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Exodus (Chapter 12-14)


"And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil."-- Matthew 6:13

The Exodus account of Pesach (Passover) marks the historical origins of opposition to any despotic and imperial rule over the people of God. Despotism is government by a singular authority - either a single person or tightly knit group - which rules with absolute power. The word implies tyrannical rule; it suggests a form of government which exercises exacting and near-absolute control over all of its citizens.

The Pesach (Passover) narrative is located in Exodus 12-14, and celebrates the miraculous deliverance of Israel from evil...Primarily, this was from out of the bondage of slavery in Egypt.

Egypt was divided into two basic regions.

From the days of the Patriarch's Jacob and Joseph's sojourn in the land of Egypt, there was contention of the Egyptians toward the lifestyle of the Israelites, and the Egyptians held a contemptuous view of their nomadic lifestyle, and every shepherd was an abomination to them. (Gen. 46:34) Joseph found favor in the eyes of Pharaoh at that time however, and to the Egyptian people of the region, it was not unusual for a Hyksos to give authority to another Semite.

When through God's providence, Joseph arose to the position of visier, his family, which numbered 70 at that time was given some of the richest pastureland of the Nile delta region, that of Goshen. Property values were determined by how close one lived to the Nile. Goshen lay on the eastern border of Nile Delta, and was the first place travelers stopped, coming from Canaan. The Nile was the life-line of Egypt, fashioning it's economy, and making it an agricultural nation. Troubles began, when a new king defeated the Hyksos or Shepherd king dynasty, and he'd never known Joseph.

The Egyptian kings ruled southern Egypt from Thebes, during the time of the Hyksos. In 1570 B.C, Ahmose the first king of the new dynasty defeated the Hyksos (Shepherd kings) and regained all Egypt. As with any real estate, time and this new administration over Egypt, brought a new perspective. Persecution arose against the Israelites for their rapid increase in population, possibly for the advantage of their property within Egypt, and for other reasons, escalating into enforced labor and infanticide.

The Jewish holy day of Pesach falls in the first month of Abib/Nisan of the Hebrew religious calendar. It's one of three feasts or festivals which all Israelites were commanded to attend. is the meal shared by Hebrew families on the night oldest of the Jewish feasts.


Midwives (Exodus 1:15-22); Moshe/Moses name means -"drawn out" of the water. (Exodus 2:10); Moses was providencially drawn from the river Nile, by Pharaoh's daughter. The Nile was the lifeflow of Egypt, and the plague which turned it's waters to blood struck the very core of the Egyptian economy. Moshe had been placed into the waters of the Nile for his own preservation, during a phase of government infanticide. His parents moved with holy boldness to defy the Pharaoh's order to surrender their child. The Red Sea (Exodus 14); Holiness, Sanctification (Psalm 144; Revelation 12) They were baptized in the cloud and in the sea...We are baptized into Mashiach.

Genesis 12: Abrahamic Covenant - Exodus 12: Passover

(Hebrews 11:23-29)

The clearest picture of our individual salvation through the shed blood of Yeshua haMashiach, the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world, is in the Old Testament (1 Corinthians 5:7). Death of a Spotless Lamb - Exodus 12:3; Hebrews 9:28; Isaiah 53:6-7; John 19:14; 1 Corinthians 5:7

It's not merely a spotless Lamb (i.e. Yeshua/Jesus' sinless life) that saves, but the sacrificial death of that Lamb Sprinkle the Blood - Exodus 12:13, 22; John 1:12; Hebrews 9:22; Revelation 5:5-6

All the blood of Calvary's cross will not save a single soul unless it is applied to that individual's own heart through faith in the atoning blood of Messiah, Yeshua haMashiach.

Hyssop was a common weed which was available to everyone, like faith is available: Psalm 51:7; John 19:29) Not one's opinion about faith or their familiarity with the Blood, but only the application of the Blood counts Partake of the Lamb of God and believe for household salvation as seen in "A Lamb for a house-" Exodus 12:3

Fire - Exodus 12:9

And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying... Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a LAMB, according to the house of their fathers, a LAMB for an house....

Your LAMB shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats: And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.

And they shall take of the BLOOD, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it. And they shall eat the flesh in that night, ROAST with FIRE, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it....

For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.

And the BLOOD shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are: and when I see the BLOOD, I will PASSOVER you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt. (Exodus 12) (Emphasis mine)


We learn from the Passover that God will judge the wicked. At the time of the Exodus, He slew all the firstborn of Egypt, including the firstborn son of Pharaoh. God was on the side of Israel, not Egypt, although God in His mercy, sent Moshe as His messenger to give Pharaoh ample warning. God used the 10 plagues to fight for Israel, and to help effect the release of His people from Egypt, where they'd been held in bondage.

Redemption for the people of God means destruction for the enemies of God. Life for Israel means death for Egypt. You can't have one without the other.

We see this over and over again, in Psalm 136, as the Psalmist recounts the mercy of the LORD. There can be peace in heaven, but there can be no peace between heaven and hell.

A second lesson is that all have sinned and come short of the glory of God. Even the chosen people of God were sinners (we see more of this in their wilderness wanderings, in Sinai, after leaving Egypt). How do we know they were sinners?

God demanded the blood of an innocent lamb, as a substitute for their blood -- so that He would not slay them, when He slew the Egyptians. Without the shedding of blood, there is no remission of sins. This is a central theme of the Holy Scriptures.

The lamb had to be a male lamb of the first year, without blemish. God would not accept a blemished sacrifice, as we later learn in the third book of Moses (Leviticus). The male lamb must be innocent -and without blemish.

The blood of the lamb must be applied to the two lintels or side posts and the upper post of the door. Then, the Hebrews must get inside the house, behind the blood on the doorposts. Here we see Israelites taking action by faith. It did not matter whether the Hebrew person was young or old, male or female, fair-skinned or dark. But only that the individual Hebrew trusted in the Word of God. If he believed and applied the blood of the Passover Lamb by faith, staying within the walls of the house to which the blood was applied, he was safe from the power of the Destroyer. He was preserved from God's wrath against ungodliness.

Why was this so? God's word demanded payment must be made for sins. The blood of an innocent substitute must be shed for him. God's justice had been satisfied. The Passover Lamb had borne the wrath of God. The people of God (Israel) could now go free.

The TANACH (Jewish Bible) tells us that the Messiah would be led to the slaughter--. Through His shed blood (his stripes) we, who believe, are saved, healed and delivered. We read this in the Book of Isaiah the Prophet.

"He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not. Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.

But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a LAMB to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth."

(Isaiah 53:3-7)

A Suffering Messiah and Messiah coming to reign as Our Great Eternal King. The people of Israel knew that David's greater Son would redeem Israel from all destruction.

What they seemed unable to reconcile, were the prophecies concerning Messiah as a "Suffering Servant," as seen in Isaiah 53. As sinners, Israel needed more than political advocacy and military deliverance. They needed deliverance from the wrath of God, due to their sins.

This need for deliverance from the wrath of God, due to our sins, is also the need of every gentile. The Passover Lamb points directly to the Messiah in Isaiah 53. JEREMIAH FORETELLS A NEW COVENANT The Prophet Jeremiah wrote that God promised to make a New Covenant with the house of Israel (Jeremiah 31:31-34). Several hundred years later, John the Baptist, a direct descendant of Aaron, the High Priest, said of Jesus:

"Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world." (John 1:29).

Three and a half years later, while celebrating the Jewish Feast of Passover with his disciples, Jesus instituted this New Covenant. We read: "And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body.

And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; For this is my BLOOD of the NEW TESTAMENT, which is shed for many for the remission of sins." (Matthew 26:26-28)

The next day, he fulfilled these words, as he willingly laid down his life, for the lost sheep of the house of Israel. He is the Passover Lamb, whose blood alone stands between man and God's wrath against sins.

The Israelites partook of the roasted lamb, whose shed blood had saved them. We need to feed our minds and hearts spiritually, with the sacrifice of the spotless Lamb of God, Yeshua HaMashiach (Jesus the Messiah).

A member of the tribe of Benjamin wrote, "Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us: Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. (1 Corinthians 5:7-8)


The Hebrew Prophets also foretold Messiah's Resurrection (rising from the dead). The One, who was to die, would also live again. We read in the TANACH (Jewish Bible):

"Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in his hand.

He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities.

Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he hath poured out his soul unto death: and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors. (Isaiah 53:10-12) "For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption." (Psalm 16:10)


In reviewing Exodus 12, we notice that LAMB is always in the singular. Each house in Israel was to take a lamb. Yet in God's mind, there was only one LAMB of God, who takes away the sin of the world. We also see a divine progression when God speaks of the LAMB.

"Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house:

And if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto his house take it according to the number of the souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb.

Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats." (Exodus 12:3-5)

Is Jesus the Messiah just a lamb (an innocent man, crucified) in your mind? If so, He needs to become the LAMB in your mind and heart (the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world). Only then, by the grace of God, can He become your LAMB (your personal Lord and Saviour).

A Family Covenant - Exodus 12:3 First the blood, then the life giving nourishment of salvation: fellowship, worship, God's word, the believer's service in obeying God's will and divine call. (John 6:54-58) No broken bones - Exodus 12:9; Psalm 34:20; John 19:36 Remove Leaven - Exodus 12:8, 15, 19; Psalm 139:23-24; Matthew 16:6; 1 Corinthians 5:7

Leaven often used as metaphor for sin. Bitter Herbs - Exodus 12:8;; Isaiah 53:5,10

Symbol of bitterness of slavery to sin Christ tasted bitterness for us, and we must face some bitterness, too. Hebrews 12:11 Ready to Leave - Exodus 12:11; 13:8.

Packed, eating while standing, fully dressed, ready to go Apostolic ("sent out or forth") Missionary heart: Matthew 28:18-20 3- SPIRITUAL WARFARE Plagues - Exodus 7-11; each plague was the defeat of another Egyptian principality or false pagan deity-Exodus 12:12 The first commandment of the Lord is: [Exodus 20:3] "You shall have no other gods before me or besides me."

The Ten Plagues
Passover - Prophetic Act; Defeat of Egypt's highest principality, Osiris, the god of the Dead, a demonic spirit of death.

On that same night, the Egyptians smeared swine's blood on their doorposts in sacrifice to Osiris to prevent untimely deaths in the coming year. YHWH in a power encounter with the powers of darkness, broke the power of this principality spirit and the covenant with death through the spirit of Osiris was disannulled, that YHWH's chosen people might be freed to go and worship Him. Exodus 11:4-6

List of the Plagues and Possible Identification With Egyptian Gods

Tom Campbell is married to Alana Campbell and they are the parents of six children.
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Telephone (425) 252 2981

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