The Doctrine of the Ministry in the Writings of Carroll Herman Little

In order that the calling of men into His Kingdom might be carried on after His death, Jesus chose twelve men to be His apostles or ambassadors to gather disciples into the fellowship of His Church (St. Matt. 10:40; 16:18). And this Church, or communion of believers, He constituted heir of all the promises given to Israel and committed to it the power of the keys (St. Matt. 28:19-20; 16:17-19; 18:15-18). (New Testament Handbook [1939], p. 103)

The Church was founded by the apostles through the outpouring of the Holy Ghost and the institution of Baptism. From the Day of Pentecost the requirement for all who would connect themselves with the Church was that they should be baptised in the name of Jesus Christ unto the remission of their sins (Acts 2:38,41; 8:12; 10:48; 18:8). The Lord’s Supper was also observed and became the central bond of union by which the Church was preserved in brotherly fellowship in common participation in the doctrine of the apostles and in prayer (Acts 2:42). This fellowship expressed itself in provision for the poor through the voluntary selling of possessions and the turning of proceeds from the same into the common treasury (Acts 4:37; 5:4). When the multiplications of such service made it burdensome to the apostles, they called upon the congregation to choose suitable men to take charge of it (Acts 6:2-6). This was the introduction of an entirely new office, the diaconate. While in the passage noted the Seven are nowhere called deacons, their function is designated as a serving, a diakonein, from which the name deacon is derived. The function of serving tables did not, however, prevent such among them as were qualified, as, e.g., Philip and Stephen, from preaching the Word. The office of elder, on the other hand, which is incidentally introduced in Acts 11:30, was a familiar office in the synagogue, and was taken over into the Church immediately upon its organisation. The apostles, relieved of administering the benevolences of the Church, were now free to devote themselves to their specific work, the preaching of the Gospel and prayer. (New Testament Handbook, pp. 121-22)

The Church, or the body of believers, is according to Peter the realisation of the ideal of the Israelitish theocracy, thus constituting an elect race to which only believers among the Israelites belong and from which all unbelievers are excluded (I Pet. 2:7-9). Gentiles received into the Church through Baptism are joined to the elect race. ... The Christian Church now became heir of all the prerogatives and privileges formerly pertaining to the Old Testament Priesthood, and constituted the house in which God dwells (I Pet. 4:17). Its members are a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God’s own possession, and as such form a brotherhood (I Pet. 2:9-10; 2:17; 4:17; 5:9). As constituting a brotherhood Christians are under obligation to show brotherly love toward one another, to serve one another faithfully, and to be humble and meek in their bearing toward each other (I Pet. 2:17; 5:12; 1:22; 3:8; 5:5; 3:15). Peter also clearly defines the duties of elders or pastors, as those who are entrusted with the care and oversight of the Church (I Pet. 5:2-3). (New Testament Handbook, pp. 123-24)

In the matter of the active participation of women in the conduct[ing] of public meetings in the Church, the apostle [Paul] no uncertain decision; but clearly forbids it on the ground of the fundamental distinction between the sexes in the order of creation; this is clearly brought out in such passages as I Cor. 14:34, with which compare I Cor. 11:8-9, and is amply substantiated in I Tim. 2:11-14. No true exegesis can get around this fact. (New Testament Handbook, p. 157)

In treating of the government of the Church various officers are mentioned [by Paul], and instructions are given for the guidance of their conduct toward different classes in the community (Tit. 2:1-6,9-10; I Tim. 5:1; 6:1,17-19). The office bearers are termed bishops, presbyters, deacons, and deaconesses, and a temporary order, that of widows, is described. The qualifications of these office holders are set forth and suitable exhortations are given them (I Tim. 3:1-7; 4:6,13,16; 6:2; Tit. 1:5-9; 2:7; II Tim. 2:24-25; 4:2,5; 3:10,14; I Tim. 3:8-13; 5:9-16). It is clear from Tit. 1:5-7 that bishops and presbyters or elders designate holders of one and the same office. (New Testament Handbook, pp. 170-71)

This Article [Augsburg Confession V] emphasizes the means of grace; or we may say it tells us how justifying faith is obtained, the leading thought of the Article being that justifying faith is obtained through the Word and the Sacraments. The Article might simply have said that this occurs through the preaching of the Word, which is quite true, as Rom. 10:17 clearly shows; but the situation called for the mentioning of the ministry of the Gospel as the divine institution through which God creates faith in the hearts of men. In pursuing this course there is no intention of conveying the idea that the means of grace are dependent upon the ministry for their validity or that pastors form an order in any sense. It is consistently maintained that the ministry of the Word is divinely appointed. ... God instituted the office of administering the means of grace that men might have justifying faith. In Article III [of the Augsburg Confession] it was shown that God has done everything that was necessary for the eternal salvation of man; that Christ, through His death, has made full satisfaction for men’s sins; and that sins are now forgiven for Christ’s sake. In Article IV it is asserted, upon the plain teaching of God’s Word, that men are justified and saved through faith, and through faith alone. The question that now arises is, How do we obtain this faith, which is so necessary for us? In other words, Whence comes the power to believe, or to receive by faith, the Savior and His glorious salvation? This important question the Article proceeds to answer. ...our Article maintains “that we may obtain this faith, the ministry of teaching the Gospel and administering the Sacraments was instituted.” In these words we have a strong defense of the Word and Sacraments as the means of grace through which the Holy Spirit works faith. That these are sufficient for the production of faith, the following Scripture passages fully show: “For I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ; for it is the power of God unto salvation to everyone that believeth.” Rom. 1:16. “For our Gospel came not unto you in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in much assurance.” 1 Thess. 1:5. “Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world.” Matt. 28:19,20. “Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you; as My Father hath sent Me even so send I you. And when He had said this, He breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost; whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whosesoever sins ye retain, they are retained.” John 20:21-23. “Nevertheless, I tell you the truth; it is expedient for you that I go away; for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send Him unto you.” John 16:7. “Howbeit when He, the Spirit of truth, is come, He will guide you into all truth; for He shall not speak of Himself; but whatsoever He shall hear, that shall He speak; and He will show you things to come. He shall glorify Me; for He shall receive of Mine and shall show it unto you. All things that the Father hath are Mine; therefore said I that He shall take of Mine and shall show it unto you.” John 16:13-15. Another passage in proof of the Lord’s institution of the office of teaching the Gospel and administering the Sacraments is the following: “And He gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists, and some, pastors and teachers; for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ.” Eph. 4:11. Our Article here makes mention of the Gospel only. This it does designedly, because it is through it alone, not through the Law, that faith is obtained. According to the teaching of this Article the whole purpose of the divinely instituted ministry is that men may come to faith and receive the salvation that has been so richly provided for them in Christ Jesus. (Lutheran Confessional Theology [Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1943], pp. 33-36)

This Article [Augsburg Confession XIV], though brief, is of great importance. Over against the Socinians, Anabaptists, Quakers, and other sects that oppose a public ministry, it emphasizes the call of the Church as a true call of God. It also answers the charge of the Roman Catholics who regarded the Reformers, in view of their definition of the Church (as being essentially the congregation of true believers), as denying the validity of the call. ... This Article lays down the divine order in which the public administration of the means of grace is to take place. God has ordained the Word and the Sacraments as the means of applying the blessings and benefits of the redemption provided for all men through the sacrifice of His Son Jesus Christ, our Lord. These means are to be administered. Their administration is entrusted to His Church, i.e., to believers, with the assurance that they are just as effective in their hands as when directly administered by Himself. Proof for this is given in the following passages: “As My Father hath sent Me, even so send I you.” John 20:21. “He that heareth you, heareth Me.” Luke 10:16. A fundamental point here is that the means of grace are entrusted to believers. It follows as a matter of course that believers unite with one another and form themselves into congregations in which provision is made for the administration of the means of grace among themselves. All believers in any such congregation have equal rights and the same duties and obligations. But as only confusion would arise if all undertook to perform the public functions, the administration of these means must, for the sake of good order, be delegated to a certain individual or to certain individuals who have the requisite qualifications and whom the congregation calls for this purpose. The office of the ministry is of divine institution; and God Himself has ordained that suitable persons shall be chosen for this office, as the following passages show: “And God hath set some in the Church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues.” 1 Cor. 12:28. “And how shall they preach, except they be sent?” Rom. 10:15. The congregation of believers, and it alone, has the right to call properly qualified men to this office. And their call is just as much a divine call as if it had come directly from the Lord Himself. Such special call is necessary for the administration of the public functions of the ministry. The calling of the seven deacons as narrated in Acts 6 is an example. Various theories as to how the individual receives the call to the ministry are held. Some contend that the power to administer the means of grace was given to the ministry as an order in the Church. Others hold that it was given to the Apostles and was by them handed down to their successors, the bishops. Another view was that the supreme power was given to St. Peter and from him was passed on to his successors, the popes. All these theories rest upon the assumption that the Church is a ruling body. Consequently such theories will be rejected wherever the true conception of the Church is held. Likewise to be rejected are all theories which divide the Church into different orders, or classes, such as the ministry and the laity. The right of the Church to elect her own ministers is expressly laid down in the Smalcald Articles, which declare: “Where the Church exists, there is always the command to preach the Gospel. Therefore the Churches must retain the power of calling, electing, and ordaining ministers.” As it is the prerogative of the congregation of believers to call properly qualified individuals to discharge the public duties of the ministry on their behalf and as their representatives, no one should presume to arrogate this office to himself without a regular call. To do so would be to sin against the divine order. Members of the congregation in calling a minister to perform these public functions do not abdicate their rights, gifts, or privileges as kings and priests to whom the Lord has committed the means of grace. They still retain all their rights and privileges as spiritual priests and still administer them in their private capacity. They simply appoint someone as a minister to discharge the public functions which they cannot discharge directly in their own persons. They hold the person appointed as pastor responsible for the right conduct of his office. At the same time such a pastor is also responsible to the Lord, who has called him through His Church. Hence the Church, which is responsible to the Lord for the public discharge of the office according to His will, must insist that no one should publicly preach in the Church or administer the Sacraments unless he be rightly called. (Lutheran Confessional Theology, pp. 77-80)

The Article [Augsburg Confession XXV] begins by...declaring that Confession is not abolished in our churches. Far from this being the case – they add – the usual practice among us is not to communicate the body and blood of our Lord except to those who have been previously examined and absolved. ... The minister, as Christ’s servant, pronounces absolution in Christ’s name and by His authority upon all who truly repent and are heartily sorry for their sins. In every such case it is the Lord Himself speaking through the mouth of His servant. Ministers are but the public agents of the congregation in this matter. As such public agent, however, the pastor is not to administer the Communion indiscriminately, but is to see to it that the people examine themselves and is under obligation to guard against unworthy participation in the Sacrament by the communicants. ... With us Confession is a voluntary matter. Our ministers are not judges, but evangelical pastors, spiritual physicians, ministering comfort and consolation to all who truly lament and confess their sins. (Lutheran Confessional Theology, pp. 125-27)

The not a kingdom of this world. Its only authority is that of the Gospel; and its sole purpose is to deliver men from eternal death and condemnation caused by sin. The Lord Jesus Christ, the great Head of the Church, gave to His Church no other power than that of preaching the Gospel, administering the Sacraments, and of remitting and retaining sins. ... The Article [Augsburg Confession XXVIII] declares that bishops, as those to whom the means of grace are committed, have no other jurisdiction than to remit sin, to inquire into doctrine and reject such as is inconsistent with the Gospel, and to exclude manifest sinners from the Church’s communion. In these matters obedience should be rendered to them according to the saying of Christ: “He that heareth you heareth Me.” Luke 10:16. But when the bishops act contrary to the Gospel, obedience is forbidden by Christ. Whatever other power or jurisdiction bishops may have, they exercise not by divine, but by human right. (Lutheran Confessional Theology, pp. 134-35)

The pastor’s chief function is to administer the Means of Grace. The commission laid upon him by His Lord is to “preach the Gospel” [Mark 16:15], to “preach the Word” [2 Tim. 4:2]; and nothing can take the place of that. St. Paul is a good example of this when he says, “I determined not to know anything among you, save Jesus Christ, and Him crucified” [1 Cor. 2:2]. He made Jesus Christ and His redemption central. (Disputed Doctrines [Burlington, Iowa: Lutheran Literary Board, 1933], p. 114)

Doctrine of the Call to the Ministry: On this subject there is general agreement in our Lutheran Church. Some writers, however, have introduced confusion on it by first dividing the Church into two classes, the clergy and the laity, and by claiming that the rights of both these parties are to be recognized in extending a call. Others, and these are even more numerous, have obscured the clear teaching on this matter by dividing the Call into an internal and an external call. The Call may be defined as the election and designation of a man for the work of the ministry. This call is not immediate, but mediate. It is grounded upon the spiritual priesthood of believers; but is not to be identified with it, since believers do not give up any of the functions of their spiritual priesthood. They simply call men to fill the divinely-instituted office of the ministry and to exercise the public functions of the spiritual priesthood of all believers. This call may be the call of the congregation to the pastorate, or the call of the representative Church to the mission field or to professorships in a theological seminary, or executive offices in the Church, or to any other work in which the Church may be engaged, or which it may find it necessary to perform. The division of the Church into two classes, the clergy and the laity, implies two orders and is a first step toward a hierarchical view of the Church. The call extended by the congregation or by the representative Church, though a mediate call, is a divine call and is ascribed in the Scriptures to God, to the Holy Spirit, and to Christ. (Cf. 1 Cor. 12:28; 4:1; Acts 13:2; Acts 20:28). The call above described is the only call to the ministry. The so-called inner call is due to Calvinistic or Reformed influence. ... It is quite true that no young man should put himself in a course of training and so in a position to receive a call unless he is thoroughly convinced through the Scriptures that the Lord would have him enter upon this work. He should have this inner conviction that this is the life-work his Lord would have him do; but this call is not a call to the ministry. This matter has been set forth very clearly by Dr. [Joseph] Stump in his dogmatic, The Christian Faith: “There is no inner call to the ministry, but only the external call of the Church. There is, however, an inner conviction of the individual that he ought to become a minister, which is wrought by the Holy Ghost through the Word and which is sometimes spoken of as an inner call. But this is a mistaken use of the word ‘call,’ and is calculated to lead to confusion. An inner call in the true sense of the word would have to be an immediate one; and no immediate calls are any longer given. Men have sometimes imagined that they have had an ‘inner call’ when it was painfully evident to everyone else that they had neither the requisite natural gifts nor the proper training for the office” [p. 379]. This sane and sensible view of the matter is highly commended. (Disputed Doctrines, pp. 58-59)

Question of Admission of Women to Church Offices: This at the present hour a very contentious question, and one on which the Church will soon have to take a definite stand. ... A few years ago demand was made that women be granted voting power in the Church. This was generally acceded to without serious questioning. Then, here and there, women were elected and sent as delegates to synods or conferences. Another step that followed was the seeking of positions on Church Councils of the congregations, which may already have taken place in a few instances. The next and final stage will be the admission of women into the pastorate. Happily for the present [in 1933] the Church still stands firm on this question, but how long it will do so no one can tell. Since we have no confessional declaration on this subject, how is the matter to be decided? Manifestly, only by the teaching of God’s Word. Here are two passages that are very explicit. The first of these is 1 Cor. 14:34, “Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but let them be in subjection, as also saith the law.” And in the next verse it is said, “for it is a shame for women to speak in the church.” In this passage, and in general throughout the chapter, St. Paul is giving counsel for decency and orderliness in the public worship of the congregation where both men and women are assembled for common public worship. He is careful to explain what he means by their “keeping silence” in the churches. It is that they are not to be allowed to speak or address the congregation, or preach a sermon. It carries with it no restraint from engaging in the general worship, or hymns, or songs of praise rendered to God. An easy way of getting around this prohibition is to say that it is counsel or advice no longer applicable to our enlightened age, or to aver that it pertains only to the local conditions at Corinth. But there is no evidence of this, and it is a dangerous resort, according to which one may easily rid himself of any obligation that appears to him disagreeable or unreasonable. These are the words of an inspired Apostle; and they do not merely lay down a principle, but establish a definite rule governing public worship in a congregation composed of mixed sexes. The other passage bearing upon this point is 1 Tim. 2:11-13, which reads, “Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. For Adam was first formed, then Eve.” Here we have, as in the preceding passage, silence again enjoined, and that not once, but twice. Here again we have the silence explained as not suffering a woman to “teach,” and in addition to this the implication that in so doing she is exercising dominion over man – a dominion which does not belong to her according to the order of creation: “For Adam was first formed, then Eve.” This passage not only excludes women from the pastorate, but also from every other office in the church in which she would be “exercising dominion over the man.” This certainly excludes her from the church councils of the congregations, where such authority is exercised. It does not exclude her from doing Christian service among those of her own sex, or from teaching in the Sunday School, or from rendering a service of praise in the choir, or from becoming a deaconess and discharging the ministry of mercy and love, for which she is peculiarly fitted; neither does it exclude her from becoming a missionary, where women can so often only be reached by women. It leaves a wide sphere of activity open to women for faithful and laudable service; but not the ministry or the subordinate office of those who are the minister’s assistants and who with him bear rule in the congregation, or in the conferences or synods. Advocates of “women’s rights” here seek to get over this by appealing to other passages of Scripture which speak of the perfect equality of believers before the Lord. (This is precisely the argument of those fanatical sects that admit women to the ministry.) Such a passage is Gal. 3:28: “There is neither Jew or Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye all are one in Christ Jesus.” Similar passages are 1 Cor. 12:13; Gal. 5:6; Col. 3:11. But to introduce these passages is only to darken the issue. These passages have to do with the spiritual relation in which the believer, whatever his outward condition, stands to his Lord as a member of His mystical body, the Church. They have nothing whatever to do with the Church in its organized form. The gifts of divine grace render all conditions of men alike before the Lord; but they do not in any way affect the order of creation by which God made them male and female and differentiated them. ... This view may be old-fashioned and contrary to the trend of the age, the progress of which we may not be able to stem; but to be faithful to the Scriptures we must not be silent, but let the voice of our protest be heard. (Disputed Doctrines, pp. 69-72)

The Church as we now understand it came into existence on the Day of Pentecost, and exists wherever the Word and the Sacraments are rightly dispensed. Christ in Matt. 16:18 speaks of His Church as still future, though believers in the promise of a coming Redeemer in Old Testament times are regarded as included in the Church. ... The Church in the proper sense as the fellowship of believers is identical with the Kingdom of God on earth. ... Congregations are formed by the banding together of believers for the administration of the Means of Grace, for common worship, common strengthening of faith, common testimony, and common efforts for the extension of the Church’s work. No form of government is enjoined in the New Testament, where bishop and presbyter are manifestly designations of one and the same office (see Tit. 1:5,7). It is the duty of the church therefore to adopt such form of government as is best adapted to its circumstances. The pastor of the local congregation is in full charge of the administration of the Means of Grace and of spiritual leadership, and [of] local affairs. He is assisted by a definite number of deacons chosen by the congregation to compose the Church Council. ... Congregations unite in synods for the purpose of more effectively carrying out such works as education, missions, mercy, and the like, which cannot be undertaken very well by congregations acting alone. The synod thus organized has only such powers as are delegated to it by the congregations composing it. The congregation, as the primary unit, has the right to test all the actions and decisions of the synod as to their harmony with the Scriptures and the Confessions of the Church. ... Church necessary for the protection of the purity of the Church in life and doctrine. The Church is in duty bound to see to it that its pastors preach the Gospel in its purity and that its people lead holy lives in accordance with the Gospel which they have professed. Both the minister and the laymen are subject to the discipline of the Church. The pastor’s responsibilities are here greater than those of the layman. He may be disciplined for preaching false doctrine and also for conduct unbecoming his office. The penalty is to be inflicted by the president of synod as its executive officer. The power of the keys is exercised by the pastor in the congregation either in public confession and absolution or in private confession. It involves as penalties, admonition and reproof, exclusion from the Lord’s Supper, and excommunication from the Church. ... The specific work which the Lord has entrusted to His Church is the evangelisation of the world, which the Church is to accomplish through the Means of Grace, through which the Holy Spirit regenerates and sanctifies sinners. The Church is the human agency in administering the means through which the Holy Spirit works. (“The Church,” unpublished seminary lecture notes)

The ministry is the office of administering the Word and Sacraments, an office which God has committed to the church for the evangelisation of the world. This office does not devolve upon every individual Christian, but was specifically placed in the hands of certain individuals. The first of these were the apostles; but the office is not to be identified with the apostolate, which was larger and more comprehensive. The apostles were especially trained and prepared for their work by Christ and [were] endowed with the gift of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost. They were also personal witness[es] of the facts they proclaimed, possessed an inspired knowledge of the truth they proclaimed, had the gift of performing miracles, and had the world as their parish. They had no successors. The apostles, however, required and had helpers, such as Timothy, Titus, et al. Various offices sprang up in the Church in accordance with her needs and as a result of God’s will (cf. I Cor. 12:28, Eph. 4:11). The most important of these were those of bishop and deacon (I Tim. 3). These offices were filled through appointment by an apostle, or election by the congregation, or both. The Church may appoint other offices according as her needs require; but the office of the ministry of the Word and Sacraments must remain (Rom. 10:14-15). The ministry is not identical with the apostolate, but is the office of the Word and Sacraments. The minister’s parish is not the world, but a definitely circumscribed field. The ministry is also not an order. As a Christian man he [the minister] remains on a level with his fellow-believers and has no preeminence or special privileges, but as wielding certain powers and bearing certain responsibilities, he is entitled to a certain respect and honour. The ministry is also not a priesthood. The only priesthood recognised in the New Testament are the high priesthood of Christ and the priesthood of all believers (I Pet. 2:5,9). The ministry is an office of the Word and Sacraments, indispensable for their proper administration. The calling of a pastor is the appointment of an individual to fill an office which belongs to the whole congregation of believers. Since in the New Testament bishop and presbyter are identical, no episcopate exists by divine right, and there is no such thing as [the] apostolic succession of bishops, although the episcopacy may be admitted as a matter of expediency, by human right. ... The ministry is an office not to be assumed by anyone without a call. The mediate call, i.e. the call which comes through the Church, is now the only call that is given. This excludes the so-called “inner call,” which is not a call in the true sense of the word. And while there should be an inner conviction wrought by the Holy Spirit through the Word that God would have the individual concerned become a minister, this is not an actual call. The actual call is that which comes through the Church, and is a mediate, not an immediate, call. ordinarily carried out by synodical authority. Ordination is not a sacrament, nor does it convey any special gift through the laying on of hands, but [it] is a rite through which the Church sets its approval on the person ordained as fitted for the office to which he has been called, and solemnly sets him apart for it with prayer for God’s blessing upon him in it. Installation, which usually follows ordination and is somewhat similar to it, certifies to the parish that the person in question is their authorised pastor, who obligates himself to care for them in their spiritual wants, and to whom they are to show honour, respect, and obedience in the Lord. It is the call, not ordination, which makes a man a minister. This call must be a call to a definite work. It is never permissible to ordain without a call. ... The administration of the Word and Sacraments is not to be undertaken without a regular call (see [Joseph Stump, The Christian Faith,] p. 382 infra). The sphere of work is determined by the particular field to which the pastor has been called, but is to be regarded as involving the unchurched in that community. The chief duty of ministers is that of preaching the Word (II Tim. 4:2). On this he is to concentrate, that he may become an efficient instrument of the Holy Ghost in preaching the Word in its truth and purity, and declaring to men the whole will and counsel of God through proclaiming both Law and Gospel in proper proportions. He is also to administer the Sacraments with due solemnity and reverence, and to impress upon his people their importance. Demitting the ministry: With us the adage does not hold, “Once a minister always a minister.” A man may lay down the ministry and enter upon a secular pursuit, or the Church, exercising its power of discipline, may depose him from the ministry. ... Deacons and deaconesses...are assistants to the pastors, to minister to the temporal and physical needs of the Church. Deaconesses have given themselves over to the discharge of works of mercy, and are employed in large parishes, and in hospitals, dispensaries, orphanages, homes for the aged, and the like. Both deacons and deaconesses should be of sound Christian character and zealous of good works. (“The Ministry,” unpublished seminary lecture notes)

C. H. Little (1872-1958) taught theology at the Evangelical Lutheran Seminary of Canada in Waterloo, Ontario. This seminary was affiliated with the United Lutheran Church in America.

Return to the Lutheran Theology Web Site Home Page