Zhao4: A descendent of the legendary Emperor Zhuan1 Xu4 named Zao4 Fu4 became chariot driver for Zhou Mu Wang, and was granted the domain of Zhao4, today's Zhaocheng County, Shanxi province; his descendants took the place name as their surname.

The Three Kingdoms had Zhao Yun (cloud) of Changshan, Zhen1ding4, a place south of today's Zheng4ding4 in Hebei Province; his title is Zi3Long2, (Sir Dragon). He led an army to the dashing rescue of Liu Bei and to many other victories; Liu Bei said of Zhao that his entire body was made of spleen.

Zhao is also the surname of the Song Dynasty's founder Zhao Kuangyin and subsequent ruling family. Hence it is the first surname in this work, a product of his time.

Zhao Yuanren (Y.R. Jauh) was a brilliant early twentieth century scholar in the field of applied linguistics who studied the Chinese language and contributed heavily to the modernization and unification of China and the Chinese language.

Qian2: Fu2 Zeng1, a descendant of the legendary Emperor Zhuan Xu, served as qian2 fu4 shang4 shi4, an official in charge of minting coins, and those who followed used the name of his post as a surname; qian2 commonly means coins, money.

Many great scholars have had the surname Qian. At the end of the Ming and beginning of Qing, Qian Qianyi of Changre, in today's Jiangsu Province, achieved fame in letters and is known as one of the "Three Giants of Jiangzuo". Later came Qian Dongqun of Jiaxing, now in Zhejiang, widely versed in the old and new, whom people called "The Elder of Jiangsu-Zhejiang" who often composed and recited poetry for the Emperor Qian Long. There was also the famous prefect and examiner Qian Daxin from Jiading, now part of Shanghai City. He served vigorously in Shandong, Hunan, Zhejiang and elsewhere as inspector general; after retirement he immersed himself in the rural life and study and is famed for his deep knowledge of Confucianism.

Sun1: Zhou Wen Wang had a descendant named Hui4 {grace) Sun1, who served as a top official of the sate of Wei4 (guard). Hui Sun's offspring took their ancestor's given name as their surname.

Sun Wu, who was versed in military tactics and strategy, lived in the Warring States period and wrote "Sunzi Bingfa," known as "The Art of War" and read with great interest by military men to this very day. His descendant Sun Bing had his feet amputated (the yuexing punishment) by General Pang Sun of Wei4 (grain-woman-ghost) but was rescued by operatives from Qi2; The King of Qi entrusted him with a high post and an army; he dug his forces in, lured Pang Sun into his earthworks and killed him with a barrage of arrows.

During the Three Kingdoms there was the illustrious ruler Sun Quan of Wu2, who carried out a plan against the Cao Wei. And in the late 19th and early 20th century, Dr. Sun Yixian, also known as Sun Wen or Sun Zhongshan was the founder of the modern Chinese state and author of San Min Zhu Yi, The Three Principles of the People. These were The Chinese People, their Sovereignty, and their Livelihood.

Li3: The legendary Emperor Yao ordered one Gao1 Tao2 to take the post of Da4 Li3, the Great Reasonings, a high councilor of state. His family and offspring were surnamed after his office, li3, and in ancient times this character, the jade/king radical plus village meaning principle, reason was also understood as li3 now meaning pear, then peach as well as the name of the office. Li3 is really a big name in history and so many have come forth. Li is the second most common Chinese surname after bow-radical Zhang, and Zhangsan Lisi, "every third Zhang and fourth Li" means everybody.

The Warring States had the Qin Prime Minister Li Si, who helped Ying Zheng wipe out the Six Kingdoms and become Shi Huang Di, the First Emperor of Qin. And Han Wu Di had the services of the famed "Flying General" Li Guang.

Li Shimin was the wise and capable founder of the Tang Dynasty. A series of famous poets, artists, officials and scientists down through history have been surnamed Li, such as the poets Li Bo, Li He and Li Shangyin of the Tang, the brilliant Song poetess Li Qingzhao and painter Li Gonglin, and the renowned Ming physician Li Shizhen. The Ming dynasty concluded with the peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng. The late Qing period brought forth the official, general and diplomat Li Hongzhang, who is identified with decline, surrender and humiliation at the end of China's last imperial dynasty. The militarist Li Yuanhong played an acive role in the Wuhan Revolt that ended the Qing; Li Dazhao was a Beijing University professor who embraced Marxism and influence the young Mao Zedong during the New Culture Movement, later to be murdered by the warlord Wu Peifu.

Li Lisan led the Chinese Communist Party for a while in the early 1930s at Ruijin, Jiangxi, before Chairman Mao's leadership. The great geologist Li Siguang, 1889-1971, pioneered earthquake prediction and the location of energy resources in the earth, including petroleum and geothermal energy, and contributed to paleontology.

Zhou1: The Zhou tribe originated on the loess soil plateau, and moved to Zhouyuan, Qishan, nowadays Qishan in Shaanxi Province; the tribal and place name Zhou later became a surname.

Zhou Chu of the Western Jin, a native of today's Yixing in Jiangsu Province, was an infamous youth in his village. When he found out that his neighbors called him one of the "Three Terrors" of the area, along with a man-eating tiger and a fierce dragon, he immediately battled and slew both creatures, then reformed himself and went down in history as a righteous man.

Zhou Dunyi, philosopher of the Northern Song, 1017-1073, was a Hunan native, also known as Lian Xi Xiansheng. He developed the metaphysical chart of taiji, a major contribution to the philosophical system of Song Neoconfucianism, and was a strong influence on Zhu Xi (1130-1200) and others.

In recent times, Zhou Enlai (1898-1976) was a famous Chinese revolutionary, wartime military leader and later world-renowned diplomat and beloved Prime Minister of the People's Republic of China. And the modern author Lu Xun's original name was Zhou Shuren.

Wu2: According to legend, the state of Wu2 was founded by Tai4 Bo2, Count of Tai, the paternal uncle of Zhou Wen Wang (Ji Chang). Later generations took the country's name as surname.

In the Warring States period of the Zhou, Wu2 Qi3 and Sun1 Wu3 were famed military leaders, now known together as "Sun-Wu".

At the end of the Qin, there arose an important revolt under the command of one Wu2 Guang3.

During the Tang there lived the court painter Wu2 Dao4zi3, famed for is perfection in human portrayals. The greatness of his skills seemed mysteriously endowed, and he is still known as the "Sage of Painting".

Wu2 Cheng2'eng1 of the Ming wrote the great novel "Journey to the West" ("Xi You Ji").

The Qing period author Wu2 Jing4zi3 spent ten years in creation of his great literary depiction of the dark side of the literati and government of old China in his epic work "Unofficial History of the Scholars" ("Rulin Waishi").


Wang2: (Under construction)

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