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The True Object of Worship

- Kanjin no Honzon Sho -

Lord Toki I have received the summer kimono, three sumi inksticks, and five writing brushes. I have written down some of my thoughts concerning the true object of worship and I am sending the treatise to you, Ota, Soya and the others. It concerns a very important matter, the purpose of my advent. Only those who are strong in faith and open-minded should be allowed to read it. The treatise contains much criticism and few answers. What it reveals, however, has never been heard of before, and is bound to startle those who read or hear of it. Even if you show it to others, never let three or four persons read it together at a time. In the twenty-two hundred and twenty odd years since the Buddha's passing, the ideas contained in the heart of this treatise have never been revealed before. Despite all the official persecutions befalling me, I expound it now at the beginning of the fifth half-millennium, when the time is ripe for its propagation. I hope those who read it will remain firm in their faith so that both master and disciples can climb Eagle Peak together to pay their respects to Shakyamuni, Taho, and all the other Buddhas in the universe.

With my deep respect,

The twenty-sixth day of the fourth month in the tenth year of Bun'ei (1273).

Nichiren, the Shramana of Japan

Volume Five of the Maka Shikan states: "A single entity of life is endowed with the Ten Worlds. At the same time, each of the Ten Worlds is endowed with all the others, so that an entity of life actually possesses one hundred worlds. Each of these worlds in turn possesses thirty realms,1 which means that in the one hundred worlds there are three thousand realms. The three thousand realms of existence are all possessed by a single entity of life. If there is no life, that is the end of the matter. But if there is the slightest bit of life, it contains all the three thousand realms.... This is what we mean when we speak of the 'region of the unfathomable.'" Note: "Three thousand realms" might also read "three thousand factors," but the number is the same. The only difference lies in the method of expansion.2 Another text of the Maka Shikan states: "One world possesses the three realms of existence."3

Question: Is the principle of ichinen sanzen [the three thousand realms in a single entity of life] explained in the Hokke Gengi?
Answer: Miao-lo states that it is not.

Question: Then is it explained in the Hokke Mongu?
Answer: Miao-lo states that it is not.

Question: What are his exact words?
Answer: He says, "Neither of the two mentions ichinen sanzen."

Question: Is it explained in any of the first four volumes of the Maka Shikan?
Answer: No, it is not.

Question: What proof is there of this?
Answer: Miao-lo says, "When at last he revealed in the Maka Shikan how to perceive the true nature of life, he at the same time employed the 'three thousand realms' as a way to understand."4

Question: Volume Two of the Hokke Gengi states: "Each of the Ten Worlds contains the other nine, and in those one hundred worlds are one thousand factors." Volume One of the Hokke Mongu states: "Each cognitive faculty5 possesses the Ten Worlds, each of which again includes all of the ten within itself. Since each of those hundred worlds possesses the ten factors, the total becomes one thousand." In the Kannon Gengi6 appears this statement: "The Ten Worlds are all mutually inclusive, thus making one hundred worlds. One thousand factors are inherent within life. Even though they are not visible, all life by its nature possesses all of them."

Is ichinen sanzen mentioned in the first four volumes of the Maka Shikan?
Answer: Miao-lo says not.

Question: What does he say exactly?
Answer: Volume Five of the Guketsu reads: "In comparison with Chapter Seven,7 the preceding chapters do not perfectly describe practice in its totality. But they contain the twenty-five preparatory exercises8 which lead to understanding, and thus, they provide the way to full practice. The first six chapters, then, are all meant to bring understanding." Also in the same volume: "When at last he revealed in the Maka Shikan how to perceive the true nature of life, he at the same time employed the 'three thousand realms' as a way to understand. This is the ultimate truth of his teachings. That is why Chang-an stated in his introduction: 'The Maka Shikan reveals the teaching that T'ien-t'ai himself practiced in the depths of his being.' He had good reason for saying this. I hope that those who read the Maka Shikan and seek to understand it must not let their minds be distracted by anything else."

The Great Sage9 propagated his teachings for thirty years. During the first twenty- nine years he expounded the doctrines contained in the Hokke Gengi, Hokke Mongu, and other works. Through them he explained the five periods and the eight teachings as well as the one hundred worlds and the one thousand factors. He not only refuted the erroneous doctrines of the preceding five centuries, but at the same time clarified matters that had not been fully explained by Buddhist scholars of India. Chang-an states: "Even the great masters of India were not in a class with him, and the Chinese scholars -- well, one need hardly mention them. This is no idle boast -- the doctrine he taught was indeed of such excellence."10 How pitiful that T'ien-t'ai's successors allowed those thieves, the founders of the Kegon and Shingon sects, to steal the priceless gem of ichinen sanzen and then, ironically, became their followers! Chang-an was fully aware this would happen when he remarked in sorrow, "If this principle should become lost, it would be a tragedy for the future."11

Question: What is the difference between the principle of the one hundred worlds of the one thousand factors, and that of ichinen sanzen, the three thousand realms of life?
Answer: The former concerns only sentient beings, the latter applies to both sentient and insentient beings.

Question: If insentient beings possess the ten factors, is it correct to assume that plants and trees have minds and can attain Buddhahood like sentient beings?
Answer: This is a matter that is difficult to believe and difficult to understand. T'ien-t'ai defined two points that are "difficult to believe" And "difficult to understand." One lies in the realm of the Buddha's teachings and the other in the realm of his enlightenment. In the sutras preached before the Lotus Sutra we read that adherents of the doctrines of the two vehicles and people of incorrigible disbelief are forever barred from attaining Buddhahood, and that Shakyamuni for the first time attained enlightenment in this world. However, we find that the first and second halves of the Lotus Sutra repudiate both these statements. One Buddha who says two things as opposite as fire and water -- who could believe him? This is the point "difficult to believe" and "difficult to understand" in the realm of the Buddha's teachings. The point "difficult to believe" And "difficult to understand" In the realm of his enlightenment concerns the principle of ichinen sanzen, which explains that even insentient beings possess the ten factors of life, and that they possess both material and spiritual aspects of life.

Both the Buddhist and non-Buddhist scriptures permit wooden or painted images to be used as objects of worship, but T'ien-t'ai and his followers were the first to explain the principle behind this act. If a piece of wood or paper did not have both material and spiritual aspects, or lacked the inherent cause to manifest a spiritual nature, then it would be futile to rely upon it as an object of worship.

Question: What authority do you have for stating that a plant, a tree or a land manifests cause and effect, or the ten factors?
Answer: Volume Five of the Maka Shikan says: "A land of this world also has the ten factors. Thus an evil land has appearance, nature, entity, power and so on." Volume Five of the Shakusen states: "Appearance exists only in what is material, nature exists only in what is spiritual. Entity, power, influence, and relation in principle combine both the material and the spiritual. Inherent cause and latent effect are purely spiritual; manifest effect exists only in what is material." The Kongobei-ron12 states: A plant, a tree, a pebble, a speck of dust -- each has the innate Buddha nature, along with the other causes and conditions needed to attain Buddhahood."

Question: You have told us about the sources of this doctrine. Now what is meant by kanjin?
Answer: Kanjin means to observe one's own mind and to find the Ten Worlds within it. This is what is called kanjin ("observing the mind"). For example, though one can see the six sense organs of other people, he cannot see the six sense organs on his own face. Only when he looks into a clear mirror for the first time does he see that he is equipped with all six sense organs. Similarly, various sutras make reference here and there to the six paths and the four noble worlds [that constitute the Ten Worlds], but only in the clear mirror of the Lotus Sutra and T'ien-t'ai's Maka Shikan can one see his own three thousand conditions -- the Ten Worlds, their mutual possession, and the thousand factors.

Question: What part of the Lotus Sutra do you refer to, and what section of the Maka Shikan?
Answer: Chapter Two, Hoben-bon, of the Lotus Sutra states that the Buddhas appear in this world "to open the door of Buddha-wisdom to all beings." This refers to the fact that all the nine worlds possess the realm of Buddhahood. Chapter Sixteen, Juryo-hon, states: "Since I attained Buddhahood, an unimaginably long period has passed. The length of my life is infinite aeons. My life has always existed and shall never end. Men of devout faith, once I also practiced the bodhisattva austerities and the life which I then acquired has yet to be exhausted. My life will last yet twice as many aeons from now." Here the sutra refers to the realm of Buddhahood which includes all of the other nine worlds.

The sutra states: "Devadatta shall become a Buddha called Devaraja."13 This indicates that the world of Hell also contains the world of Buddhahood. In the sutra it is stated: "There are ten female demons, the first named Lamba.... [The Buddha says to them:] 'You will receive immeasurable good fortune if only you will protect those who embrace the title of the Lotus Sutra.'"14 Thus, the world of Hunger contains all the Ten Worlds. When the sutra says: "The Dragon King's daughter...attained enlightenment,"15 it indicates that the world of Animality has the Ten Worlds. The sutra says that Balin ashura and the other ashura kings will attain enlightenment upon hearing even a single verse or phrase of the sutra.16 The sutra says: "all people who [erect statues to] honor the Buddha...have attained Buddhahood,"17 meaning that the world of Humanity contains the Ten Worlds. The sutra states that the heavenly gods, led by Mahabrahman, declared: "We shall attain enlightenment."18 Thus the world of heaven contains the Ten Worlds.

The sutra says: "Shariputra, in one of your lives to will become a Buddha called Padmaprabha."19 Thus the world of Learning contains the Ten Worlds. The sutra says: "Those who seek to become a pratyekabuddha,20 monks and nuns,...join their hands in reverence, wishing to hear the way to attain the perfect truth."21

Thus the world of the Pratyekabuddha has the Ten Worlds. The sutra describes the multitude of Bodhisattvas who appeared from the earth and declared, "We also yearn to receive the pure great law."22 Thus the world of the Bodhisattva contains the Ten Worlds. The sutra says: "[Men of devout faith, the sutras which the Tathagata expounded are all for the purpose of saving people from their sufferings.] Sometimes I speak of myself, sometimes of others."23 Thus the world of Buddhahood contains the Ten Worlds.

Question: Although I can see both my own sensory organs and those of others, I cannot see the ten worlds in myself or others. How can I believe in them?
Answer: Chapter Ten of the Lotus Sutra says: "[The Lotus Sutra is] the most difficult to believe and the most difficult to understand." [In describing how difficult it will be to fulfill the teachings of the Lotus Sutra after the Buddha's passing,] Chapter Eleven speaks of the "six difficult and nine easy acts." The great Teacher T'ien-t'ai states: "Because the theoretical and essential teachings [of the Lotus Sutra] contradict all the earlier sutras, they are extremely difficult to believe and difficult to understand."24 The Great Teacher Chang-an comments: "The Buddha intended these as his ultimate teachings. How could they ever be so easy to understand?"25

The Great Teacher Dengyo says: "The Lotus Sutra is the most difficult to believe and to understand because in it the Buddha directly revealed what he had attained."26 Those who were born in the days of Shakyamuni Buddha and heard his teachings in person had received the seed of enlightenment from him in the distant past. In addition, Shakyamuni, as well as Taho Buddha, the Buddhas in the ten directions of the universe, the countless Bodhisattvas of the Earth, and the other bodhisattvas such as Monju and Miroku, aided them and encouraged them to have understanding, but even then there were those who failed to believe.

Five thousand people left the assembly, [arrogantly thinking that they had understood what they had not]. All gods and men [other than those already present in the assembly] were moved to other worlds [because they were incapable of understanding the Buddha's teachings]. How much more difficult it is to believe in the Lotus Sutra after the Buddha's passing -- in the Former and Middle Day of the Law -- and even more difficult now at the beginning of the Latter Day of the Law! If it were easy for you to believe in, it would not be the Buddha's true teaching.

Question: The passages from the Lotus Sutra and the explanations by T'ien- t'ai, Chang-an and others which you have cited are free from obscurities and doubtful points. But you seem to be saying that fire is water, or that black is white. Although they may be the teachings of the Buddha, I find it difficult to accept them. Now I look repeatedly at people's faces, but I see only the world of Humanity. I do not see the other worlds. And the same is true when I look at my own face. How am I to believe in the Ten Worlds?
Answer: When we look from time to time at a person's face, we find him sometimes joyful, sometimes enraged, and sometimes calm. At times greed appears in the person's face, at times foolishness, and at times perversity. Rage is the world of Hell, greed is that of Hunger, foolishness is that of Animality, perversity is that of Anger, joy is that of Rapture, and calmness is that of Humanity. These worlds, the six paths, are present in the physical appearance of the person's face. The remaining four noble worlds are hidden and dormant and do not appear in the face, but if we search carefully, we can tell that they are there.

Question: Although I am not entirely certain about the six paths, it would appear from what you have said that we possess them. But what about the four noble worlds which cannot be seen at all?
Answer: Earlier you doubted that the six lower worlds exist within Humanity, but when I illustrated the point through an analogy, you understood. Perhaps it will be the same with the four noble worlds. I will try to employ reasoning to explain a little bit about the matter. The fact that all things in this world are transient is perfectly clear to us. Is this not because the worlds of the two vehicles are present in the world of Humanity? Even a heartless villain loves his wife and children. He too has a portion of the Bodhisattva world within him. Buddhahood is the most difficult to demonstrate. But since you possess the other nine worlds, you should believe that you have Buddhahood as well. Do not permit yourself to have doubts. The Lotus Sutra, explaining the world of Humanity, says that "[the Buddhas appear in this world] to open the door of Buddha-wisdom to all beings."27 The Nirvana Sutra states: "Those who study the Mahayana teachings, though they have the eyes of ordinary mortals, are said to have 'the eyes of a Buddha.'" That common mortals born in the Latter Day of the Law can believe in the Lotus Sutra is due to the fact that the world of Buddhahood is present in the world of Humanity.

Question: The Buddha clearly explained that each of the Ten Worlds has the same Ten Worlds within itself. Nonetheless, I find it difficult to believe that our base hearts could possess the world of Buddhahood. If I cannot believe it, I will become a person of incorrigible disbelief. With your great compassion, please help me to believe and save me from the torture of the hell of incessant suffering.
Answer: You have already seen and heard the sutra passages concerning "the one great reason" [why the Buddhas appear in this world]. If you still do not believe, then how can anyone, from Shakyamuni on down to the four ranks of bodhisattvas or we common mortals who have yet to attain Buddhahood, save you from disbelief? Nevertheless, I will try to explain. After all, there were some who could not attain enlightenment through the direct teachings of the Buddha, but were able to do so later through the preaching of Ananda and the other disciples.

People can attain Buddhahood in two ways: By meeting the Buddha and hearing the Lotus Sutra, or by believing in the sutra even though they do not meet the Buddha. Even before the advent of the Buddha some Brahmans in India came to the correct view of life through the Vedas. In China before the arrival of Buddhism, some had attained the correct view through Taoism and Confucianism. Many wise bodhisattvas and common mortals perceived that the Buddha had planted the seed of Buddhahood within them in the remote past [of sanzen-jintengo before they heard the Lotus Sutra]. They understood this by hearing the provisional Mahayana sutras of the Kegon, Hodo, and Hannya periods. They are like pratyekabuddhas [who could perceive the impermanence of life in the sight of] scattering blossoms or falling leaves. These, then, are the type of people who came to understand the truth through teachings other than the Lotus Sutra.

But many did not receive the seed of Buddhahood in their past existences and cling to Hinayana or provisional Mahayana teachings, and even if they are fortunate enough to encounter the Lotus Sutra, they cannot advance beyond their Hinayana or provisional Mahayana views. They are convinced that their own views are correct, and as a result they place the Lotus Sutra on the same level with the Hinayana sutras or provisional Mahayana sutras such as the Kegon and Dainichi. Some even regard the Lotus Sutra as subordinate to these. Such teachers are inferior to the sages of Confucianism and Brahmanism.

But let us put this question aside for the moment. The mutual possession of the Ten Worlds is as difficult to believe as fire existing in a stone or flowers within a tree. Yet under the right conditions such phenomena actually occur and can be believed. To believe that Buddhahood exists within Humanity is the most difficult thing of all -- as difficult as believing that fire exists in water or water in fire. Nevertheless, the dragon is said to produce fire from water and water from fire, and although people do not understand why, they believe it when they see it occur. Since you now believe that Humanity contains the other eight worlds from Hell to Bodhisattva, why are you still unable to include Buddhahood? The Chinese sage-kings Yao and Shun were impartial toward all people. They perceived one aspect of Buddhahood within Humanity. Bodhisattva Fukyo saw the Buddha in everyone he met, and Prince Siddhartha28 was a man who became a Buddha. These examples should help you to believe.

Note: The teaching that follows must be kept in strictest secrecy.

Question: Shakyamuni, the lord of doctrine, is the Buddha who has destroyed all the three illusions. He is the sovereign of all sentient beings in the entire universe -- kings, bodhisattvas, people of the two vehicles, common mortals and heavenly beings. Whenever the Buddha moves, Bonten attends him on the left and Taishaku on the right. Priests and nuns, laymen and laywomen, as well as the eight kinds of lowly beings who protect Buddhism, follow behind, while the Kongo gods29 march in the vanguard. With his eighty thousand teachings30 he leads all people to enlightenment. How could such a great Buddha dwell in the hearts of us common mortals?

Both the teachings before the Lotus Sutra and the first half of the Lotus Sutra itself tell us that Lord Shakyamuni attained his enlightenment for the first time in this world. Searching into those passages for the cause of his enlightenment, we find that he practiced bodhisattva austerities in past existences as Prince Nose, Bodhisattva Judo, King Shibi, and Prince Satta. The Buddha practiced the bodhisattva austerities for the unimaginably long period [described in the teachings of zokyo, tsugyo, bekkyo and engyo. The first half of the Lotus Sutra, for example, states that] he continued practicing for as long as sanzen- jintengo. During that long period the Buddha served as many as seventy-five, seventy-six or seventy-seven thousand Buddhas31 and finishing his practice, he became Shakyamuni Buddha in this life. Are you saying that each of us has a world of Bodhisattva within, which is endowed with all the blessings Shakyamuni attained as a result of his practice?

Again, looking into these teachings to find the results of his practice, we see that Shakyamuni Buddha's original enlightenment occurred in this life. For more than forty years the Buddha revealed himself in four different ways in four kinds of teachings, and with them he was able to give benefit to all people by expounding the provisional and theoretical teachings.

When he preached the Kegon Sutra, the Buddha appeared as Vairochana Buddha seated in the center of a lotus flower with one thousand petals. When he expounded the Agon sutras, he appeared as a Buddha who had eliminated all illusions by practicing thirty-four kinds of spiritual purification. When he preached the Hodo sutras, he was accompanied by a great multitude of Buddhas. Ten thousand Buddhas joined him when he expounded the Hannya sutras. In the Dainichi and Kongocho sutras, he made a dignified appearance as five hundred and seven hundred Buddhas and bodhisattvas respectively. In Chapter Eleven of the Lotus Sutra the Buddha manifested himself in four different ways as he transformed the land three times.32 When the Buddha expounded the Nirvana Sutra, those assembled saw him variously as the Buddha of the zokyo, tsugyo, bekkyo or engyo teachings. When the Buddha entered nirvana at the age of eighty, he left his relics and teachings to benefit people in the Former, Middle, and Latter Days of the Law.33

Now, the essential teaching says that Shakyamuni Buddha attained Buddhahood in the remote past of gohyaku-jintengo, and it describes the various austerities that made this possible. Since then he has the various austerities that made this possible. Since then he has manifested himself in many different ways throughout the universe and preached all the teachings of Buddhism to lead infinite numbers to enlightenment. Incomparably more people have been enlightened through the essential teaching than through the theoretical one. The former is like the ocean and the latter, a drop of water, the one great mountain and the other a speck of dust.

What is more, a bodhisattva of the essential teaching is far superior to any bodhisattva of the theoretical, including Monju, Kannon or any other in the universe. The difference between them is even greater than that between Taishaku and a monkey.

Are you saying that besides these bodhisattvas, all beings and all things in the universe are inherent in the Ten Worlds and the three thousand realms of our own lives? Do the people of the two vehicles who became arhats by destroying their illusions, Bonten, Taishaku, the gods of the sun and moon, the Four Heavenly Kings, the Four Wheel-Rolling Kings, the great flames of the hell of incessant suffering all exist within us? Even if you say this is what the Buddha taught, I still cannot believe it.

When we consider it, the teachings that came before the Lotus Sutra must be genuine in both substance and wording. The Kegon Sutra describes the Buddha as "perfect and free from all falsehood and defilement like the empty sky." A passage of the Ninno Sutra reads: "One can penetrate the ultimate source of delusion and extirpate his benighted nature until nothing but perfect wisdom remains." In the Kongo Hannya Sutra it says: "[When one attains enlightenment,] nothing but pure goodness will remain within him."Bodhisattva Ashvaghosha states in the Daijo Kishin-ron (Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana): "Only pure blessings exist within his Buddha nature. Bodhisattva Vasubandhu remarks in his Yuishiki-ron (The Consciousness-Only Doctrine): "When a bodhisattva advances to the final stage of practice, with adamantine meditation he extinguishes all remaining seeds of desire and casts away imperfect wisdom, thereby developing the ultimate consciousness of total purity and perfection."

The Lotus Sutra is only one, while the sutras taught before it are innumerable. And the older ones have been taught over a longer period than the Lotus Sutra. Therefore, if they contradict the Lotus Sutra, you should accept the older sutras. Bodhisattva Ashvaghosha was the Buddha's eleventh successor, whose appearance had been foretold in the sutras. Bodhisattva Vasubandhu was one of the greatest bodhisattvas who ever lived and the author of one-thousand treaties. How then can you believe the Great Teacher T'ien-t'ai, a lowly priest living far away from the birthplace of Buddhism who interpreted the sutras but did not write a single treatise?

Still, I might be able to disregard the pre-Lotus Sutra teachings and accept the Lotus Sutra if it said anything to prove this point. But where in the sutra can you find any passages that definitely verify the mutual possession of the Ten Worlds, one thousand factors and the three thousand realms of life? Even in Chapter Two of the Lotus Sutra we find the following passage: "The Buddha has eliminated all evils of life." Neither Vasubandhu's Hokke-ron (Treatise on the Lotus Sutra) nor Bodhisattva Sthiramati's Hosho-ron (On the Treasure Vehicle of Buddhahood) makes any mention of the mutual possession of the Ten Worlds.

Nor are there any writings by the great Buddhists of northern and southern China, or by the priests of the seven temples of Japan, that expound this principle. It is simply T'ien-t'ai's own biased view, and Dengyo made the mistake of transmitting it. That is what the National Teacher Ch'ing-liang34 meant when he said, "T'ien-t'ai's theory is wrong." Priest Hui- yuan35 said, "By defining Hinayana doctrines as zokyo teachings, T'ien-t'ai has confused Hinayana and Mahayana." Ryoko36 criticized him, saying: "T'ien-t'ai is the only one who did not understand the true meaning of the Kegon Sutra." Tokuichi 37 reproached him, saying: "See here, Chih-i, whose disciple are you! With a tongue less than three inches long you slander the teachings that come from the Buddha's long broad tongue!"38 Kobo Daishi commented: "Chinese priests of various sects vied with one another to steal the ghee of the Kegon Sutra, calling it their own doctrine." Thus, the doctrine of ichinen sanzen is not mentioned in either the provisional or the true teachings. It did not appear in the writings of any of the great Indian scholars, and no Chinese or Japanese priest has ever espoused it. How then do you dare to believe it?
Answer: Your criticisms are harsh. The difference between the Lotus Sutra and the other sutras must be determined by what the sutras themselves say. In them we find statements that the Buddha did not reveal the truth in the first forty-two years of his teaching and that the would reveal it in the Lotus Sutra.

Taho and all the other Buddhas throughout the universe presented themselves to testify to the truth of the Lotus Sutra, testimony that they did not give for any other sutra. With the Lotus Sutra Shakyamuni enabled the people of the two vehicles to attain Buddhahood, whereas with the earlier sutras he did not. In the earlier sutras he stated that he attained enlightenment for the first time in this world, but in the Lotus Sutra he revealed that his enlightenment was actually in the remote past of gohyaku-jintengo.39

I will now explore the problem posed by the scholars you mentioned above. The Great Teacher T'ien-t'ai comments: "Vasubandhu and Nagarjuna clearly perceived the truth in their hearts, but they did not teach it. Instead, they preached the provisional Mahayana teachings, which were suited to their times. However, the Buddhist teachers who came later were biased in their understanding, and the scholars obstinately clung to their own views, until in the end they began to battle with one another. Each defended one small corner of the teachings and thereby completely departed from the true way of the Buddha."40 The Great Teacher Chang-an says of T'ien-t'ai, "Even the great masters of India were not in a class with him, and the Chinese scholars -- well, one need hardly mention them. This is no idle boast -- the doctrine he taught was indeed of such excellence."

In their hearts Vasubandhu, Nagarjuna, Ashvaghosha, Sthiramati and other Buddhist scholars knew [the truth of ichinen sanzen], but they did not reveal it to others because the time for it to be expounded had not yet come. As for the Buddhist teachers in China who preceded T'ien-t'ai, some kept this treasure in their hearts and others knew nothing about it. Among those who followed him, some accepted [ichinen sanzen] only after first trying to disprove it, and others never accepted it at all.

As regards the passage in the Hoben chapter that you quoted, "The Buddha has eliminated all evils of life," Here the Buddha is referring to a teaching from one of the earlier sutras. But when you take a closer look at the sutra, it becomes clear that the mutual possession of the Ten Worlds is being explained. For in the same chapter, this passage occurs: "The Buddhas appear in this world to open the door of Buddha-wisdom to all beings."T'ien-t'ai comments on this passage as follows: "If people do not possess innate Buddha-wisdom within them, how could the Buddha say he wanted to develop it? One must understand that the Buddha-wisdom is latent in all human beings."41 Chang-an [cites a parable to illustrate this and] concludes: "How could people realize their Buddha-wisdom if it did not exist within them? How could the poor widow discover her treasure if it had not been in the storehouse?"42

It is, however, extremely difficult to convince you that the Lord Buddha exists within us, as do the nine worlds from Hell to Bodhisattva. In Chapter Ten of the Lotus Sutra he gives us this admonishment: "Among all the sutras I have preached, now preach, and will preach, this Lotus Sutra is the most difficult to believe and the most difficult to understand." The "six difficult and nine easy acts" He expounded in the next chapter emphasize the difficulty. Hence T'ien-t'ai states: "Because the theoretical and essential teachings [of the Lotus Sutra] contradict all the earlier sutras, they are extremely difficult to believe and difficult to understand -- no less difficult than facing an enemy who is armed with a spear."Chang-an comments: "The Buddha intended these as his ultimate teachings. How could they ever be easy to understand?" The Great Teacher Dengyo remarks: "The Lotus Sutra is the most difficult to believe and to understand because in it the Buddha directly revealed what he had attained."

In the first eighteen hundred years after the Buddha's entry into nirvana, only three persons perceived the True Law. They are Shakyamuni of India, the Great teacher T'ien-t'ai of China, and the Great Teacher Dengyo of Japan. These three men are all Buddhist sages.

Question: What about Nagarjuna and Vasubandhu?
Answer: Those sages knew, but did not expound it. They expounded part of the theoretical teaching, but did not teach either the essential teaching or the truth of the Buddha's enlightenment it contains. Perhaps the people in their age were capable of believing it, but the time was not ripe to expound it. Or perhaps neither the people nor the time was appropriate.

After the advent of T'ien-t'ai and Dengyo, many Buddhists learned of ichinen sanzen through the wisdom of these two sages. They included Chia-hsiang of the Sanron sect; more than one hundred priests of the southern and northern sects of China; Fa- ts'ang and Ch'ing-liang of the Kegon sect; Hsuan-tsang and Tz'u-en of the Hosso sect; Shan-wu-wei, Chin-kang-chih and Pu-k'ung of the Shingon sect; and Tao-hsuan of the Ritsu sect. At first they all opposed T'ien-t'ai, but later totally accepted his teachings.

Now, to dispel the grave doubts you have about the mutual possession of the Ten Worlds, I refer you to the Muryogi Sutra, which states: "Suppose a baby is born to a king and queen. He may be only a day, two days or seven days old; a month, two months or seven months old; a year, two years or seven years old. He cannot yet administer the affairs of state, but already he is honored and respected by all the nation's subjects and ministers and has as his companions the sons of other rulers. The royal parents love him without reserve and always talk with him, for he is still very young.

"Men of devout faith, one who embraces this sutra is like the young prince. The various Buddhas can be likened to the king and this sutra to the queen. They give birth to a bodhisattva, their child. Suppose the bodhisattva listens to and accepts the sutra. If he recites even one phrase or a verse, or reads even a few lines of it or preaches it one, two, ten, a hundred, a thousand, ten thousand, or countless times, though he cannot yet grasp the full truth of it, already he will be revered by the four kinds of believers and the eight kinds of other lowly beings, he will be attended by great bodhisattvas, and continually receive the unreserved protection and compassion of all Buddhas. This is because he is still new to the faith."

The Fugen Sutra says: "This Mahayana sutra is the treasure, the eye and the seed of life for all Buddhas in the universe throughout the past, present and future... You should exert yourself in practice and never let the seed of Buddhahood die out." It also declares: "This all-embracing sutra is the eye of all Buddhas because through its teachings they become endowed with the five types of vision. Since the three enlightened properties of the Buddha's life arise from the sutra, it is the seal of ultimate truth which assures entry into the ocean of nirvana. A Buddha's three pure properties come from this vast ocean and become the fertile field of good fortune for all human and heavenly beings."

Now we should go on to survey the entire range of the Buddha's teaching, the exoteric and esoteric, as well as Hinayana and Mahayana, specifically the sutras upon which each denomination, Kegon, Shingon, etc., depends for its doctrine. For example, the Kegon Sutra describes Vairochana Buddha seated in the center of a thousand-petaled lotus flower; the Daijuku Sutra, a cloud of Buddhas who gathered from all over the universe; the Hannya Sutra, the emergence of one thousand Buddhas; and the Dainichi and Kongocho sutras depict more than twelve hundred Buddhas and bodhisattvas. All these Buddhas are but temporary manifestations of the original Buddha. These sutras all reveal the practices of Shakyamuni Buddha and the Buddhahood he attained in this life, but they do not reveal the original cause for his enlightenment in the remote past of gohyaku-jintengo.

It is true that the immediate attainment of Buddhahood is revealed in the pre-Lotus Sutra teachings, but they do not mention Shakyamuni Buddha teaching his disciples in the remote past of sanzen-jintengo and gohyaku-jintengo. Therefore, there is no revelation of when the Buddha started teaching or when he finished.43 The Kegon Sutra seems to belong to the higher two and the Dainichi Sutra to all of the four teachings -- zokyo, tsugyo, bekkyo and engyo -- but these sutras actually fall into the category of zokyo and tsugyo, the two lower teachings, because they do not expound the three requisites for Buddhahood: Innate Buddha nature, the potential to realize it, and the cause that makes the Buddha nature develop. Then how can we define these sutras as the seed of enlightenment?

end of part one | part two

Translated into Serbian by Mića Mijatović 07/21/2002 in Belgrade
Source: Major Writings of Nichiren Daishonin Vol. I. pp. 45-83.

Pravi predmet poštovanja

- Kanđin no Honzon Šo -

Gospodaru Toki, primio sam letnji kimono, tri sumi štapića za mastilo i pet četkica za pisanje. Zapisao sam neke od svojih misli koje se tiču pravog predmeta poštovanja {obožavanja} i šaljem tu raspravu tebi, Ota-u, Soja-u i ostalima. Tiče se veoma važne stvari, svrhe mog dolaska. Samo onima jakim u veri i otvorenog duha treba dozvoliti da je čitaju. Rasprava sadrži mnogo kriticizma i nekoliko odgovora. Ono što otkriva, međutim, nikada se ranije nije bilo čulo i moglo bi preneraziti čitaoce ili one koji to čuju. Čak i ako je pokažeš drugima nikada nemoj pustiti da je tri ili četiri osobe čitaju zajedno u isto vreme. Za dvadeset dve stotine i dvadeset godina otkako je Buda preminuo, ideje koje se nalaze u srcu ove rasprave nikada nisu bile otkrivene. Uprkos svim oficijelnim progonima koji su mi se dogodili, sada sam ih izložio na početku petog polumilenijuma, kada je vreme za njihovo propagiranje sazrelo. Nadam se da će oni koji je čitaju ostati čvrsti u veri tako da se i učitelj i učenik mogu peti Orlovim Vrhom zajedno da iskažu poštovanje Šakjamuniju, Tahou i svim ostalim budama univerzuma.

Uz moje duboko poštovanje,
Dvadeset šesti dan četvrtog meseca desete godine Bun'eia (1273.)

Ničiren, šramana Japana

Peti tom Make Šikan tvrdi: "Svaki pojedinačni životni entitet je obdaren sa Deset Svetova. Istovremeno, svaki od Deset Svetova je obdaren svim drugim, tako da jedno životno biće {suština} zapravo poseduje stotinu svetova. Svaki od tih svetova zauzvrat poseduje trideset područja,1 što znači da se u stotinu svetova nalazi tri hiljade područja. Tri hiljade područja egzistencije su sva sadržana u jednom jedinom biću života. Ako nema života, onda je to kraj stvari. Ali ako postoji i najmanji tračak života, on sadrži svih tri hiljade područja... To je ono što mislimo kad govorimo o 'oblasti nedokučivog'." Napomena: "Tri hiljade područja" može se takođe shvatiti kao "tri hiljade faktora", ali je broj isti. Jedina razlika leži u načinu širenja.2 Drugi jedan tekst iz Make Šikan tvrdi: "Jedan svet poseduje tri područja egzistencije."3

Pitanje: Da li je princip ičinen sanzena [tri hiljade područja u jednoj jedinoj suštini {biću} života] objašnjen u Hoke Gengi?
Odgovor: Miao-lo tvrdi da nije.

Pitanje: Da li je onda objašnjen u Hoke Mongu?
Odgovor: Miao-lo tvrdi da nije.

Pitanje: Koje su tačno njegove reči?
Odgovor: Rekao je: "Nijedno od ova dva ne pominje ičinen sanzen."

Pitanje: Da li je ovo objašnjeno u bilo kom od prva četiri toma Make Šikan?
Odgovor: Ne, nije.

Pitanje: Koji dokaz postoji za to?
Odgovor: Miao-lo kaže: "Kada je najzad otkrio u Maka Šikan kako opaziti pravu prirodu života, u isto vreme je koristio 'tri hiljade područja' kao jedan način da se ovo shvati."4

Pitanje: Drugi tom Hoke Gengi tvrdi: " Svaki od Deset Svetova sadrži ostalih devet, a u tih stotinu svetova je hiljadu faktora." Prvi tom Hoke Mongu tvrdi: "Svaka kognitivna sposobnost5 poseduje Deset Svetova, od kojih svaki uključuje svih deset u sebi. Pošto svaki od tih stotinu svetova poseduje deset faktora, sve ukupno postaje hiljadu." U Kanon Gengi6 se pojavljuje ovakva tvrdnja: "Deset Svetova su svi međusobno uključivi, čineći tako stotinu svetova. Hiljadu faktora su svojstveni životu. Čak i ako nisu vidljivi, ceo život po svojoj prirodi ih sve poseduje."

Da li je ičinen sanzen pomenut u prva četiri toma Make Šikan?
Odgovor: Miao-lo kaže da nije.

Pitanje: Šta tačno kaže?
Odgovor: Peti tom Guketsua kaže: "U poređenju sa Sedmim Poglavljem,7 prethodna poglavlja ne opisuju savršeno praksu u njenoj celosti; Ali sadrže dvadeset pet pripremnih vežbi8 koje vode razumevanju, a time, obezbeđuju način za potpuno praktikovanje. Namera je, s toga, prvih šest poglavlja da dovedu do razumevanja." Takođe u istom tomu: "Kada je najzad otkrio u Maki Šikan kako opaziti pravu prirodu života, u isto je vreme upotrebio 'tri hiljade područja' kao način da se ovo shvati. Ovo je krajnja istina njegovih učenja. Eto zašto je Čang-an tvrdio u svom uvodu: 'Maka Šikan otkriva učenje koje je Tjen-tai sâm praktikovao u dubini svog bića'. Imao je dobar razlog da to kaže. Očekujem da oni koji čitaju Maku Šikan i nastoje da je shvate ne smeju da dopuste svom umu da bude pometen ičim drugim.

Veliki mudrac9 je propagirao svoja učenja trideset godina. Tokom prvih dvadeset devet, izložio je doktrine koje su sadržane u Hoke Gengi, Hoke Mongu i drugim delima. Kroz njih je objasnio pet perioda i osam učenja kao i stotinu svetova i hiljadu faktora. Nije samo odbacio pogrešne doktrine prethodnih pet vekova, već je u isto vreme razjasnio stvari koje indijski budistički učenjaci nisu bili potpuno objasnili. Čang-an tvrdi: "Čak ni veliki majstori Indije nisu mu bili ravni, a što se tiče kineskih učenjaka - pa, teško da ih treba pominjati. To nije prazna razmetljivost . Doktrina kojoj je podučavao bila je svakako takvih odlika."10 Kako je žalosno da su Tjen-tajevi nastavljači dopustili tim lopovima, osnivačima Kegon i Šingon sekti, da ukradu neprocenjivi dragulj ičinen sanzena i onda, ironično, postanu njihovi sledbenici! Čang-an je bio potpuno svestan da bi se to desilo kada je zapazio sa tugom: "Ako bi taj princip bio izgubljen, onda bi to bila tragedija za budućnost."11

Pitanje: Koja je razlika između principa stotinu svetova hiljadu faktora i ičinen sanzena, tri hiljade područja života?
Odgovor: Ovaj prethodni tiče se jedino bića koja osećaju, a potonji se odnosi i na bića koja osećaju i na ona koja ne osećaju.

Pitanje: Ako bića koja ne osećaju poseduju ovih deset faktora, da li je ispravno pretpostaviti da biljke i drveće imaju um i da mogu dostići budastvo kao i bića koja osećaju?
Odgovor: Ovo je stvar u koju je teško verovati i koju je teško shvatiti. Tjen-tai je definisao dva momenta u koja je "teško verovati" i "teško {ih je} shvatiti." Jedan se nalazi u području Budinih učenja a drugi u području prosvetljenja. U sutrama propovedanim pre Lotos sutre, čitamo da su pristalice učenja dvaju vozila i oni nepopravljivog nepoverenja zauvek odvojeni od dostizanja budastva i da je Šakjamuni po prvi put dostigao prosvetljenje u ovom svetu. Međutim, nalazimo da prva i druga polovina Lotos sutre poriču oba tvrđenja. Jedan buda koji kaže dve stvari suprotne kao vatra i voda - ko bi mu verovao? Ovo su momenti "težak da se {po}veruje" i "težak da se shvati" u području Budinih učenja. Momenti "težak da se veruje" i "težak da se shvati" u području njegovog prosvetljenja tiče se principa ičinen sanzena, koji objašnjava da čak i bića koja ne osećaju poseduju deset faktora života i da poseduju i materijalne i spiritualne aspekte života.

I budistički i ne-budistički spisi dozvoljavaju drvene i slikane likove da se koriste kao objekti poštovanja {obožavanja}, ali Tjen-tai i njegovi sledbenici su bili prvi koji su objasnili princip koji stoji iza ovog postupka. Ako parče drveta ili papira ne bi imalo i materijalne i spiritualne aspekte ili bi im nedostajao neki inherentni uzrok da manifestuju neku spiritualnu prirodu, onda bi bilo uzaludno oslanjati se na njih kao na predmet poštovanja.

Pitanje: Koji autoritet imaš za tvrđenje da jedna biljka, drvo ili zemlja manifestuju uzrok i posledicu ili ovih deset faktora?
Odgovor: Peti tom Make Šikan kaže: "Zemlja ovog sveta takođe ima ovih deset faktora. Tako neka zla zemlja ima pojavu, prirodu, entitet, moć i tako dalje." Peti tom Šakusena tvrdi: "Pojava postoji samo u onome što je materijalno, priroda postoji samo u onome što je spiritualno. Entitet, moć, uticaj i odnos u principu kombinuju i materijalno i spiritualno. Inherentni uzrok i latentna posledica su čisto spiritualni; manifestne posledice postoje samo u onome što je materijalno." Kongobei-ron12 tvrdi: "Biljka, drvo, šljunak, čestica prašine - svako od njih ima urođenu buda prirodu, zajedno sa ostalim uzrocima i stanjima potrebnim da se dostigne budastvo."

Pitanje: Pričao si nam o izvorima ove doktrine. Reci šta se misli pod kanđin?
Odgovor: Kanđin znači posmatrati vlastiti um i naći Deset Svetova u njemu. To je ono što se zove kanđin ("posmatrati um"). Na primer, mada se može videti šest organa čula drugih ljudi, ne mogu se videti šest organa čula na vlastitom licu. Jedino kad neko pogleda u jasno ogledalo po prvi put vidi da je opremljen sa svih šest organa. Slično, razne sutre aludiraju tu i tamo na šest staza i četiri plemenita sveta [koji sačinjavaju Deset Svetova], ali samo u jasnom ogledalu Lotos sutre i Tjen-tajevoj Maka Šikan se može videti vlastitih tri hiljade stanja - Deset Svetova, njihovo međusobno posedovanje i hiljadu faktora.

Pitanje: Na koje to delove Lotos sutre misliš i na koji odeljak Make Šikan?
Odgovor: Drugo poglavlje, Hoben-pon, Lotos sutre tvrdi da se Buda pojavljuje u ovom svetu "da otvori vrata buda mudrosti svim bićima." Ovo se odnosi na činjenicu da svih devet svetova poseduju područje budastva. Šesnaesto poglavlje, Đurjo-hon, tvrdi: "Otkako sam dostigao budastvo, prošao je jedan nezamislivo dug period. Dužina mog života su beskrajni eoni. Moj život je oduvek postojao i nikada se neće okončati. Pobožni vernici, jednom sam i ja praktikovao bodisatvički asketizam i život koji sam tada zadobio tek ima da bude iscrpljen. Moj život će trajati još dva puta toliko eona od sada." Ovde se sutra poziva na područje budastva koje uključuje svih ostalih devet svetova.

Sutra tvrdi: "Devadata će postati buda zvani Devarađa."13 Ovo znači da svet Pakla takođe sadrži svet budastva. Ovo se tvrdi u sutri: "Postoji deset ženskih demona, od kojih se prvi zove Lamba... [Buda im govori:] 'Steći ćeš neizmerno dobru sreću ako samo ti zaštitiš one koji prihvataju naslov Lotos sutre.'"14 Tako, svet Gladi sadrži svih Deset Svetova. Kada sutra kaže: "Kćer Zmajskog Kralja... je dostigla prosvetljenje,"15 to znači da svet Animalnosti ima Deset Svetova. Sutra kaže da će ašura Balin i drugi kraljevi ašure dostići budastvo nakon što čuju čak i samo jedan stih ili rečenicu ove sutre.16 Sutra kaže: "Svi ljudi koji [su podigli statue da] poštuju Budu... su dostigli budastvo,"17 čime se misli da Ljudski svet sadrži Deset Svetova. Sutra tvrdi da su nebeski bogovi, predvođeni Mahabrahmanom, izjavili: "Dostići ćemo prosvetljenje."18 Tako svet neba sadrži Deset Svetova.

Sutra kaže: "Šariputra, u jednom od svojih života koji će doći... postaćeš buda zvani Padmaprabha."19 Tako svet Učenja sadrži Deset Svetova. Sutra kaže: "Oni koji nastoje da postanu pratjekabude20, kaluđeri i kaluđerice,... sklapaju svoje dlanove u poštovanju, želeći da čuju način dostizanja savršene istine."21

Tako svet Pratjekabudâ ima Deset Svetova. Sutra opisuje mnoštvo bodisatvi koje su se pojavile iz zemlje i izjavljuje: "Mi takođe čeznemo da shvatimo čisti veliki zakon."22 Tako svet Bodisatve sadrži Deset Svetova. Sutra kaže: "[Ljudi posvećene vere, sutrama koje je Tatagata izložio je svima svrha spašavanje ljudi od njihove patnje.] Ponekad govorim o sebi, ponekad o drugima."23 Tako svet budastva sadrži Deset Svetova.

Pitanje: Mada mogu videti sve svoje organe čula i organe drugih, ne mogu da vidim deset svetova u sebi ili u drugima. Kako mogu da verujem u njih?
Odgovor: Deseto poglavlje Lotos sutre kaže: "[Lotos sutra je] najteža za shvatanje i u nju je najteže poverovati." [U objašnjavanju koliko će teško biti ostvariti učenja Lotos sutre nakon Budine smrti,] jedanaesto poglavlje govori o "šest teških i devet lakih dela." Veliki Učitelj Tjen-tai tvrdi: "Pošto su teorijska i esencijalna učenja [Lotos sutre] kontradiktorna u odnosu na ranije sutre, u njih je izuzetno teško poverovati i teško ih je razumeti."24 Veliki Učitelj Čang-an komentariše: "Buda je namenio ovim učenjima da budu njegova krajnja. Kako bi ih ikako bilo tako lako razumeti?"25

Veliki Učitelj Dengjo kaže: "Lotos sutru je najteže razumeti i u nju je najteže poverovati s toga što je u njoj Buda direktno otkrio ono što je dostigao."26 Oni koji su bili rođeni u doba Šakjamuni Bude i koji su lično čuli njegova učenja, primili su seme prosvetljenja od njega u dalekoj prošlosti. Uz to, Šakjamuni, kao i Taho Buda, bude deset pravaca univerzuma, bezbrojne Bodisatve Zemlje i druge bodisatve kao što su Monđu i Miroku, pomogle su im i ohrabrile ih u razumevanju, ali čak i tada je bilo onih koji nisu mogli da veruju.

Pet hiljada ljudi je napustilo skupštinu, [arogantno misleći da su razumeli ono što nisu]. Svi bogovi i ljudi [koji nisu bili već prisutni na skupštini] behu otišli u druge svetove [jer nisu bili sposobni da shvate Budina učenja]. Koliko je teže verovati u Lotos sutru posle Budine smrti - u Ranijem i Srednjem Danu Zakona - a čak još teže sada na početku Potonjeg Dana Zakona! Ako bi ti bilo lako da poveruješ, onda to ne bi bilo Budino pravo učenje.

Pitanje: Odeljci iz Lotos sutre i objašnjenja Tjen-taja i Čang-ana i drugih koja si naveo nisu nejasna niti imaju sumnjiva mesta. Ali izgleda da govoriš da je vatra voda ili da je crno belo. Mada to mogu biti učenja Bude, nalazim da je teško prihvatiti ih. Sad posmatram ponovo lica ljudi, ali vidim jedino svet Ljudi. Ne vidim druge svetove. Isto je i kad pogledam vlastito lice. Kako da verujem u Deset Svetova?
Odgovor: Kada povremeno pogledamo u nečije lice, nalazimo da je ponekad radosno, ponekad razbesnelo, a ponekad smireno. Povremeno se pohlepa pojavljuje na nečijem licu, povremeno glupost, a povremeno izopačenost. Bes je svet Pakla, pohlepa je svet Gladi, glupost je svet Animalnosti, izopačenost je svet Ljutnje, radost je svet Ushićenosti, a smirenost je svet Ljudi. Ovi svetovi, šest staza, prisutni su u fizičkoj pojavi nečijeg lica. Preostala četiri plemenita sveta su skrivena i dremljiva i ne pojavljuju se na licu, ali ako pažljivo tragamo možemo reći da su tu.

Pitanje: Mada nisam sasvim siguran u vezi sa šest staza, reklo bi se iz onog što si pričao da ih posedujemo. No, šta sa četiri plemenita sveta koji se uopšte ne mogu videti?
Odgovor: Ranije si sumnjao da šest nižih svetova postoje u Ljudskom svetu, ali kada sam ilustrovao ovo kroz analogiju, shvatio si. Verovatno će biti isto i sa četiri plemenita sveta. Pokušaću da se koristim umovanjem i zaključivanjem da objasnim ovu stvar malo bolje. Činjenica da su sve stvari na ovom svetu prolazne nam je savršeno jasna. Zar to nije s toga što su svetovi dvaju vozila prisutni u svetu Ljudi? Čak i bezdušna hulja voli svoju ženu i decu. On takođe ima jedan deo sveta Bodisatve u sebi. Svet Budastva je najteže demonstrirati. Ali pošto poseduješ ostalih devet svetova, treba da veruješ da imaš i svet Budastva. Ne dozvoljavaj sebi da sumnjaš. Lotos sutra, objašnjavajući svet Ljudi kaže da "[se bude pojavljuju u ovom svetu] da otvore vrata buda mudrosti svim bićima."27 Nirvana sutra tvrdi: "Oni koji proučavaju mahajana učenja, mada imaju oči običnih smrtnika rođenih u Potonjem Danu Zakona, mogu verovati u Lotos sutru usled činjenice da je svet Budastva prisutan u svetu Ljudi.

Pitanje: Buda je jasno objasnio da svaki od Deset Svetova ima istih Deset Svetova u sebi. I pored toga, nalazim da je teško da verujem da naša osnovna priroda može posedovati svet Budastva. Ako to ne mogu da verujem, postaću osoba nepopravljog nepoverenja. Uz tvoje veliko saosećanje, molim te pomozi mi da verujem i spasi me mučenja pakla neprestane patnje.
Odgovor: Već si video i čuo odeljke sutre koji se tiču "jednog velikog razloga" [zašto se bude pojavljuju u ovom svetu]. Ako još uvek ne veruješ, kako bi onda iko, od Šakjamunija do četiri kategorije bodisatvi ili nas običnih smrtnika koji još nisu dostigli budastvo, mogao da te spase od tvog neverovanja? Ipak, pokušaću da objasnim. Posle svega, bilo je nekih koji nisu mogli da dostignu prosvetljenje kroz direktna Budina učenja, ali su mogli da učine to kasnije kroz Anandino propovedanje i propovedanje drugih učenika.

Ljudi mogu da dostignu budastvo na dva načina: susretom sa Budom i slušanjem Lotos sutre, ili verovanjem u sutru čak i ako ne sretnu Budu. Čak i pre pojave Bude neki brahmani iz Indije su došli do ispravnih nazora o životu kroz vede. U Kini, pre dolaska budizma, neki su bili dostigli ispravan nazor kroz taoizam i konfučijanizam. Mnoge mudre bodisatve su zasadile seme budastva u sebi u dalekoj prošlosti [sanzen-đintengoa pre nego što su čuli Lotos sutru]. Shvatili su to čuvši privremene mahajana sutre iz Kegon, Hodo i Hanja perioda. Oni su kao pratjeka bude [koje su mogle da opaze nestalnost života u prizoru] rasturanja cveća ili lišća koje opada. Oni su, s toga, tip ljudi koji dolaze do shvatanja istine kroz učenja drugačija od Lotos sutre.

Ali mnogi nisu primili seme budastva tokom svojih prošlih postojanja i naginju hinajana ili privremenim mahajana učenjima, i čak i ako su dovoljno srećni da se sretnu sa Lotos sutrom, ne mogu da napreduju izvan hinajana ili privremenih mahajana nazora. Ubeđeni su da su njihovi vlastiti nazori ispravni, a kao rezultat postavljaju Lotos sutru na isti nivo sa hinajana ili privremenim mahajana sutrama kao što su Kegon ili Dainiči. Neki čak prihvataju Lotos sutru kao podređenu ovima. Takvi učitelji su inferiorni u odnosu na mudrace konfučijanizma i brahmanizma.

Ali pustimo ovo pitanje po strani za trenutak. U uzajamno posedovanje Deset Svetova je toliko teško poverovati kao i u vatru koja postoji u steni ili u cvet koji se nalazi u drvetu. Ipak pod pravim okolnostima takvi fenomeni se doista zbivaju i u njih se može verovati. Verovati da budastvo postoji u Ljudskom svetu je najteža stvar od svih - toliko teška kao i verovati da vatra postoji u vodi ili voda u vatri. Ipak, kaže se da zmaj proizvodi vatru iz vode i vodu iz vatre, a mada ljudi ne shvataju zašto, veruju kada vide da se to dešava. Pošto ti sada veruješ da svet Ljudi sadrži ostalih osam svetova od Pakla do sveta Bodisatve, zašto još uvek ne možeš da uključiš svet Budastva? Kineski kraljevi mudraci Jao i Šun si bili nepristrasni prema svim ljudima. Opažali su aspekt budastva u ljudskom svetu. Bodisatva Fukjo je video budu u svakom koga je sreo, a princ Sidarta28 je bio čovek koji je postao buda. Ovi primeri treba da ti pomognu da veruješ.

Napomena: učenja koja slede moraju biti držana u najstrožoj tajnosti.

Pitanje: Šakjamuni, gospodar doktrine, je buda koji je razorio sve tri iluzije. On je vladar svih bića koja osećaju u celom univerzumu - kraljeva, bodisatvi, ljudi dvaju vozila, običnih smrtnika i nebeskih bića. Kad god se Buda pokrene, Bonten ga prati s leva i Taišaku s desna. Sveštenici i kaluđerice, laici i laikinje, kao i osam vrsta nižih bića koja štite budizam, slede ga iza, dok Kongo bogovi29 stupaju ispred. Sa svojih osamdeset hiljada učenja30 on vodi sve ljude ka prosvetljenju. Kako jedan tako veliki buda može da boravi u srcima nas običnih smrtnika?

I učenja pre Lotos sutre i prva polovina Lotos sutre same nam govore da je Gospodar Šakjamuni dostigao svoje prosvetljenje po prvi put u ovom svetu. Tragajući u ovim odeljcima za uzrokom njegovog prosvetljenja, nalazimo da je praktikovao bodisatvički asketizam tokom nezamislivo dugog perioda [opisanog u učenjima zokjo, tsugjo, bekjo i engjo. Prva polovina Lotos sutre, na primer, tvrdi da je] on nastavio da praktikuje dugo koliko i sanzen-đinengo. Tokom ovog dugog perioda Buda je služio sedamdeset pet, sedamdeset šest ili sedamdeset sedam hiljada buda31 i završivši svoju praksu, postao je Šakjamuni Buda u tom životu. Da li ti to kažeš da svako od nas ima svet Bodisatve u sebi, koji je obdaren svim blagoslovima koje je Šakjamuni dostigao kao rezultat svoje prakse?

Opet, posmatrajući ova učenja da bismo našli rezultate njegove prakse, vidimo da se izvorno prosvetljenje Šakjamuni Bude dogodilo u ovom životu. Tokom više od četrdeset godina Buda se otkrio na četiri različita načina u četiri vrste učenja, a njima je bio u stanju da pruži dobrobit svim ljudima izlažući privremena i teorijska učenja.

Kada je propovedao Kegon sutru, Buda se pojavio kao Vairočana Buda, sedevši u centru lotosovog cveta sa hiljadu latica. Kada je izlagao Agon sutre, pojavio se kao buda koji je uklonio sve iluzije praktikujući trideset četiri vrste spiritualnog pročišćenja. Kada je propovedao Hodo sutre, pratilo ga je mnoštvo budâ. Deset hiljada buda mu se pridružilo kada je izlagao Hanja sutre. U Dainiči i Kongočo sutrama, pojavio se na dostojanstven način, kao i pet stotina buda i sedam stotina bodisatvi. U jedanaestom poglavlju Lotos sutre Buda se manifestovao na četiri različita načina kao što je transformisao i zemlju tri puta.32 Kada je Buda izložio Nirvana sutru,okupljeni su ga videli na razne načine kao Budu zokjo, tsugjo, beko ili engjo učenja. Kada je Buda ušao u nirvanu u dobu od osamdeset godina, ostavio je svoje relikte i učenja za dobrobit ljudi Kasnijeg, Srednjeg i Potonjeg Dana Zakona.33

Sad, esencijalno učenje kaže da je Šakjamuni Buda dostigao budastvo u dalekoj prošlosti gohjaku-đintengoa i opisuje razne asketizme koji su to omogućili. Otada on ima razne asketizme koji to omogućuju. Otada se on manifestovao na mnogo različitih načina širom univerzuma i propovedao je sva ta budistička učenja da bi vodio beskonačno mnoštvo ka prosvetljenju. Neuporedivo više ljudi je bilo prosvetljeno kroz esencijalno učenje nego kroz teorijsko. Prethodno je kao okean a potonje kao kap vode, jedno je velika planina a drugo čestica prašine.

Štaviše, bodisatva esencijalnog učenja je daleko superiorniji od svakog bodisatve teorijskog učenja, uključujući Monđua, Kanona ili bilo kog drugog u univerzumu. Razlika između njih je čak veća od one između Taišakua i majmuna.

Da li ti to kažeš da su osim tih bodisatvi, sva bića i sve stvari univerzuma bitno prisutni u Deset Svetova i tri hiljade područja naših vlatitih života? Da li ljudi dvaju vozila koji su postali arhati razaranjem svojih iluzija, Bonten, Taišaku, bogovi sunca i meseca, Četiri Nebeska Kralja, Četiri Kralja Koji Okreću Točak, veliki plamenovi pakla neprestane patnje - da li sve to postoji u nama? Čak i ako kažeš da je to ono što je Buda podučavao, još uvek ne mogu da verujem.

Kada ovo razmatramo, učenja koja su došla pre Lotos sutre moraju biti izvorna i u materiji i u izrazu. Kegon sutra opisuje Budu kao "savršenog i slobodnog od svih neistinitosti i uprljanosti kao prazno nebo." Jedan odeljak iz Nino sutre kaže: "Može se prodreti do krajnjeg izvora obmane i iskoreniti njenu mračnu prirodu sve dok ništa ne ostane osim savršene mudrosti." U Kongo Hanja sutri se kaže: "[Kada neko dostigne prosvetljenje,] ništa osim čiste vrline neće ostati u njemu." Bodisatva Ašvagoša tvrdi u Daiđo Kišin-ronu (Buđenje vere u mahajanu): "Jedino čisti blagoslovi postoje u njegovoj buda prirodi." Bodisatva Vasubandu zapaža u svom Juišiki-ronu (Doktrina čiste svesnosti): "Kada neki bodisatva napreduje prema konačnom stadijumu prakse nepopustljivom meditacijom, on uništava svo preostalo seme želje i odbacuje nesavršenu mudrost, na taj način razvijajući krajnju svesnost potpune čistote i savršenstva."

Lotos sutra je jedna jedina, dok su sutre podučavane pre nje bezbrojne. A starije su bile podučavane tokom dužeg perioda nego Lotos sutra. Prema tome, ako su one u kontradikciji sa Lotos sutrom, treba da prihvatiš starije sutre. Bodisatva Ašvagoša je bio Budin jedanaesti nastavljač, čija je pojava bila predviđena u sutrama. Bodisatva Vasubandu je bio jedan od najvećih bodisatvi koji je ikada živeo i autor hiljadu rasprava. Kako onda možeš da veruješ Velikom Učitelju Tjen-taju, nižem svešteniku koji živi daleko od mesta rođenja budizma koji je tumačio sutre ali nije napisao ni jednu jedinu raspravu?

Ipak, mogao bih da odbacim učenja pre Lotos sutre i da prihvatim Lotus sutru ako je rekao bilo šta da dokaže to stanovište. Ali gde u sutri možeš naći bilo koji odeljak koji definitivno potvrđuje uzajamno posedovanje Deset Svetova, hiljadu faktora i tri hiljade područja života? Čak i u drugom poglavlju Lotos sutre nalazimo sledeći odeljak: "Buda je uklonio sva zla života." Ni Vasubanduov Hoke-ron (Rasprava o Lotos sutri) ni Hosho-ron (O vozilu blaga budastva) Bodisatve Stiramati uopšte ne pominju uzajamno posedovanje Deset Svetova.

Niti ima bilo kog spisa od strane nekog velikog budiste severne i južne Kine, ili od strane sveštenikâ sedam hramova Japana, koji su izložili ovaj princip. To je samo Tjen-tajev pristrasan pogled, a Dengjo je napravio grešku prenoseći ga. To je ono što je Narodni Učitelj Č'ing-liang34 mislio kad je rekao: "Definišući hinajana doktrine kao zokjo učenja, Tjen-tai je pobrkao hinajanu i mahajanu." Rjoko36 ga je kritikovao govoreći: "Tjen-tai je jedini koji nije shvatio istinsko značenje Kegon sutre." Tokuiči37 ga je prekorio govoreći: "Vidi ovo, Či-i, čiji si ti učenik! Sa jezikom kraćim od tri inča ti klevetaš učenja koja su došla od Budinog dugog širokog jezika!"38 Kobo Daiši je prokomentarisao: "Kineski sveštenici raznih sekti su se utrkivali jedni s drugima da ukradu gi {prečišćen buter koji se pravi u Indiji} Kegon sutre, nazivajući ga vlastitom doktrinom." Tako, doktrina ičinen sanzena nije pomenuta niti u privremenim niti u istinskim učenjima. Nije se pojavila u spisima ijednog velikog indijskog učenjaka, i nijedan kineski ili japanski sveštenik nikada je nije izložio. Kako se onda usuđuješ da veruješ u to?
Odgovor: Tvoj kriticizam je sirov. Razlika između Lotos sutre i drugih sutri mora se odrediti po tome šta te sutre same kažu. U njima nalazimo tvrđenja da Buda nije otkrio istinu u prvih četrdeset dve godine svog podučavanja i da će ih otkriti u Lotos sutri.

Taho i sve druge bude širom univerzuma predstavile su se da posvedoče istinu Lotos sutre; svedočenje koje nisu učinile nijednoj drugoj sutri. Lotos sutrom je Šakjamuni osposobio ljude dvaju vozila da dostignu budastvo, dok sa ranijim sutrama nije. U ranijim sutrama tvrdio je da je dostigao prosvetljenje po prvi put u ovom svetu, ali u Lotos sutri je otkrio da je njegovo prosvetljenje stvarno bilo u dalekoj prošlosti gohjaku-đintengoa.39

Sada ću istražiti problem koji su postavili učenjaci koje si gore pomenuo. Veliki Učitelj Tjen-tai komentariše: "Vasubandu i Nagarđuna su jasno opazili istinu u svojim srcima, ali nisu podučavali. Umesto toga, propovedali su privremena mahajanska učenja koja su bila podesnija za njihovo vreme. Međutim, budistički učitelji koji su kasnije došli bili su pristrasni u svojim shvatanjima, a učenjaci su tvrdoglavo prionuli za vlastite nazore, sve dok na kraju nisu započeli bitku jedni s drugima. Svako je branio jedno malo ćoše učenjâ i na taj se način potpuno odvojio od Budinog pravog puta."40 Veliki Učitelj Čang-an kaže o Tjen-taju: "Čak ni veliki majstori Indije nisu u istoj klasi s njim, a kineski učenjaci - pa, teško da bi ih trebalo pominjati. Ovo nije prazno hvalisanje - doktrina kojoj je podučavao svakako je bila takve jedne nadmoćnosti."

U svom srcu, Vasubandu, Nagarđuna, Ašvagoša, Stiramati i drugi budistički učenjaci su znali [istinu ičinen sanzena], ali je nisu otkrivali s toga jer vreme da se ona izloži nije još bilo došlo. Što se tiče budističkih učitelja u Kini koji su prethodili Tjen-taju, neki su držali to blago u svojim srcima a drugi nisu ništa o njemu znali. Među onima koji su ga sledili, neki su prihvatili [ičinen sanzen] samo posle prvog pokušaja da je pobiju, a ostali je nisu uopšte nikada prihvatili.

Što se tiče odeljka iz Hoben poglavlja koji si naveo: "Buda je uklonio svo zlo života," ovde Buda spominje jedno učenje iz jedne od ranijih sutri. Ali ako pogledaš bolje sutru, postaje jasno da je uzajamno posedovanje Deset Svetova bilo objašnjeno. Jer u istom poglavlju pojavljuje se ovaj odeljak: "Bude se pojavljuju u ovom svetu da bi otvorile vrata buda mudrosti svim bićima." Tjen-tai komentariše ovaj odeljak na sledeći način: "Ako ljudi ne bi posedovali urođenu buda mudrost u sebi, kako bi Buda mogao reći da želi da je razvije? Mora se shvatiti da je buda mudrost latentna u svim ljudskim bićima."41 Čan-an [navodi jednu parabolu da ovo ilustruje i] zaključuje: "Kako bi ljudi mogli da shvate svoju buda mudrost ako ona ne postoji u njima? Kako bi siromašna udovica mogla da otkrije svoje blago ako nije bilo u špajzu?"42

Izuzetno je teško, međutim, ubediti te da Gospodar Buda postoji u nama, kao i devet svetova od Pakla do sveta Bodisatve. U desetom poglavlju Lotos sutre on opominje: "Među svim sutrama koje sam propovedao, sada propovedam, i koje ću propovedati, ova Lotos sutra je najteža za shvatanje i najteže je u nju verovati." "Šest teških i devet lakih dela" koje je izložio u sledećem poglavlju naglašavaju ovu težinu. Otuda Tjen-tai tvrdi: "S toga što su teorijska i esencijalna učenja [Lotos sutre] u kontradikciji sa svim ranijim sutrama, u njih je izuzetno teško poverovati i teško ih je shvatiti - ne manje teško nego se susresti sa neprijateljem koji je naoružan kopljem." Čang-an komentariše: "Buda je ova učenja odredio kao svoja krajnja učenja. Kako bi ikako bilo lako razumeti ih?" Veliki Učitelj Dengjo zapaža: "U Lotos sutru je najteže poverovati i shvatiti je zato što je Buda u njoj direktno otkrio ono što je bio dostigao."

U prvih osamdeset stotina godina posle Budinog ulaska u nirvanu, samo tri osobe su opazile Istinski Zakon. To su Šakjamuni iz Indije, Veliki Učitelj Tjen-tai iz Kine i Veliki Učitelj Dengjo iz Japana. Ova tri čoveka su svi budistički mudraci.

Pitanje: Šta biva sa Nagarđunom i Vasubanduom?
Odgovor: Ovi mudraci su znali, ali nisu to izlagali. Izložili su deo teorijskog učenja, ali nisu podučavali niti esencijalnom učenju niti istini Budinog prosvetljenja koju sadrži. Moguće je da su ljudi njihovog doba bili sposobni da veruju u to, ali vreme nije bilo zrelo da se izloži. Ili je moguće da ni ljudi ni vreme nisu bili odgovarajući.

Posle pojave Tjen-taja i Dengja, mnogi budisti su upoznali ičinen sanzen kroz mudrost ova dva mudraca. Uključili su Čia-hsianga iz Sanron sekte; više od stotinu sveštenika kineskih južnih i severnih sekti; Fa-tsanga i Č'ing-lianga iz Kegon sekte; Hsuan-tsanga i C'u-ena iz Hoso sekte; Šan-vu-veja, Čin-kang-čija i Pu-k'unga iz Šingon sekte i Tao-hsuana iz Ritsu sekte. Isprva su se svi oni protivili Tjen-taju, ali su kasnije potpuno prihvatili njegovo učenje.

E sad, da bi rasterao teške sumnje koje imaš u vezi sa uzajamnim posedovanjem Deset Svetova, upućujem te na Mirjogi sutru, koja tvrdi: "Pretpostavi da se rodilo dete nekom kralju i kraljici. Ono može biti staro samo jedan dan, dva dana ili sedam dana; mesec, dva ili sedam meseci staro; godinu, dve ili sedam godina staro. Ono još ne može da upravlja poslovima države, ali je već cenjeno i poštovano od narodnih podanika i ministara i ima za svoje društvo sinove drugih vladara. Kraljevski roditelji ga vole bez rezervi i uvek pričaju s njim, zato što je još uvek veoma mlado.

"Ljudi posvećene vere, onaj ko prihvata ovu sutru je kao mladi princ. Razne bude mogu biti nalik kralju a ova sutra kraljici. Oni rađaju bodisatvu, svoje dete. Pretpostavimo da bodisatva sluša i prihvata ovu sutru. Ako on recituje čak samo jednu rečenicu ili stih, ili čita samo nekoliko njenih redova ili je propoveda jednom, dvaput, deset puta, stotinu, hiljadu, deset hiljada ili bezbroj puta, mada ne može još da shvati njenu punu istinu, već će biti uvažavan od strane četiri vrste vernika i osam vrsta drugih nižih bića, o njemu će voditi računa velike bodisatve i neprekidno će primati bezrezervnu zaštitu i saosećanje svih buda. To je s toga što je još uvek nov u veri."

Fugen sutra kaže: "Ova je mahajana sutra blago, oko i seme života za sve bude u univerzumu kroz prošlost, sadašnjost i budućnost... Treba da se istakneš u praksi i nikada da ne dozvoliš da seme budastva odumre." Takođe izjavljuje: "Ova sveobuhvatajuća sutra je oko svih buda s toga što kroz njena učenja postaju obdareni sa pet tipova vizija. Pošto se tri prosvetljena svojstva Budinog života uzdižu iz ove sutre, ona je pečat krajnje istine koja osigurava pristup okeanu nirvane. Budina tri čista svojstva dolaze iz vaskolikog okeana i postaju plodno polje dobre sreće za sva ljudska i nebeska bića."

Sada treba da krenemo da premerimo ceo opseg Budinog učenja, egzoteričnog i ezoteričnog, kao i hinajane i mahajane, naročito onih sutri od kojih svaka veroispovest, Kegon, Šingon itd., zavisi u svojoj doktrini. Na primer, Kegon sutra opisuje Vairočana Budu kako sedi u centru hiljadulatičnog lotosovog cveta; Daiđuku sutra, oblak budâ koje su se sakupile iz čitavog univerzuma; Hanja sutra, izbijanje hiljadu budâ, a Dainiči i Kongočo sutre oslikavaju više od dvanaest stotina buda i bodisatvi. Sve ove bude nisu ništa do privremene manifestacije izvornog Bude. Sve ove sutre otkrivaju prakse Šakjamuni Bude i budastvo koje je dostigao u ovom životu, ali ne otkrivaju izvorni uzrok njegovog prosvetljenja u dalekoj prošlosti gohjaku-đintengoa.

Istina je da je neposredno dostizanje budastva otkriveno u učenjima pre Lotos sutre, ali ona ne pominju da je Šakjamuni Buda podučavao svoje učenike u dalekoj prošlosti sanzen-đintengoa i gohjaku-đintengoa. Prema tome, nema obelodanjenja kada je Buda počeo podučavanje ili kad ga je završio.43 Kegon sutra izgleda da spada u dva viša, a Dainiči sutra u sva četiri učenjia - zokjo, tsugjo, beko i engjo - ali ove sutre zapravo spadaju u kategoriju zokjo i tsugjo, dva niža učenja, s toga što ne izlažu tri potrebne stvari za budastvo: urođenu buda prirodu, potencijal da se ovo shvati {ostvari}, i uzrok koji čini da se buda priroda razvije. Onda kako možemo odrediti ove sutre kao seme prosvetljenja?

kraj prvog dela | drugi deo

Preveo Mića Mijatović 21. 07. 2002. u Beogradu
Izvor: Major Writings of Nichiren Daishonin Vol. I. pp. 45-83.

Footnotes: • Napomene:

  1. Each of these worlds in turn possesses thirty realms: each one of the Ten Worlds has the ten factors of life, each of which possesses the three realms of existence. Multiplied together these yield thirty realms of existence • Svaki od ovih svetova zauzvrat poseduje trideset područja: svaki od Deset Svetova ima deset faktora života, od kojih svaki poseduje tri područja egzistencije. Pomnoženi zajedno daju trideset područja egzistencije.
  2. "Three thousand realms" might also read "three thousand factors," but the number is the same...: T'ien-t'ai's Maka Shikan shows two ways to derive sanzen (three thousand) of ichinen sanzen. One starts with the hundred worlds, multiplies them by the three realms of existence, and then by the ten factors of life to arrive at three thousand factors of life. The other method starts with the hundred worlds, multiplies them by the ten factors of life, and then by the three realms of existence to form three thousand realms of existence. Although explained differently, the principle is the same. • "Tri hilijade područja" se može tumačiti i kao "tri hiljade faktora", ali je broj jedan isti...: Tjen-tajeva Maka Šikan pokazuje dva načina izvođenja sanzena (tri hiljade) iz ičinen sanzen. Jedan počinje sa stotinu svetova, množeći ih sa tri područja egzistencije, a zatim sa deset faktora života da bi se došlo do tri hiljade faktora života. Drugi metod počinje sa sto svetova, množi ih sa deset faktora života, a onda sa tri područja egzistencije da formira tri hiljade područja egzistencije. Mada drugačije objašnjen, princip je isti.
  3. Another text of the Maka Shikan states...: This note refers to the preceding sentence, "Each of these worlds in turn possesses thirty realms," and shows yet a third method of expansion. These various methods show that in essence, whichever angle life is viewed from, it is always the entity of ichinen sanzen. • Jedan drugi tekst iz Make Šikan tvrdi...: Ova se napomena odnosi na prethodnu rečenicu: "Svaki od ovih svetova zauzvrat poseduje trideset područja," i pokazuje još i treći metod proširenja. Ovi razni metodi pokazuju da je u suštini, iz ma kog ugla se život posmatra, to uvek isti entitet ičinine sanzena.
  4. Guketsu, vol. 5. • Guketsu, tom 5.
  5. Cognitive faculty: One of the six sense organs and their objects. Cognition comes from the stimulation of a sense organ by an object. • Kognitivna sposobnost: jedan od šest organa čula i njegovi objekti. Kognicija dolazi iz stimulacije organa čula od strane nekog objekta.
  6. Kannon Gengi: T'ien-t'ai's annotations on the Fumon (25th) chapter of the Lotus Sutra. • Kanon Gengi: Tjen-tajeva zabeleška o (25om) poglavlju Fumon Lotos sutre.
  7. Chapter Seven: This chapter is found in the fifth volume of the Maka Shikan. Its title is Shokan Sho, which means correct perception of life. • Sedmo poglavlje: ovo poglavlje se nalazi u petom poglavlju Make Šikan. Njegov naslov je Šokan Šo, što znači ispravno opažanje života.
  8. Twenty-five preparatory exercises: These exercises develop one's capability to realize the true nature of life. • Dvadeset pet pripremnih vežbi: ove vežbe razvijaju sposobnost da se shvati prava priroda života.
  9. Great Sage: Refers to the Great Teacher T'ien-t'ai. • Veliki mudrac: odnosi se na Velikog Učitelja Tjen-taja.
  10. Hokke Gengi, vol. 2. • Hoke Gengi, tom 2.
  11. Introduction to the Hokke Gengi. • Uvod u Hoke Gengi.
  12. Kongobei-ron: Miao-lo wrote this treatise maintaining that even insentient beings possess Buddhahood and refuting the Kegon sect's assertion that the realm of Buddhahood was limited to sentient beings alone. • Kongobei-ron: Miao-lo je napisao ovu raspravu ostajući pri tome da čak i bića koja ne osećaju poseduju budastvo i odbacujući tvrđenje Kegon sekte da je područje budastva ograničeno samo na bića koja osećaju.
  13. Lotus Sutra, chap. 12. • Lotos sutra, pogl. 12.
  14. Ibid., chap. 26. • Isto delo, pogl. 26.
  15. Ibid., chap. 12. • Isto delo, pogl. 12.
  16. Ibid., chap. 10. • Isto delo, pogl. 10.
  17. Ibid., chap. 2. • Isto delo, pogl. 2.
  18. Ibid., chap. 3. • Isto delo, pogl. 3.
  19. Ibid. • Isto delo
  20. Pratyekabuddha: Man of realization. See also Realization in the Glossary. • Pratjeka buda: čovek shvatanja. Vidi takođe "shvatanje" u Rečniku.
  21. Lotus Sutra, chap. 2. • Lotos sutra, pogl. 2.
  22. Ibid., chap. 21. • Isto delo, pogl. 21.
  23. Ibid., chap. 16. • Isto delo, pogl. 16.
  24. Hokke Mongu, vol. 8. • Hoke Mongu, tom 8.
  25. Kanjin-ron Jo. • Kanđin-ron Đo.
  26. Hokke Shuku. • Hoke Šuku.
  27. Lotus Sutra, chap. 2. • Lotos sutra, pogl. 2.
  28. Siddhartha: Shakyamuni's given name. • Sidarta: Šakjamunijevo rođeno ime.
  29. Kongo gods: A generic name in Buddhism for protective deities who wield weapons with which can destroy anything. • Kongo bogovi: opšte ime u budizmu za zaštitnička božanstva koja imaju oružje kojim sve mogu uništiti.
  30. Eighty thousand teachings: All of Shakyamuni's teachings. Not an accurate count of sutras, this number is used to indicate totality. • Osamdeset hiljada učenja: sva Šakjamunijeva učenja. Nije tačan broj sutri; ovaj broj se koristi da označi celokupnost.
  31. Seventy-five, seventy-six or seventy-seven thousand Buddhas: In Hinayana Buddhism a bodhisattva is supposed to serve seventy-five thousand Buddhas for one million aeons, seventy-six thousand Buddhas for the next million aeons, and seventy-seven thousand Buddhas for a third million aeons. • Sedamdeset pet, sedamdeset šest ili sedamdeset sedam hiljada buda: u hinajana budizmu, pretpostavlja se da bodisatva treba da služi sedamdeset pet hiljada buda tokom milion eona, sedamdeset šest hiljada buda tokom sledećih milion eona i sedamdeset sedam hilijada buda tokom trećeg miliona eona.
  32. He transformed the land three times: The eleventh chapter of the Lotus Sutra states that Shakyamuni first purified the saha, or mundane world, the innumerable surrounding lands in space, and finally innumerable other lands even farther away in space. He changed all three into Buddha's lands before opening the door of the Treasure Tower. The saha world is where common mortals and saints live. The first set of innumerable lands are where people of the two vehicles live, and the second set of innumerable lands are where bodhisattvas live. Shakyamuni Buddha changed these three kinds of lands into one -- the Buddha's land. • Transformisao je zemlju tri puta: jedanaesto poglavlje Lotos sutre tvrdi da je Šakjamuni prvo proočistio saha, ili zemaljski, svet, bezbroj okolnih zemalja u svemiru i, konačno, bezbroj drugih zemalja, još udaljenijih, u svemiru. Sve tri je pretvorio u Budine zemlje pre negoštoje otvorio vrata Tvrđave s Blagom. Saha svet je onaj u kome žive obični smrtnici i sveci. Prva grupa bezbrojnih zemalja je ona gde žive ljudi dvaju vozila, a druga je grupa bezbrojnih zemalja je ona gde žive bodisatve. Šakjamuni je pretvorio ove tri vrste zemalja u jednu - Budinu zemlju.
  33. The wording of the original has been considerably expanded and modified to make this passage intelligible. • Način izražavanja iz originala je bio značajno proširen i modifikovan da bi se ovaj odeljak učinio razumljivim.
  34. Ch'ing-liang (738-839): The fourth high priest of the Chinese Hua-yen (Kegon) sect. • Č'ing-liang (738-839): četvrti visoki sveštenik kineske Hua-jen (Kegon) sekte.
  35. Hui-yuan: A T'ang dynasty priest who studied Kegon under Fa-ts'ang (643- 712), the third high priest and systematizer of the Hua-yen (Kegon) sect. • Hui-juan: sveštenik iz T-ang dinastije koji je proučavao Kegon kod Fa-ts'anga (643-712), treći visoki sveštenik i sistematizator Hua-jen (Kegon) sekte.
  36. Ryoko: No documents about him remain today, but he is thought to have been a Japanese Kegon priest. • Rjoko: nijedan dokument o njemu nije ostao do danas, ali misli se da je bio japanski Kegon sveštenik.
  37. Tokuichi: A priest of the Hosso sect in the early period of Heian (794-1185). It is said that he had frequent debates with the Great Teacher Dengyo. • Tokuiči: sveštenik Hoso sekte u ranom Heian periodu (794-1185). Kaže se da je imao česte debate sa Velikim Učiteljem Dengjom.
  38. Buddha's long broad tongue: One of the thirty-two excellent characteristics of the Buddha. This is symbolic of the Buddha's honesty. • Budin dug širok jezik: jedna od trideset dve osobine izvrsnosti Bude. Ovo je znak Budine iskrenosti.
  39. The technical terms in the original have been expanded in translation for the purpose of clarity. • Tehnički izraz u originalu je bio proširen u prevodu u svrhu jasnosti.
  40. Maka Shikan, Vol. 5. • Maka Šikan, tom 5.
  41. Hokke Gengi, vol. 2. • Hoke Gengi, tom 2.
  42. Kanjin-ron Jo. • Kanđin-ron Đo.
  43. The language of the original is highly condensed and technical and has been expanded considerably in translation. • Jezik originala je veoma sažet i tehnički i bio je značajno proširen u prevodu.

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