The Jewish Calendar months and their relation to the harvest seasons in Israel as well as the dates of the festivals are outlined in the following table. For the most part, the Jewish Calendar months are mentioned by number in the Hebrew Bible in relation to the month of Nissan (I.E. the 1st month from Nissan, the second month from Nissan, and so on), which is the month when the Hebrews' Exodus from Egypt occurred, and G-d then said to the Hebrews that the month of Nissan shall be the "head of the months" for them. Exceptions to the numerical month naming are listed in the following table, both for Pre-Exilic and Post-Exilic months. The Exile occurred in 587 B.C.E. or 586 B.C.E. when the Babylonians conquered the Kingdom of Judah and deported or exiled most of the Jews to Babylonia. After the Persians conquered Babylonia in 539 B.C.E. (alternate date claims: 538 B.C.E., 537 B.C.E., and 536 B.C.E.), Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, allowed the Jews to return to Judea, hence Pre-Exilic, meaning before the Exile to Babylonia, and post-Exilic, meaning after the return to Judea.

Note: Regarding all aforementioned dates on this Jewish Calendar Months web page, see the footnote near the bottom of this web page.

Month Number

Pre-Exilic Name

Post-Exilic Name

Modern Calendar (Gregorian)




Exodus 13:4, 23:15, 34:18, Deuteronomy 16:1

Nisan or Nissan Esther 3:7, Nehemiah 2:1

March - April

- Spring (Latter rains)
- Barley & Flax harvest

* 14th: ("at evening", meaning the 15th) Passover (Exodus 12:18, Leviticus 23:5)
* 15th - 21st: Passover/Pesach/Feast of Freedom/Feast of Unleavened Bread (Leviticus 23:6)
* 16th: Barley offering (Omer) (Leviticus 23:14); Counting of the Omer for 49 days starting with this evening (16th) then on 50th day (meaning the day when Shavuot begins) bring two loaves of bread to the Temple = First Fruits (Leviticus 23:15)


1 Kings 6:1, 6:37

Iyyar or Iyar

April - May

Dry season begins

* 14th: Pesach Sheini/"Second" Passover (Numbers 9:10-11)



Esther 8:9

May - June

- Early figs ripen
- Wheat harvest begins

* 6th: Shavuot or Pentecost or Feast of Weeks (Leviticus 23:15)



Tammuz or Tamuz


Grape harvest





July - August

Olive harvest




Nehemiah 6:15

August - September

Dates & summer figs



Eisanim or Ethanim
1 Kings 8:2

Tishrei or Tishri

September - October

Early rains

* 1st - 2nd: Rosh Ha-Shanah or Yom Teruah ("Day of the Blowing of the Ram's Horn" in Hebrew) (Numbers 29:1; Leviticus 23:23-25)
* 10th: Yom Kippur or the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16:29; 23:27)
* 15th - 21st: Sukkot or the Feast of Tabernacles (Leviticus 23:34; 23:27)
* 22nd: Shemini Atzeret or Solemn Assembly (Leviticus 23:36)


1 Kings 6:38

Marcheshvan or Cheshvan or Marheshvan or Heshvan

October - November

Ploughing Winter figs




Nehemiah 1:1, Zechariah 7:1

November - December


* 25th: Hanukkah or Feast of Dedication or Festival of Lights
(1 Maccabees 4:52): Not instituted by G-d, but rather, a man-made Jewish tradition.



Esther 2:16

December - January

Rains with snow on high ground




Zechariah 1:7

January - February

Almond blossom




Ezra 6:15, as well as eight times in the Book of Esther (Esther 3:7, 3:13, 8:12, 9:1, 9:15, 9:17, 9:19, and 9:21)

February - March

Citrus fruit harvest


Footnote regarding the aforementioned dates on this Jewish Calendar Months web page: all dates discussed on this website are based on the modern Gregorian calendar, however, these dates are but one secular scholarly deduction; there are many other secular scholarly deductions as well as traditional Jewish chronological dates in addition to modern Hebrew/Jewish calendar dates regarding the timeline of events in Jewish history. To see a table of some important events in Jewish history discussed on this website and their various dates deduced from traditional Jewish sources, the modern Hebrew/Jewish calendar, and secular historical timelines, check out our Jewish History Timeline web page.

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