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Identify 3 early sources of law.

Hammurabi’s Code, The 12 Tables from Rome, the 10 Commandments

Who was the Father of Greek Philosophy?  What method did he use to find truth?

Socrates, question and question to find truth

Who was his prized pupil?  How did this pupil want to organize society?

Plato, 3 class system: p-ks, warriors, producers

How did Aristotle believe you could find the best government?

Evaluating existing governments

Who took Greek ideas and spread them throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa?

Alexander the Great

What two things allowed for a dramatic change in population growth between 1000-1300.

more peaceful conditions (less war) and better agriculture

What was the purpose of the Crusades?  Who usually went on them?

Retake the Holy Land from the “infidel”, noblemen & knights looking for glory and salvation

Middle Age universities were dedicated to what school of thought?


What two things did peasants get in exchange for giving up their freedom to the lord of the manor?

Protection and the use of land

Identify at least three of the “obligations” placed on peasants.

Pay a portion of crop to lord, rent pastureland, tithes to the church, portion of catch to the lord

Identify three ways the lords exercised control over their peasants.

Permission to leave, permission to marry, lords run local courts, lords control crafts and trades for their peasants

What was the main dietary staple for peasants?  Where did they get their vegetables?

Bread, gardens next to their houses

What days gave peasants an occasional break from the labor grind?  What did this make the center of village social life?

Church feast days, the village church

Why was there an increased demand for vernacular literature in the Middle Ages?

Increased literacy amongst the laity (non-clergy)

What was the primary method of instruction at the university?  What did obstacle students need to pass for each degree?

Lecture, oral examinations

What two areas did scholasticism attempt to reconcile?

Faith (xianity) and reason (Aristotle)

Who was the most well known scholastic?  What was his most famous work?

Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica

What was the name of the style used in building many of the medieval churches and cathedrals?


Name two examples of church corruption during the Middle Ages.

simony, legal exemptions, tax exemptions, clerical infidelity, misuse of church funds

Name 2 of the main ways that the Black Death impacted Europe.

decreased supply of labor, increased power of poor, decreased demand for land, decreased power of nobility

Identify the four basic levels of the church hierarchy.

Pope - Cardinal - Bishop - Priest

What was a vassal expected to give loyally in exchange for his fief?

military service

Name two benefits the serf received in the manorial system.

protection from outside threat, food during shortages, legal protection

How did France ultimately benefit from the 100 Years War?

regained much lost territory

Who was the local legal authority in the feudal system?

the lord (vassal)

What political structure did the strong nation state replace?

feudal monarchy

Name Michelangelo’s most famous painting & sculpture.

Sistene Chapel & David

Name two characteristics of the nation state.

taxes, standing army, bureacracy, support of townspeople

Who was the father of Humanism?


What were the three main characteristics of the Spanish Empire in America?

Roman Cath., Social hierarchy, econ. Dependence

Who was the most popular classical figure during the Renaissance?


Who wrote “The Prince” and hoped that a strong Italian ruler would come from the Medicis?


What was Erasmus’ philosophy a combination of?

Christian and classical beliefs

Name the work and author that describe an ideal society that will never exist.

Utopia, Thomas More

The Age of Exploration was driven by desire for what two things?

Spices and precious metals

How did Renaissance Art differ from art from the Middle Ages?

realism, accurate anatomy, secular patronage

What economic developments allowed for secular patronage of the arts?

increased trade & banking

Identify the two major northern humanists.

More & Erasmus

How was the subject matter of the Northern Ren. a departure from the High Ren?

Gothic, supernatural

Who was the “German master” of Northern Ren. Painting?

Albrecht Durer

List two reasons the church feared the humanists.

Self-reliance, outside interpretations, authorities other than God

What kind of activity did Petrarch inspire?

Examination of the classics, and writing related to them

Identify two classical features that were prominent in Ren. Architecture.

Domes, columns, roman arches, ornamentation, integrated supports