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The Sword is a Knights primary offensive weapon.
Knights of Medieval times used two types of Swords

Mandoble and Espada

The Mandoble or the two handed sword used in Medieval Europe
were known by several different names depending on their locale.
These were perhaps the heaviest swords in use weighing as
much as 15 pounds and as long as 57 inches and some even longer.
Two hands were usually need to effectively get enough force
behind a blow for great damage, thus the name Two Handed Sword.
Most all of these swords had long straight double edged blades,
straight bar quillons and extras long handles.
These swords were made more for swinging or hacking
than for thrusting and were capable of crushing through heavy armor.
These swords could be somewhat of a hindrance in
close quarter fighting if round-house sweeps could not
be made to get the full force of the blade into play.
Large two handed swords began to disappear
in the 1500's due to the introduction of firearms.

The Espada is a lighter, shorter, one-handed Sword
also called a Hand-and-a-Half sword, or Bastard Sword.
It was European in locale and used in the 1300 and 1400's.
The overall length was about 51 inches with a handle about 12 inches.
It could be used as a thrusting sword due to it's more acute point,
but it was usually swung in wide arcs.
The handle grip with pommel was long enough to accommodate
a hand and a half, making it a bastard as far as swords go
thus it's name.



The lance used in battle was very similar to the jousting lance
but would be made of the strongest wood available.
The major difference would, of course, be the point.
It would have a metal lance point of varying designs,
double edged and most always had a crossbar or hilt
about 20 centimeters from the tip.
This was to prevent the point from penetrating to deeply
into the victim making it difficult for the knight to withdraw.
Some knights would still use a blunted point on their lance during battle,
so as to merely unseat his mounted opponent.
He would then dismount and continue the fight using a
sword or other weapon.
But, if the knight knew his opponents were unmounted
ground forces he would undoubedly use his spear tipped lance.
His squire attendant would be carrying both lances
and perhaps a spare sword.



The term Mace refers to almost any club-like weapon.
The basic Mace consists of a handle, usually wood,
with a metal object secured to the top which is swung
much like a bat at an opponent/enemy.
Flanges, spikes and such protrusions were added to be
more effective on mail or plate armor.



The Halberds were similar to spears but had a much
different point or blade. It incorporated and axe
blade, a pick-hammer or beak and a spear point.
These were sometimes ornately decorated when used by
gate or room guards and in many ceremonies.
They could be used to drag a mounted enemy to the
ground and for cutting or thrusting.
Most foot soldiers were widely trained
in the efficient use of a Halberd.


BOLA (ball and chained Mace)

This Mace, as the name implies, consists of a heavy metal ball,
often spiked, attached to a wooden handle by a chain.
Another example might just be a ball on the end of a length
of chain grasped by the hand without the handle.
The mace was an efficient weapon to get around an
opponent's shield, yanking it away and pulling a rider
off his horse. It was very effective at piercing armor.



The Maul is basically a heavy wooden hammer or mallet.
It required a muscular person to wield it properly.
Some Mauls we fitted with spikes on the striking surface.



This was also similar in theory to the other forms of Maces
in that a metal ball on the end of a chain gave great force to the strike.
But, the Flail generally consisted of several lengths
of chains with balls and this fact made it almost impossible to defend against.



Daggers are the oldest short stabbing weapons known.
Most were designed for thrusting but many also were for cutting.
Daggers were never used as a primary weapon in battle
but almost every combatant carried one.
It's use was primarily as a substitute weapon
when no other was available.
Blade and handle design were many and varied.
Many were just for dress boasting precious metals and gemstones.



Longbows were said to be as tall as a man.
This would make them about 5 to 6 feet long.
They required upwards of 100 foot pounds of pressure
to fully notch the arrow which was about 2 feet in length.
English archers, some of the best bowmen known,
were trained to hit a man sized target at 200 yards.
Constructed of yew or elm, the longbow was never meant
to be a close quarters weapon.
The bowmen would stand behind their advancing troops
and loose arrows over their heads into the ranks of the enemy.
Longbow loosed arrows could penetrate mail armor but
rarely penetrated plate armor.



The crossbow was also called an Arbalest.
A bolt (a short arrow) was placed in position and the weapon aimed and fired.
Later crossbows were much more powerful and required
several hundred pounds of pulling power to load the bolt.
This was usually accomplished with various kinds of winches,
cranks or cocking leavers being used.
The crossbow was the first handheld weapon that could
be used by a relatively untrained soldier to kill an
armored Knight or soldier.



Spears were the most frequently used weapons of the foot soldier.
Their lengths ranged from about 5 feet to over 12 feet.
The shorter lengths were preferred for close hand to
hand combat because of it's better maneuverability
and the longer lengths against mounted calvary.
Spears could, of course be thrown but,
this made them a one time weapon which could just
as well be thrown back at them.



Encyclopedia Britanica
Univ. of Pittsburgh, Medieval Studies Archieves

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