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June 2002

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March 2002 June 2002 Sept. 2002 Dec. 2002

Journal of Applied Animal Research

Vol.21 No. 2           June 2002

(Abstracted/indexed in AGRIS Database, Biosis Database, CAB Abstracts,Chemical Abstracts, CURRENT CONTENTS (AB and ES), Food Science and Technology Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, RESEARCH ALERT, SCISEARCH)

Influence of tween 80 on the enzyme distribution in rumen liquor and on the growth of rumen bacteria and fungi J.K. Ha, S.S. Lee (Korea), M. Goto (Japan), Y.H. Moon (Korea)
and K.-J. Cheng (Taiwan)
Gastrointestinal tracts of herbivores, particularly the ruminant : anatomy, physiology and microbial digestion of plants Burk A. Dehority (USA)
The ruminal mycoplasmas : A review K.N. Joblin and G.E. Naylor (New Zealand)
Rumen microbial responses to antinutritive factors in fodder trees and
shrub legumes
C.S. McSweeney (Australia), A. Odenyo (Ethiopia)
and D.O. Krause (Australia)
Microbial eco-system of the gastro-intestinal tract of wild herbivorous animals N.P. Sahu and D.N. Kamra (India)


Influence of Tween 80 on the Enzyme Distribution in Rumen Liquor and on the Growth of Rumen Bacteria and Fungi

J.K. Ha1, S.S. Lee2, M. Goto3, Y.H. Moon4,
K.-J. Cheng5

1School of Agricultural Biotechnology
Seoul National University
Suweon 441-744, Korea

2Faculty of Animal Science
Gyeong Sang National University
Chinju 660-701, Korea

3Mie University, Tsu, Mie 514, Japan

4Department of Dairy Science, Chinju National University
Chinju 660-758, Korea

5Institute of BioAgricultural Resources
Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC

(Received November 6, 2001; accepted May 3, 2002)


Ha, J.K., Lee, S.S., Goto, M., Moon, Y.H. and Cheng, K. -J. 2002. Influence of Tween 80 on the enzyme distribution in rumen liquor and on the growth of rumen bacteria and fungi. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 21: 129-143.

The effect of the surfactant Tween 80 on the enzyme distribution and growth of pure cultures of rumen anaerobic non-cellulolytic and cellulolytic bacteria

and monocentric and polycentric fungi was investigated. When Tween 80 was added to rumen fluid at the level of 0.05 and 0.1 per cent (v/v), the total and specific activities of most of the cell-free enzymes were significantly (P<0.01) increased, but those of cell-bound enzymes did not follow a definite trend. The growth rates of rumen noncellulolytic bacteria (Ruminobacter amylophilus, Megasphaera elsdenii, Prevotella ruminicola and Selenomonas ruminantium) were significantly (P<0.01) increased by the addition of Tween 80 at both the concentrations tested. However, the growth rate of rumen cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens) were generally not affected by Tween 80. In general, Tween 80 appears to affect gram-negative bacteria more than gram-positive bacteria; and non-cellulolytic bacteria more than cellulolytic bacteria. The growth rates of ruminal monocentric fungi (Neocallimastix patriciarum Piromyces communis) and polycentric fungi (Orpinomyces joyonii and Anaeromyces mucronatus) were also significantly (P<0.01) increased by the addition of 0.05 per cent Tween 80. These results indicate that the addition of 0.05 per cent Tween 80 may greatly stimulate the release of some enzymes from microbial cells and also stimulate the growth rates of a range of anaerobic ruminal microorganisms and thus can be used as a potential feed additive for ruminants.


Gastrointestinal Tracts of Herbivores, Particularly the Ruminant : Anatomy, Physiology and Microbial Digestion of Plants

Burk A. Dehority

Department of Animal Sciences
The Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center
The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio 44691 USA

(Received October 11, 2001; accepted April 8, 2002)


Dehority, B.A. 2002. Gastrointestinal tracts of herbivores, particularly the ruminant : anatomy, physiology and microbial digestion of plants. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 21: 145-160.

The ability of herbivores to utilize forages and plants as their sole energy source is dependent on microorganisms living at various sites within their gastrointestinal tract. Essentially two types of herbivores have evolved, those with a post-gastric (hindgut) fermentation and those with a pre-gastric (foregut) fermentation. Bacteria are present in the gastrointestinal tract of all herbivores, and many are also inhabited by ciliate protozoa and fungi. Ruminants, probably the most abundant of the herbivores, are foregut fermentors with a four-chambered stomach (rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum). Only the last chamber, the abomasum, is acidic. The environment within the rumen is anaerobic, 39C, with a pH between 6.0 and 7.0.


The Ruminal Mycoplasmas : A Review

K.N. Joblin*, G.E. Naylor

Rumen Biotechnology
Grasslands Research Centre, AgResearch, Private Bag 11008
Palmerston North, New Zealand

(Received December 28, 2001; accepted March 7, 2002)


Joblin, K.N. and Naylor, G.E. 2002. The ruminal mycoplasmas : a review. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 21: 161-179.

Mycoplasmas, originally believed to be very primitive microbes but since found to have evolved from Gram-positive bacteria, are of considerable scientific interest because they are the smallest prokaryotes capable of self replication. Their unusual phenotype and lack of a cell wall would seem to make mycoplasmas vulnerable to microbial attack in complex microbial environments, yet they are present at population densities of at least 107-108 per gram digesta in the rumen microbial ecosystem and appear to be a normal part of the rumen microflora. The ruminal mycoplasmas are unusual in that they are the only known obligately anaerobic mycoplasmas. The five known species have been classified to two genera within a new family, the Anaeroplasmataceae, within the class Mollicutes. Whereas, many mycoplasmas from other environments grow only as parasites, those isolated from the rumen are fermentative and grow in the absence of a host. There is no evidence that they parasitise other rumen inhabitants although often they are co-isolated with fungi, protozoa and methanogens. Their role in the rumen is largely unknown. This review outlines the current knowledge on ruminal mycoplasmas including their isolation and culture, phylogeny, metabolism, genetics, diversity and putative ecological roles.


Rumen Microbial Responses to Antinutritive Factors in Fodder Trees and Shrub Legumes

C.S. McSweeney, A. Odenyo*, D.O. Krause

CSIRO Livestock Industries, Long Pocket Laboratories
120 Meiers Rd., Indooroopilly 4068, Australia

*International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

(Received December 13, 2001; accepted March 20, 2002)


McSweeney, C.S., Odenyo, A. and Krause, D.O. 2002. Rumen microbial responses to antinutritive factors in fodder trees and shrub legumes. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 21: 181-205.

The major limitation to ruminant production in many tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Australia is poor nutrition. Annual growth rates of animals are restricted by the low nitrogen and high fibre content of the native grasses and crop residues that form the basis of the diets in these regions. Supplementation of tropical roughages with fodder trees and shrubs (FTS) is a promising method to alleviate nutrient deficiencies associated with these basal diets. However, FTS often contain toxins and anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) that limit their use as feedstuffs. Selection and breeding for cultivars that are low in toxins/ANFs has not been successful since the presence of these compounds is strongly associated with survival in many tropical environments. A solution to the problem may be the rumen microorganisms from adapted domestic and wild ruminants that have evolved rumen fermentation mechanisms to transform or detoxify some of these plant secondary compounds. This review examines the use in ruminant feeding systems of FTS that contain deleterious secondary compounds; our current understanding of microbial interactions with these secondary compounds, and advances in the use of rumen biotechnology to overcome these limitations.


Microbial Eco-system of the Gastro-intestinal Tract of Wild Herbivorous Animals

N.P. Sahu,* D.N. Kamra**

Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition
Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Izatnagar - 243 122, India

(Received May 7, 2002; accepted May 20 2002)


Sahu, N.P. and Kamra, D.N. 2002. Microbial eco-system of the gastro-intestinal tract of wild herbivorous animals. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 21: 207-230.

The microbial eco-system of the gastro-intestinal tract plays a very significant role in bioconversion of lignocellulosic feeds into volatile fatty acids. Their role becomes more important when the diet given to the animals is of poor quality e.g. in the wild animals, which have to survive on the natural vegetation in the forests and in lean season the availability of nutritious feed is scarce. Thus the animals have to depend upon the efficiency of the microbial eco-system of the gastro-intestinal tract for extracting the maximum possible nutrients from such feeds. The literature available on the eco-system of wild animals is not much, but these studies conducted in different laboratories have been compiled and presented in this review. Most of the microbial groups reported in wild animals are similar to those found in the domestic animals, but there do exist some exceptions in which new species of protozoa, bacteria and fungi have been reported. Some of these microbes are host specific. Therefore, the studies of the microbial eco-system of the gastro-intestinal tract of wild animals is very important and interesting.


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