defect, as well as the related theme of criminality.

This basic core-nucleus of terms, in turn, serves as the foundation for the remaining set of categories relating to the realm of excess. For the virtuous mode, these extremes correspond to Aristotle’s vices of excess, as well as the affiliated classifications of mental illness. With respect to the darker realm of the vices of defect, this pattern further extends to the affiliated classifications of hypercriminality and hyperviolence. This grand-unified system of eight overall categories represents an unprecedented contri-bution to the field of ethical inquiry, expanding Aristotle’s “Theory of the Mean” into an all-inclusive explanation of the emotions in general. At the risk of appearing overly simplistic, each of these eight basic categories is further subdivided into numerous sub-groupings of individual terms. For instance, the major virtues encompass a total of 40 individual terms, whereas the lesser virtues are further specialized into 64 distinct terms. When the six remaining affective categories are further added into the mix, the grand total jumps to 408 individual terms (including 56 individual forms of mental illness).

The general pattern of presentation for the remainder of this book, accordingly, employs a strategy aimed at providing substantial background information concerning the virtues and vices in Parts I and II, followed by a subsequent analysis of the communicational factors underlying mental illness in Parts III and IV. The final Part V outlines the remaining conceptual categories of criminality and hypercriminality, classifications that share many commonalties with mental illness in terms of overall impulsive characteristics. A majority of the chapters, however, are devoted to outlining the 56 different classifications of mental illness. This total breaks down into the eight forms of the personality disorders, eight forms of the neuroses, and twenty forms each for the mood disorders and schizophrenia: as partially depicted below:

Narcissistic Personality >>> Obsession Neurosis Confabulatory Euphoria >>> Confab. Paraphrenia Enthusiastic Euphoria >>> Proskinetic Catatonia Non-Participatory Euphoria >>> Silly Hebephrenia Borderline Personality >>> Phobia Neurosis Suspicious Depression >>> Fantastic Paraphrenia Self-Torturing Depression >>> Negativistic Catatonia Non-Participatory Depression >>> Insipid Hebephrenia Dependent Personality >>> Compulsion Neurosis Pure Mania >>> Expansive Paraphrenia Unproductive Euphoria >>> Parakinetic Catatonia Hypochondriacal Euphoria >>> Eccentric Hebephrenia Avoidant Personality >>> Anxiety Neurosis Pure Melancholy >>> Incoherent Paraphrenia Harried Depression >>> Affected Catatonia Hypochondriacal Depression >>> Autistic Hebephrenia

The latter extensive terminology (for the psychoses) in large part is due to a pre-existing system of nomenclature pioneered by German clinician, Karl Leonhard. The nomenclature for the personality disorders and the neuroses is alternately contained within the specifications of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (IV). Indeed, this advanced degree of detail should prove quite a revelation for those more at home with the American model of the psychoses, where manic-depressive disease and schizophrenia are generally treated as unitary entities. This enhanced range of detail, however, ultimately allows the current communicational approach to ultimately be proposed. Accordingly, relatives of mentally ill patients struggling to cope should find this novel theoretical approach extremely enlightening: outlining an obscure range of trigger factors, as well as profound insights into the nature of the disorders in general. In light of the chances of being impacted by mental illness at some time during one’s life (whether as a caregiver or a patient), this communicational approach to the mental disorders proves an extremely timely issue, and one holding considerable promise to those thusly afflicted.

Here, mental illness is functionally consistent with an emotional style of communicational dynamic: one that encompasses certain other forms of human communication. Indeed, the extreme symptomology associated with mental illness effectively distorts or exaggerates the overall conceptual framework, generally obscuring the cognitive aspects being communicated. Consequently, the key to understanding these elusive factors ultimately resides in the context of more routine communication, where the various emotional parameters can be more accurately ascertained. A comprehensive and unified model for normal communication has unfortunately eluded identification due to the vast number of possible permutations. As stated earlier in the preface, however, it is here that the newly proposed ten-level hierarchy of virtues/values rightfully enters the picture: offering the potential for a truly integrated model of emotionality in general. The distinctive groupings of virtues and values (defined within this system) all appear linked on an intuitive level, suggesting a clear sense of underlying cohesiveness. When this virtuous realm is further contrasted with the parallel realm of the vices, the resultant master format expands to a grand total of 80 individual terms, offering a fitting contextual background towards resolving the enigma of mental illness.

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The key conceptual innovation arises as a direct consequence of the fledgling science of Communications Theory, borrowing the crucial concept of the metaperspective, a higher-order perspective upon the viewpoint held by another: schematically defined as "this is how I see you-seeing me." Here, the higher groupings of virtues and values accumulate as subsets within this hierarchy of metaperspectives, each more abstract category building directly upon that it supersedes. Take, for example, the cardinal virtues (prudence, justice, temperance, and fortitude), the theological virtues (faith-hope-charity-decency), and the classical Greek values (beauty-truth-goodness-wisdom). Accordingly, each of these traditional listings is further subdivided into four subordinate terms, allowing for precise point-for-point stacking within the hierarchy of metaperspectives. When additional listings of ethical terms are further factored into the mix: namely, the civil liberties (providence-liberty-civility-austerity), the humanistic values (peace-love-tranquility-equality), the mystical values (ecstasy-bliss-joy-harmony), amongst others, the complete ten-level virtuous hierarchy emerges in full detail, partially reproduced in the table immediately below:

Nostalgia -- Hero-Worship Guilt -- Blame Glory -- Prudence Honor -- Justice Providence -- Faith Liberty -- Hope Grace -- Beauty Free-Will -- Truth Tranquility -- Ecstasy Equality -- Bliss Desire -- Approval Worry -- Concern Dignity -- Temperance Integrity -- Fortitude Civility -- Charity Austerity -- Decency Magnanim. -- Goodness Equanimity -- Wisdom Love -- Joy Peace -- Harmony

This cohesive hierarchy of virtues, values, and ideals proves exceedingly comprehensive in scope, accounting for virtually every major ethical term celebrated in the Western tradition. Indeed, it is particularly easy to gain a sense of the trend towards increasing abstraction when scanning each of the individual columns from top to bottom. The traditional four-part groupings line up seamlessly within the hierarchy of metaperspectives, making it exceedingly unlikely that such a comprehensive system could have arisen solely by chance. Furthermore, this ethical hierarchy mirrors the specialization of personal, group, spiritual, humanitarian, and transcendental domains within human society in general: which (when further specialized into both authority and follower roles) accounts for the full ten-level hierarchy of ethical terms.

THE VICES OF DEFECT

Although this preferential emphasis on the virtues is certainly understandable, the virtuous realm can scarcely be considered solely in a vacuum. The truest applications for such an ethical system derive precisely from a moral contrast with the corresponding realm of the vices (where virtue and vice typically exist in concert with one another). Indeed, for every virtue there necessarily exists a corresponding antonym (or vice): e.g., love vs. hate, peace vs. war, etc. Here, the corresponding vices of defect represent the direct emotional opposites of their respective virtuous counterparts, providing an even sense of symmetry across the entire unified power hierarchy. Consequently, the ten predicted categories for the vices of defect are further arrayed in a parallel ten-level hierarchy, identical in every respect to the pattern of arrangement previously described for the virtuous mode.

Laziness -- Treachery Negligence -- Vindictive. Infamy -- Insurgency Dishonor -- Vengeance Prodigality -- Betrayal Slavery -- Despair Wrath -- Ugliness Tyranny -- Hypocrisy Anger -- Abomination Prejudice -- Perdition Apathy -- Spite Indifference -- Malice Foolishness -- Gluttony Caprice -- Cowardice Vulgarity -- Avarice Cruelty -- Antagonism Oppression -- Evil Persecution -- Cunning Hatred -- Iniquity Belligerence -- Turpitude

This innovation, in turn, allows negative transactions to be analyzed according to their potential to be converted into positive ones (and vice versa). The ten resultant listings of the vices: e.g., the ecumenical vices (wrath, tyranny, persecution, oppression), the moralistic vices (evil-cunning-ugliness-hypocrisy), and the humanistic vices (anger-hatred-prejudice-belligerence) etc. prove particularly relevant for outlining this darker realm of the vices.

THE VICES OF EXCESS

The vices of defect, in turn, can scarcely claim to be all-inclusive by any standard. In particular, only half of the traditional Seven Deadly Sins are directly accounted for in terms of the realm of defect: with pride, envy, and covetousness defying incorporation into the previously established domain of defect. This anomaly alternately is explained in terms of a separate class of the vices, referred to since ancient times as the vices of excess. In particular, Aristotle was the first to describe such a dual system of the vices; namely, the vices of defect (initially described), in addition to the vices of excess (defined as the range of extremes with respect to the virtues). In this latter respect, Aristotle viewed the virtuous mode as a system of mean values (or norms) interposed between the vices of defect and vices of excess. For example, Aristotle cites the example of the virtue of courage, representing the mean value interposed between the vice of defect (cowardice) and its excessive counterpart (foolhardiness). Virtue, accordingly, represents the middle-ground between defect and excess, an aspect favoring moderation insofar as choosing a balance between these two extremes. Indeed, it ultimately proves feasible to devise an entire ten-level hierarchy for defining this remaining realm of the vices of excess, mirroring point-for-point the hierarchy previously established for the virtues: although now based upon themes such as vanity, jealousy, shame, contempt, etc.


Pride  --  Flattery                    Shame  --  Criticism
Vanity  --  Adulation                Humiliation  --  Ridicule
Conceit  --  Patronization               Mortification  --  Scorn
Pretention  --  Indulgence               Anguish  --  Mockery
Sanctimony  --  Sycophancy        Tribulation  --  Cynicism

Impudence  --  Envy           Insolence  --  Disdain
Arrogance  --  Jealousy            Audacity  --  Contempt
Impetuosity  --  Covetous.      Rashness  --  Reproach
Presumption  --  Longing            Boldness  --  Chagrin
Smugness  --  Affectation          Harshness  --  Bitterness

Curiously, the three-way degree of specialization implied within Aristotle’s Theory of the Mean fails to distinguish any parallel complement of extremes with respect to the vices of defect (similar to that previously specified for the virtuous mode). This glaring lack of an even sense of symmetry is formally remedied through the introduction of an entirely new class of affective terms: a terminology provisionally termed the realm of hyperviolence. This new category is formally distinguished from the more ordinary realm of defect primarily in terms of the extremes in which it is expressed. Herein lies the formal prototype for the realm of hyperviolence; namely, that range of excess with respect to the vices of defect. The fact that Aristotle failed to distinguish this additional realm of hyperviolence within his traditional Theory of the Mean undoubtedly attests to the classical warrior ideal, where victory is to be achieved at any cost. A terminology for specifying this extreme realm of hyperviolence scarcely enjoys the degree of detail exhibited by the other listings of vices. Accordingly, the corresponding listings of terms for hyperviolence are achieved through a prefix-style of system with respect to the vices of defect.

THE MASTER FOUR-PART SCHEMATIC LINKING VIRTUE AND VICE

In summary, through the formal aid of the additional category of hyperviolence, the balanced symmetry of the overall ethical hierarchy finally becomes conceptually complete. The four basic categories: namely, the virtues, vices of defect, vices of excess, and hyperviolence collectively account for a complete cross-section of emotionally charged language in general; as schematically depicted in the master diagram immediately below:

+ + VICES OF EXCESS (Excessive Virtue) + MAJOR VIRTUES (Virtuous Mode) _______________________ O - NEUTRALITY STATUS _______________________ – VICES OF DEFECT (Absence of Virtue) – – HYPERVIOLENCE Excessive Defect)

This formal diagram is schematically organized around the novel concept of a "neutrality status," representing a neutral point of entry within the ethical system (a default status from which all new relationships are initially established). This neutrality status is respectively defined as that benign sense of neglect we express towards strangers on the street: contacts that pose no meaningful sense of relationship, yet similarly fail to present any impending sense of threat. Every new relationship (by definition) stems directly from this neutrality status, a potentiality that proceeds either into the realm of the virtues, or (tragically) into the realm of the vices of defect. This ethical divergence is schematically depicted as the dual arrangement of terms immediately flanking the zone of neutrality. This pairing of conflicting options represents an ethical "fork in the road," a decision targeting either the virtuous mode or the darker realm of the vices of defect. These two conflicting options represent the basic core nucleus for the system, with most relationships resolved through recourse to one option or the other (the basic thoroughfare for the system).

This dual interpretation, however, can scarcely claim to be the total picture, for the additional realm of excess lurks along the extreme boundaries of the core nucleus. For the virtuous realm, this corresponds to the affiliated realm of the vices of excess. Furthermore, the parallel option with respect to the vices of defect alternately targets the newly introduced class of hyperviolence. These two expanded categories represent the figurative "fast lanes" of the relationship superhighway; namely, fringe areas exaggerated to the degree of crossing over into the realm of excess. Fortunately, such forays into excess are typically somewhat limited, for the enduring stability within the social dynamic serves to dampen the effects of such drastic mood swings.

THE TRANSITIONAL POWER MANEUVERS

This extended four-part hierarchy for the virtues and vices, however, ultimately suffers from one basic shortcoming; namely, the respective authority and follower roles are rigidly fixed into place: allowing for precious little flexibility to operate within the system. Versatility certainly plays a key role in our modern culture, with continually shifting social coalitions placing an ever-greater demand upon the individual. Each new adjustment within the social hierarchy calls for alternate mechanisms for integrating such a transitional modification, an innovation that the established groupings of virtue/vice fail to fully take into account. In addition to the incremental pattern of maneuvering for power initially described, a more direct avenue also exists for leapfrogging directly to the higher authority levels; namely, the group, spiritual, and humanitarian levels, respectively. This new mode of options is respectively termed the class of transitional power maneuvers, in that they "transition" the individual directly into new social contexts.

A number of key features distinguish this new class of transitional power maneuvers, permitting for a greater degree of versatility by way of discrete transitional points across the entire ten-level power hierarchy. These transitions represent direct motivational analogs of the main power maneuvers they serve to imitate, often in an exaggerated fashion (in order to make the point more clearly). This flair for the dramatic can be either humorous (as in the realm of comedy), or tragic (as in the tradition of melodrama). This trend is the stock-in-trade for the standard "situation comedy," where a guest star intrudes upon the graces of the standard ensemble cast - typically with hilarious consequences. A similar picture, in turn, holds true with respect to the more serious realm of melodrama, as particularly evident in the genre of the daytime soap opera.

This transitional class of power maneuver (as its name implies) refers to a relationship initiated for the first time. Here, the individual attempts to establish a transitional interaction within a pre-existing social order. Accordingly, the virtuous realm of humor/comedy is fully explainable in terms of the transitional interplay of both double-bind and counter double-bind maneuvers: where the classifications of lesser virtues represent transitional variations with respect to the main virtuous realm. Indeed, the pervasive human fascination with humor and comedy is fully explained in terms of such a versatile set of transitional power maneuvers, accounting for many of the lesser virtues (e.g., loyalty, responsibility, humility, etc.) not accounted for in the main listings of virtues.

Loyalty >>> Humility Responsibility >>> Innocence Fidelity >>> Majesty Duty >>> Vindication Piety >>> Magnificence Allegiance >>> Exoneration Felicity >>> Grandeur Righteous.>>> Immaculate. Discipline >>> Modesty Vigilance >>> Meekness Chivalry >>> Chastity Courage >>> Obedience Nobility >>> Purity Valor >>> Conformity Zeal >>> Perfection Triumph >>> Pacifism

This comprehensive listing of lesser virtues, however, actually represents just the first component of a much broader transitional system, a modification that directly expands upon the remaining categories within Aristotle's Theory of the Mean. This formally extends to the domains of criminality, hypercriminality, and the various communicational factors underlying mental illness: as schematically depicted for the right hand column of terms shown adjacent the major categories of terms in the master eight-part diagram depicted immediately below.

+ + VICES OF EXCESS MENTAL ILLNESS (Excessive Virtue ) (Transitional Excess) + MAJOR VIRTUES LESSER VIRTUES (Virtuous Mode (Transitional Virtue) ___________________________________ 0 …… NEUTRALITY STATUS ___________________________________ – VICES OF DEFECT CRIMINALITY (Absence of Virtue) (Transitional Defect) – – HYPERVIOLENCE HYPERCRIMINALITY (Excessive Defect) (Transit. Hyperviolence)

In direct analogy to the major category of terms, the transitional variations are similarly organized around the centralized zone of neutrality, serving as the direct transitional entry-points into the realm of the major categories. Consequently, the classifications of the lesser virtues are depicted immediately adjacent to the main virtuous mode. Furthermore, the theme of criminality is depicted in tandem with the respective vices of defect. Similarly, with respect to the realm of excess, the theme of hypercriminality is formally affiliated with hyperviolence, whereas the domain of mental illness alternately targets the vices of excess (where the complete listing of individual terms is schematically depicted in Fig. 1). The dynamics of criminality and hypercriminality are fairly obvious in terms of function: representing new transitional variations with respect to the darker realm of defect. Criminality, accordingly, represents the ingrained tendency to initiate new relationships in a selfish or violent fashion, a contention that many a criminologist will gladly attest to. A more detailed discussion of the terminology associated with criminality and hypercriminality, accordingly, remains beyond the limited scope of the current chapter, although a more developed version is outlined in Part IV.

In keeping with the general stated theme for this book, final mention must necessarily be made concerning the remaining transitional classifications of mental illness. Here, mental illness is formally defined as the basic transitional sequence of double bind and counter double-bind maneuvers targeting the realm of the vices of excess. Consequently, each of the major classifications of mental illness (namely, personality disorders, neuroses, mood disorders, and schizophrenia) are fully explained in terms of such a transitional paradigm predicted in terms of Communications Theory. In keeping with its transitional relationship to the vices of excess (which is formally divorced from the domain of defect), mental illness remains fairly non-threatening in nature: as reflected in studies confirming the generally non-violent nature of the mentally ill in relation to the general population. This interpretation proves particularly insightful in terms the bizarre symptomology associated with the psychoses, a category of mental illness reminiscent of the extreme degree of disqualification characterizing the counter double-bind maneuvers. Indeed, the compact table below schematically illustrates this dual degree of interplay across the entire span of the psychoses, in addition to the personality disorders and forms of neurosis. This was chiefly permitted through the aid of the preexisting system of terminology for the psychoses pioneered by German clinician, Karl Leonhard; as well as the nomenclature for the personality disorders and the neuroses contained in the DSM–IV.

Narcissistic Personality >>> Obsession Neurosis Confabulatory Euphoria >>> Confab. Paraphrenia Enthusiastic Euphoria >>> Proskinetic Catatonia Non-Participatory Euphoria >>> Silly Hebephrenia Borderline Personality >>> Phobia Neurosis Suspicious Depression >>> Fantastic Paraphrenia Self-Torturing Depression >>> Negativistic Catatonia Non-Participatory Depression >>> Insipid Hebephrenia Dependent Personality >>> Compulsion Neurosis Pure Mania >>> Expansive Paraphrenia Unproductive Euphoria >>> Parakinetic Catatonia Hypochondriacal Euphoria >>> Eccentric Hebephrenia Avoidant Personality >>> Anxiety Neurosis Pure Melancholy >>> Incoherent Paraphrenia Harried Depression >>> Affected Catatonia Hypochondriacal Depression>>> Autistic Hebephrenia

This initial, 32-part complement of syndromes offers a preliminary overview for the transitional model of mental illness. The additional sequence of disorders for mental illness (B), however, formally brings this introductory analysis to its logical conclusion. Here, the designated follower roles are specified first in the two-stage transitional schematic, in contrast to mental illness (A), where the authority roles alternately initiate the interaction. Accordingly, mental illness (B) is closely affiliated with mental illness (A), although with a number of substantial differences. Consequently, the supplementary forms of the personality disorders and the neuroses, as well as Leonhard’s alternate terminology for the mood disorders and unsystematic schizophrenia, effectively rounds-out this additional complement of syndromes for mental illness (B), as schematically depicted in the compact diagram immediately below.

Histrionic Personality >>> Dissociative Hysteria Happiness Psychosis >>> Confab. A/L Paraphrenia Excited Confusion Psychosi >>> Excited Cataphasia Paranoid Personality >>> Depersonalization Neurosis Anxiety Psychosis >>> Fantastic A/L Paraphrenia Inhibited Confusion Psychosis >>> Inhibit. Cataphasia Passive/Aggressive Pers. >>> Conversion Hysteria Manic/Depressive Disease >>> Manic A/L Paraphrenia Hyper. Motility Psychosis >>> Hyper. Periodic Catatonia Schizoid Personality >>> Neuraesthenic Neurosis Manic/Depress. Disease>>> Confused A/L Paraphrenia Akinetic Motility Psychosis >>> Akinetic Periodic Catatonia

It should further be noted that this dual model of the mental disorders essentially only explains the content and context of what is being communicated in mental illness; namely, the transitional sequence of power maneuvers with respect to the vices of excess. Accordingly, this new system is basically meant to supplement currently available therapies (rather than supplanting them): endeavoring to aid in the treatment and diagnosis of the communicational factors underlying a wide assortment of mental disorders.

A CURSORY OUTLINE FOR THE REMAINING SEQUENCE OF CHAPTERS

With the overall communicational factors for mental illness firmly established, it only remains to ultimately outline the basic pattern of organization for the remaining chapters to follow. In light of the considerable wealth of background information leading up to the discussion of mental illness, the remaining chapters are subdivided into four main sub-headings. Chapters 2 & 3 of Part I are devoted to a more comprehensive analysis of the virtuous realm, outlining the major listings of virtues, values, and ideals. Chapter 4, in turn, examines Aristotle’s contrasting classifications of the vices of defect, defined as the realm of defect with respect to the virtuous realm. Chapters 5 and 6, in turn, broaden the scope with respect to the vices of excess (defined as the range of extremes with respect to the virtuous mode): an expanded treatment directly in keeping with their reciprocal relationship to mental illness. This formal pattern of development further extends to Part II with respect to the remaining class of transitional power maneuvers: defined as the transitional variations on the major categories of terms described in Part I. Chapters 7, 8, and 9 are initially devoted to the lesser virtues (I & II): in keeping with their transitional parallels to the more extreme realm of mental illness. This preliminary discussion of the transitional power maneuvers, in turn, leads to the related issue of the communicational factors underlying mental illness outlined in Part III. The terminology for this section is clearly more specialized in a clinical sense, as opposed to the more colloquial nature of the virtues, values, and vices. Accordingly, this section focuses exclusively on the terminology contained within the DSM-IV, as well as that targeting the psychosis (as established by German clinician, Karl Leonhard). Chapter 10 launches this endeavor with a general overview of the realm of mental illness, whereas Chapter 11 examines the personal foundations of the personality disorders and the neuroses. Chapter 12, in turn, offers a general overview of the psychoses, whereas 13 and 14 examine the psychotic forms of the mood disorders. Furthermore, Chapters 15 and 16 target the systematic forms of schizophrenia (indicative of the counter double bind class of power maneuvers).

This systematic pattern of development is further augmented in Part IV with respect to the affiliated categories of the cycloid (bipolar) forms of the psychoses. Accordingly, Chapter 17 leads off with a comprehensive analysis of the hysteriform forms of the personality disorders and the neuroses. Furthermore, Chapters 18 and 19 take a similar slant with respect to the affiliated forms of the psychoses: in this case, the cycloid mood disorders and unsystematic schizophrenia, respectively. Finally, Chapter 20 offers a summary overview of the complete spectrum of mental illness, offering crucial insights into clinical diagnosis and psychotherapy.

The complete description of the classifications of mental illness ultimately leads to a parallel analysis of the transitional power maneuvers for the darker realm of the power hierarchy; in particular, criminality and hypercriminality. Chapter 21 of Part V is devoted to a preliminary description of the realm of hyperviolence, the elementary foundation for the subsequent transitional variations. Chapter 22, in turn, further broadens this scope; targeting the distinctive realm of criminality (defined as transitions with respect to the vices of defect. Finally, Chapter 23 rounds-out this trend with to the affiliated realm of hypercriminality: namely, the transitional variations with respect to the realm of hyperviolence. This final section proves extremely applicable to the principles of criminal profiling: where an attempt is made to comprehend the twisted dynamics driving the criminal mind, in addition to strategies towards ameliorating such criminal tendencies. Certainly, the current trend towards accelerating terrorism worldwide further suggests that such an advanced system of diagnosis could potentially prove crucial towards ameliorating such misguided motives.

The main focus of this book, however, necessarily remains outlining the communicational factors underlying mental illness. In concert with the formal contextual grounding of mental illness within the overall communicational dynamic, it scarcely can be denied (in final analysis) that this particular model is truly validated within the affective parameters defined.

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A Revolution in the Understanding of Mental Illness

Each of the major categories of mental illness is incorporated into a unified communicational dynamic: where dysfunctional behavior patterns can accurately be determined, leading to effective resolution. This communicational approach is intended as an adjunct to currently available treatment regimens, adding a further crucial tool to the repertoire of the mental health practitioner. Caregivers can similarly benefit from an advanced understanding of the communicational factors underlying mental illness, wherein enhancing the potential for timely intervention.

In This Book You Will Learn To:

(1) Increase awareness of dysfunctional patterns of communication.
(2) Recognize trigger-factors that precipitate behavioral outbreaks.
(3) Become a more effective caregiver in an outpatient setting.
(4) Gain a clearer understanding of the crucial role
mental illness plays within society as a whole.

About the Author

A celebrated author and inventor, John LaMuth has applied his Doctoral Degree in Global Public Health to the cause of Character Education, including a Private Practice in Mediation Counseling in the Southern California area. In his latest release, John seeks to share his years of experience in the mental health field with the aim of focusing attention on issues of such critical public concern.

Communication Breakdown:
Decoding the Riddle of Mental Illness
John E. LaMuth PhD
Fairhaven Book Publishers, Lucerne Valley, CA, USA
fairhaven-books@outlook.com
Publication Date September 2004
ISBN# 1-929649-20-7
Trade softcover (7.44 x 9.69 inches), 276 pages
Extensively illustrated.
$28.95
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