29 A.D.

Matthew 27)

1 When the morning was come, all the chief priests and elders of the people took counsel against Jesus (Gr. Iesous is the same as Heb. Yahshua, and means Salvation of Yahaveh, or Yahaveh the Savior) so that they might Him to death:
2 And when they had bound Him, they led Him away, and delivered Him to Pontius Pilate the governor.

27:3-10. JUDAS. REMORSE.
P  A  w  3. Remorse.                  Money returned.
       x  4. Confession.                    "
      w  5-. Restoration.                   "
       x  -5. Death.                        "
   A  y  6. Price of blood.  Fulfillment.  Money spent.
       x  7,8. Purchase.          "             "
      y  9. Price of blood.   Prophecy.         "
       x  10. Purchase.           "             "

3 Then Judas, that delivered Him up, when he saw that He was condemned, repented himself, and brought again the thirty pieces of silver (cp. 26:15) to the chief priests and elders,

4 Saying, "I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent (the innocence of the Lord affirmed by 6 witnesses, 3 in Matthew and 3 in Luke: 1. Judas [27:4]; 2. Pilate [27:24]; 3. Pilate's wife [[27:19]; 4. Herod [[Luke 23:15]; 5. the malefactor [Luke 23:41]; 6. the Roman Centurion [Luke 23:47) blood." (put for the whole person) And they said, "What is that to us? (ignoring both the Lord's innocence and Judas's guilt) you will see to to it]."

5 And he cast down the pieces of silver into the Sanctuary, (over the barrier into the Sanctuary) and departed,

and went and was hanged. (He had help, he didn't hang himself. See Acts 1:18)

THE PURCHASE OF "THE POTTER'S FIELD" (Matt. 27:6-8 and Acts 1:18, 19)

There are two difficulties connected with these scriptures :

I. The two purchases recorded in Matt. 27:6-8, and Acts 1:18, 19, respectively; and II. The fulfillment of the prophecy connected with the former purchase (Matt. 27:9, 10).

For there were two. One by "the chief priests", recorded in Matt. 27:6; and the other by Judas Iscariot recorded in Acts 1:18. The proofs are as follows: -

  1. The purchase of Judas was made some time before that of the chief priests; for there would have been no time to arrange and carry this out between the betrayal and the condemnation.

The purchase of the chief priests was made after Judas had returned the money.

  2. What the chief priests bought was "a field" (Gr. agros).

What Judas had acquired (see 3, below) was what in English we call a "Place" (Gr. chorion = a farm, or small property.)

The two are quite distinct, and the difference is preserved both in the Greek text and in the Syriac version.

  3. The verbs also are different. In Matt. 27:7 the verb is agorazo = to buy in the open market (from agora = a market place); while in Acts 1:18, the verb is ktaomai = to acquire possession of (See Luke 18:12; 21:19; Acts 22:28), and is rendered "provide" in Matt. 10:9. Its noun, ktema = a possession (Occ. Matt. 19:22. Mark 10:22. Acts 2:45; 5:1).

  4. How and when Judas had become possessed of this "place" we are not told in so many words; but we are left in no doubt, from the plain statement in John 12:6 that "he was a thief, and had the bag". The "place" was bought with this stolen money, "the reward (or wages) of iniquity". This is a Hebrew idiom (like our Eng. "money ill-got"), used for money obtained by unrighteousness (Ap. 128. VII. 1; cp. Num. 22:7. 2Pet. 2:15). This stolen money is wrongly assumed to be the same as the "thirty pieces of silver".

  5. The two places had different names. The "field" purchased by the chief priests was originally known as "the potter's field", but was afterward called "agros haimatos" = the field of blood; i.e. a field bought with the price of blood ("blood" being put by the Fig. Metonymy (of the Subject), for murder or blood-guiltiness).

  The "possession" which Judas had acquired bore an Aramaic name, "Hakal dema" , which is transliterated Akeldama, or according to some Akeldamach, or Hacheldamach = "place" (Gr. chorion) of blood" : a similar meaning but from a different reason : viz. Judas' suicide. It is thus shown that there is no discrepancy between Matt. 27:6-8 and Acts 1:18, 19.

6 And the chief priests took the silver pieces, and said, "It is not lawful for to put them into the treasury, since it is the price of blood."

7 And they took counsel, and purchased [with money in the market] (In Acts 1:18, the word is not agorazo, as here, but ktaaomai = acquired as a possession by purchase. Acts 1:18 refers to quite another transaction) out of them the potter's field, (a small holding, as in Acts 1:18) for a burying ground for foreigners.
  8 Wherefore that field was called, "The field of blood," to this day.


  Many solutions have been proposed to meet the two difficulties connected with Matt 27:9, 10.

i. As to the first difficulty, the words quoted from Jeremiah are not found in his written prophecy : and it has been suggested

  1. That "Matthew quoted from memory" (Augustine and others).

  2. That the passage was originally in Jeremiah, but the Jews cut it out (Eusebius and others); though no evidence for this is produced.

  3. That it was contained in another writing by Jeremiah, which is now lost (Origen and others).

  4. That Jeremiah is put for the whole body of the prophets (Bishop Lightfoot and others), though no such words can be found in the other prophets.

  5. That it was "a slip of the pen" on the part of Matthew (Dean Alford).

  6. That the mistake was allowed by the Holy Spirit on purpose that we may not trouble ourselves as to who the writers were, but receive all prophecy as direct from God, Who spake by them (Bishop Wordsworth).

  7. That some annotator wrote "Jeremiah" in the margin and it "crept" into the text (Smith's Bible Dictionary).

  These suggestions only create difficulties much more grave than the one which they attempt to remove. But all of them are met and answered by the simple fact that Matthew does not say it was written by Jeremiah, but that it was "spoken" by him.

  This makes all the difference : for some prophecies were spoken (and not written), some were written (and not spoken), while others were both spoken and written.

  Of course, by the Fig. Metonymy (of cause, Ap. 6), one may be said to "say" what he has written; but we need not go out of our way to use this figure, if by so doing we create the very difficulty we are seeking to solve. There is all the difference in the world between to rhethen ( = that which was spoken), and ho gegraptai ( = that which stands written).

ii. As to the second difficulty : that the prophecy attributed to Jeremiah is really written in Zechariah 11:10-13, it is created by the suggestion contained in the margin of the Authorized Version.

That this cannot be the solution may be shown from the following reasons : --

  1. Zech. 11:10-13 contains no reference either to a "field" or to its purchase. Indeed, the word "field" (shadah) does not occur in the whole of Zechariah except in 10:1, which has nothing to do with the subject at all.

  2. As to the "thirty pieces of silver", Zechariah speaks of them with approval, while in Matthew they are not so spoken of. "A goodly price" ('eder hayekar) denotes amplitude, sufficiency, while the Verb yakar means to be priced, prized, precious and there is not the slightest evidence that Zechariah spoke of the amount as being paltry, or that the offer of it was, in any sense and insult. But this latter is the sense in Matt. 27:9, 10.

  3. The givers were "the poor of the flock". This enhanced the value. "The worth of the price" was accepted as "goodly" on that account, as in Mark 12:43, 44. 2Cor. 8:12.

  4. The waiting of "the poor of the flock" was not hostile, but friendly, as in Prov. 27:18. Out of above 450 occurrences of the Heb. shamar, less than fourteen are in a hostile sense.

  5. In the disposal of the silver, the sense of the Verb "cast" is to be determined by the context (not by the Verb itself). In Zech. 11, the context shows it to be in a good sense, as in Ex. 15:25. 1Kings 19:19. 2Kings 2:21; 4:41; 6:6. 2Chron. 24:10, 11.

  6. The "potter" is the fashioner and his work was not necessarily confined to fashioning "clay", but it extended to metals. Cp. Gen. 2:7, 8. Ps. 33:15; 94:9. Isa. 43:1, 6, 10, 21; 44:2, 9-12, 21, 24; 45:6, 7; 54:16, 17. Out of the sixty-two occurrences of the Verb (yazar), more than three-fouths have nothing whatever to do with the work of a "potter"

  7. A "potter" in connection with the Temple, or its service, is unknown to fact, or to Scriptures.

  8. The material, "silver", would be useless to a "potter" but necessary to a fashioner of metallic vessels, or for the payment of artizans who wrought them (2Kings 12:11-16; 22:4-7. 2Chron. 24:11-13). One might as well cast clay to a silversmith as silver to a potter.

  9. The prophecy of Zechariah is rich in reference to metals; and only the books of Numbers (31:22) and Ezekiel name as many. In Zechariah we find six named: Gold, six times (4:2, 12; 6:11; 13:9; 14:14). Fine gold, once (9:3). Silver, six times, (6:11; 9:3; 11:12, 13; 13:9; 14:14). Brass, once (6:1, marg.). Lead, twice (5:7, 8). Tin, once (4:10, marg.). Seventeen references in all.

  10. Zechariah is full of refs to what the prophet saw and said but there are only two refs. to what he did; and both of these have references to "silver" (6:11; 11:13).

  11. The Septuagint, and its revision by Symmachus, read "cast them (i.e. the thirty pieces of silver) into the furnace (Gr. eis to choneuterion), showing that, before Matthew was written, yotzer was interpreted as referring not to a "potter" but to a fashioner of metals.

  12. The persons are also different. In Matthew we have "they took", "they gave", "the price of him"; in Zechariah we read "I took", "I cast", "I was valued".

  13. In Matthew the money was given "for the field", and in Zechariah it was cast "unto the fashioner"

  14. Matthew names three parties as being concerned in the transaction; Zechariah names only one.

  15. Matthew not only quotes Jeremiah's spoken words, but names him as the speaker. This is in keeping with Matt. 2:17, 18. Jeremiah is likewise named in Matt. 16:14; but nowhere else in all the New Test.

iii. The conclusion. From all this we gather that the passage in Matthew (27:9, 10) cannot have any reference to Zech. 11:10-13.

  1. If Jeremiah's spoken words have anything to do with what is recorded in Jer. 32:6-9, 43, 44, then in the reference to them other words are interjected by way of parenthetical explanation. These are not to be confused with the quoted words. They may be combined thus: --

  "Then was fulfilled that which was SPOKEN by Jeremiah the prophet saying; 'And they took the thirty pieces of silver [the price of him who was priced, whom they of the sons of Israel did price], and they gave them for the potter's field, as the LORD appointed me.'"

  Thus Matthew quotes that which was "SPOKEN" by Jeremiah the prophet and combines with the actual quotation a parenthetical reference to the price at which the prophet Zechariah had been priced.

  2. Had the sum of money been twenty pieces of silver instead of thirty, a similar remark might well have been interjected thus: --

  "Then was fulfilled that which was SPOKEN by Jeremiah the prophet saying; 'And they took the twenty pieces of silver [the price of him whom his brethren sold into Egypt], and they gave them for the potter's field'", &c.

  3. Or, had the reference been to the compensation for an injury done to another man's servant, as in Ex. 21:32, a similar parenthetical remark might have been introduced thus: --

  "Then was fulfilled that which was SPOKEN by Jeremiah the prophet, saying : 'And they took the thirty pieces of silver [the price given in Israel to the master whose servant had been injured by an ox], and they gave them for the potter's field'" , &c.

  A designed parenthetical insertion by the inspired Evangelist of a reference to Zechariah, in a direct quotation from the prophet Jeremiah, is very different from a "mistake" or "a slip of the pen", "a lapse of memory" or a "corruption of the text", which need an apology.

  The quotation itself, as well as the parenthetical reference are both similarly exact.
above taken from appendix 161 of the Companion Bible

9 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by means of Jeremiah the prophet, (not "written", either by Jeremiah or Zechariah, but :spoken" by Jeremiah) saying, "And they took the thirty pieces of silver, (the price of Him that was valued, whom they from the son of Israel did value);

10 And gave them for the potter's field, according to what the Lord appointed me." (See Zech. 11)

11 And Jesus stood before the governor: and the governor asked Him, saying, "Are You the King of the Jews?"

And Jesus said to him, "You yourself say it." (A Hebraism)

S  B  11-. The Lord before the Governor.
    C  D1  -11-. Pilate. Question.
         E1  -11. The Lord. Answer.
       D2  12-. Rulers. Accusation.
         E2  -12. The Lord. Silence.
       D3  13. Pilate. Question of the Lord.
         E3  14. The Lord. Silence.
       D4  15-25. Pilate. Remonstrance with the People.
   B  26. The Lord delivered by the Governor.

12 And when He was accused by the chief priests and elders,

He answered nothing. (Note the occasions of of the Lord's silence of speech)

13 Then said Pilate to Him, "Hear You not how many things they witness against You?"

14 And He answered him to not one a word; insomuch that the governor marveled greatly.

D4  F  a  15,16. Release of one. Customary.        Custom existing.
        b  17,18. Question as to preference.             "
         c  19. Advice of Pilate's wife to Pilate.       "
    F   a  20.  Release of Barabbas. Persuasion.   Custom acted on.
         b  21-23. Question as to preference.            "
          c 24,25. Advice of Pilate to the people        "

15 Now at that feast the governor was wanting to release to the crowd a prisoner, whomever they wanted.
16 And they had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas. (= son of rest)

17 Therefore when they were gathered together, Pilate said to them, "Whom chose you that I release to you? Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ?"
18 For he knew that for envy they had delivered Him.

19 When he was set down upon the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, "Have you nothing to do with that just man: for I suffered many things this day in a dream because of Him."

20 But the chief priests and elders persuaded the crows that they should ask for [themselves] Barabbas, and destroy Jesus.
21 The governor answered and said to them, "Which of the two will you that I release to you?" They said, "Barabbas."
22 Pilate said to them, "What shall I do then with Jesus which is called Messiah?" (Christ is the Greek translation of Messiah. Christos has the same meaning, from chrio, to anoint) They all say to him, "Let Him be crucified."
23 And the governor said, "Why, what evil has He done?" But they kept crying out the more, saying, "Let Him be crucified."

24 When Pilate saw that he could prevail for nothing, but that rather a tumult was brewing, he took water, and washed his hands before the crowd, saying, "I am guiltless from the blood (put for murder, as in 23:35. Deut. 19:12. Ps. 9:12. Hos. 1:4) of this just One: you will see."
25 Then answered all the people, and said, "His blood be on us, and on our offspring."

26 Then he released Barabbas to them: and when he had scourged Jesus, he handed Him over to be crucified.

T  G  27. Place. Prǽtorium.
    H  28-32. Treatment. Crown and Cross.
   G  33. Place. Golgatha.
    H  34. Treatment. The bitter cup.

27 Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the Prǽtorium, and gathered against Him the whole cohort. (The cohort contained about 600 men)

27:28-32. TREATMENT.
H  d  28. Clothing. Chanced.
    e  29,30. Crown and Scepter.
   d  31. Clothing. Re-changed.
    e  32. Cross.

28 And they stripped Him, and put on Him a purple robe.
29 And when they had platted a crown of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a reed in His right hand: and they bowed the knee before Him, and mocked Him, (as foretold by Him in 20:17-19, but they were only ignorantly fulfilling His own words, as well as Father's purpose) saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!"
30 And they spit at Him, and took the reed, and kept beating Him on the head.

31 And after that they had mocked Him, they took the robe off from Him, and put His own raiment on Him, and led Him away for to crucify Him.

32 And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name: this man they compelled to bear His cross.

33 And when they were come to a place called Golgotha, that is to say, a place of a skull, (Nothing is said about a "green hill". But an elevation, which we speak of as being a "head", "shoulder", or "neck". The Latin -is calvaria = a skull. Hence Eng. Calvary.)

34 They gave Him vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when He had tasted thereof, He would not drink. (Note the 5 occasions on which this was done; and observe the accuracy of what is said, instead of creating "discrepancies"" 1. On the way to Golgotha [Mark 15:25 = were offering], He did not drink. 2. When they arrived there [here, v.33], He tested it, but would not drink. 3. Later, by the soldiers after He was on the cross [Luke 23:36], probably at their own meal. 4. Later still, a proposal made by some and checked by others, but afterward carried out [Matt. 27:48]. 5. The last about the 9th hour, in response to the Lord's call [John 19:29]. In the first case it was wine drugged with myrrh. In the 2nd case [here], it was "vinegar mingled with gall. In the 3rd case, it was "sour wine". In the 4th case it was also "sour wine". In the 5th case it was the same. These then were the 5 occasions and the 3 kinds of drink.)

L2  J1  35-37. The parting of the garments.
    J2  38-44. After the parting of the garments.
    J3  45-54. The 3 hours' darkness.

J1  f  35-. The crucifixion.
     g  -35. God's writing fulfilled.
    f  36. The watching.
     g  37. Man's writing put up.

35 And they crucified Him, and parted His garments, (this fulfilled Ps. 22:18; and marks a fixed point in the series of events, which determines the tines of others) casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet,

"They parted My garments among them, and upon My clothing did they cast lots."

36 And sitting down they were keeping guard over Him there;

37 And set up over His head (this is not therefore the inscription written by Pilate and put upon the cross before it left Pilate's presence [John 19:19]; this was brought after the dividing of the garments; and was probably the result discussion of John 19:21,22.) His accusation written, This is Jesus King of the Jews.


  Each of the four Gospels gives a different wording of these inscriptions : -

    1.  Matt. 27: 37 :  "This is Jesus, the King of the Jews."
    2.  Mark 15:26 :  "The King of the Jews"
    3.  Luke 23:28 :  "This is the King of the Jews."
    4.  John 19:19 :  "Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews."

  Here again the difficulty is created by assuming that these similar but differing records are identical, without noticing the exact words which are written. It is universally assumed that there was only one, and then follow the efforts to explain the alleged "discrepancies" between the different versions of it.

  If we note carefully what is actually said all will be clear.

   I. Mark 15:26 can be dismissed; for he does not say anything about a "title" (Gr. titlos, John 19:19) being put on the cross or anywhere else, which any one had seen. It is a question of the Lord's "accusation" or "indictment", or the ground or cause of His condemnation as claiming to be "the King of the Jews".

   II. John 19:19 speaks of a "title" written by Pilate, before it left Pilate's presence; for no one suggests that Pilate went to the scene of the execution and wrote anything there.

  In Pilate's writing the three languages were in this order : (1) Hebrew (2) Greek and (3) Latin (cp. IV. below). And it was read after the cross had been set up.

  This was one which gave rise to the argument between the Chief Priests and Pilate (John 19:21, 22); and this argument took place before the parting of the garments (vv 23, 24).

   III. The inscription in Matt. 27:37 was the result of that discussion; for another "title" was brought and was "set up over his head", after they had "parted His garments", and having sat down, they watched Him there (vv. 35, 36).

  As there could hardly have been two titles at the same time, the former must have been then taken down and the other substituted.

  We are not told how long the argument lasted or when it ceased, or what was the final result of it.

   IV. A further result is seen in Luke 23:38; for another was brought much later, close upon "the sixth hour" (v. 44), when the darkness fell. It was written with the languages in a different order : (1) Greek (2) Latin, and (3) Hebrew (v. 38). (But see the texts.) It was put up "over Him" (Gr. ep' auto, v. 38), "after the revilings of the People" (cp. vv. 35-37, with v. 38); whereas Matthew's (No. III) was set up before the revilings (cp. Matt. 27:37 with v. 39).

The result is that : -

1. Mark's was only His indictment.

2. John's was the first written by Pilate himself (or by his order), in (1) Hebrew, (2) Greek, and (3) Latin, and was put on the cross before it left Pilate's presence.

3. Matthew's was the second, substituted for the first, in consequence of the arguments which took place, and was set up "over His head" after the garments had been divided, and before the revilings.

4. Luke's was the third (and last), put up "over Him", after the revilings (Luke 23:35), and was seen just before the darkness of the "sixth hour" (v. 41). This was written in three languages, but in a different order : (1) Greek, (2) Latin, and (3) Hebrew (v. 38). Not in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin as in No. II in John 19:19.

 Thus, such differences as these are marks of Divine accuracy; and instead of being sources of difficulties, become, when rightly divided, the means of their removal.
above taken from appendix 163 of the Companion Bible

J2  h  38. The 2 robbers. Brought.
     i  39,40. The reviling of the Passers-by.
     i  41-43. The Mocking of the Rulers.
    h  44. The 2 robbers. Reviling.

38 Then (after the parting of the garments) were there two robbers (therefore not the 2 "malefactors of Luke 23:32, who "were led with Him to be put to death", and came to Calvary and were crucified with Him [Luke 23:33]. These 2 "robbers" were brought later. Note the word "then" [v.38]) crucified together with (i.e. in conjunction [not association]) Him, one on the right hand, and another on the left.

THE "OTHERS" CRUCIFIED WITH THE LORD (Matt. 27:38 and Luke 23:32).

  Mislead by tradition and the ignorance of Scripture on the part of medieval painters, it is the general belief that only two were crucified with the Lord.

  But Scripture does not say so. It states that there were two "thieves" (Gr. lestai = robbers, Matt. 27:38. Mark 15:27); and that there were two "malefactors" (Gr. kakouryoi, Luke 23:32).

  It is also recorded that both the robbers reviled Him (Matt. 27:44. Mark 15:32); while in Luke 23:39 only one of the malefactors "railed on Him", and "the other rebuked him" for so doing (v. 40). If there were only two, this is a real discrepancy; and there is another, for the two malefactors were "led with Him to be put to death" (Luke 23:32), and when they were come to Calvary, "they" then and there "crucified Him and the malefactors, one on the right hand and the other on the left" (v. 33).

  But the other discrepancy is according to Matthew, that after the parting of the garments, and after "sitting down they watched Him there", that "THEN" were there two robbers crucified with Him, one on the right hand and the other on the left" (Matt. 27:38. Mark 15:27). The two malefactors had already been "led with Him" and were therefore crucified "with Him", and before the two robbers were brought.

  The first two (malefactors) who were "led with Him" were placed one on either side. When the other two (robbers) were brought, much later, they were also similarly placed; so that there were two (one of each) on either side, and the Lord in the midst. The malefactors were therefore the nearer, and being on the inside they could speak to each other better, and the one with the Lord, as recorded (Luke 23:39-43).

  John's record confirms this, for he speaks only of place, and not of time. He speaks, generally of the fact : "where they crucified Him, and with Him others, two on this side, and that side, and Jesus in the midst" (John 19:8). In Rev. 22:2 we have the same expression in the Greek (enteuthen kai enteuthen), which is accurately rendered "on either side". So it should be rendered here: "and with Him others, on either side".

  But John further states (19:32, 33) : "then came the soldiers and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with Him. But when they came (Gr. = having come) to Jesus, and saw that He was dead already, they brake not His legs." Had there been only two (one on either side) the soldiers would not have come to the Lord, but would have passed Him, and then turned back again. But they came to Him after they had broken the legs of the first two.

  There are two words used of the "other" and "others" in John 19:32 and Luke 23:32 (See Ap. 124. 1). In the former passage we read, "they brake the legs of the first and of the other." Here the Greek is allos which is the other (the second) of the two when there are more (see Matt. 10:23; 25:16, 17, 20; 27:61; 28:1. John 18:15, 16; 20:2, 4, 8. and Rev. 17:10).

  In the latter passage (Luke 23:32) the word is heteros = different (See Ap. 124. 2) : "and others also, two were being led with Him." These were different (*1) from Him with Whom they were led, not different from one another; for they were "in the same condemnation", and "justly", while He had "done nothing amiss" (vv. 40, 41).

  From this evidence, therefore, it is clear that there were four "others" crucified with the Lord; and thus, on the one hand, there are no "discrepancies", as alleged; while, on the other hand, every word and every expression, in the Greek, gets (and gives) its own exact value, and its full significance.

  To show that we are not without evidence, even from tradition, we may state that there is a "Calvary" to be seen at Ploubezere near Lannion, in the Cotes-du-Nord, Brittany, known as Les Cinq Croix ("The Five Crosses"). There is a high cross in the center, with four lower ones, two on either side. There may be other instances of which we have not heard.

  "In the Roman Catholic church ... the altar slab or "table" alone is consecrated, and in sign of this are cut in its upper surface five Greek crosses, one in the center and one in each corner ... but the history of the origin and development of this practice is not fully worked out" (Encycl. Brit., 11th (Cambridge) ed., vol. i, pp. 762, 763). This practice may possibly be explained by the subject of this Appendix.
above taken from appendix 164 of the Companion Bible

  (*1) Cp. Matt. 6:21, 24; 8:21; 11:3. Luke 5:7; 6:6; 7:41; 9:56; 14:31; 16:13, 18; 17:34, 35; 18:10; 28:40.

39 And they that were passing by (another indication it was not the Passover day) reviled Him, wagging their heads,
40 And saying, "You that destroyed the Sanctuary, and built it in three days, save Yourself. (perverting the Lord's words [John 2:19]. Cp. 6:18) If You be the Son of God, come down off the cross."

41 Likewise the chief priests also mocking Him, with the scribes and elders, kept saying,
42 "He saved others; Himself He is not able to save. If He be the King of Israel, (condition assumed. All the text omit "if", and read "He is" [in irony]) let Him now come down from the cross, and we will believe Him.
43 He trusted in God; let Him deliver Him now, if He will have Him: (the condition assumed as in v.42) for He said, 'I am the Son of God.' "

44 The robbers also, which were crucified with Him, kept reviling Him. (Both the robbers reviled; but only one of the malefactors [Luke 23:39,40)

27:45-54. THE 3 HOURS' DARKNESS.
J3  K  l  45. Sign in heaven. Darkness.
        m  46. Cry. "Eli, Eli".
         L  47-49. Misunderstanding of Bystanders.
    K   m  50. Cry. Repeated.
       l  51-53. Signs on earth. Veil, earthquake, &c.
         L  54. Understanding of Centurion and others.

45 Now from the noon there was darkness over all the land (No human eyes must gaze on the Lord's last hours) until the 3 p.m. (See John 19:14)

46 And about the 3 p.m Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?" that is to say, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken Me?" (Quoted from Ps. 22, He quoted the whole Psalm [which was 1,000 years before the fact]. Thus, with the Lord's last breaths He gives Divine authority to the O.T. What love! Teaching while He's dying!)

47 Some of them that stood there, when they heard that, said, "This man calls for Elijah." (Mistaken by the hearers for the Heb. 'eliy-yāh)

48 And straightway one of them ran, and took a sponge, and filled it with vinegar, (see v.34) and put it on a reed, and was offering Him to drink.

49 The rest said, "Let be, let us see whether Elijah is coming to save Him." (Ref. to Mal. 4:5)

50 Jesus, when He had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the spirit. (Gr. pneuma)

51 And, behold, the veil (that which is spread downward, or that which hangs down) of the temple was rent into two from above (as in Luke 1:3) to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks were torn;
52 And the tombs were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept were raised, (Is this the resurrection refereed to in Rom. 1:3. They thus fulfilled the Lord's words in John 5:25)
53 And came out of the graves after arising He rose, (they were raised) and went into the holy city, and appeared (blue) to many.

54 Now when the centurion, and they that were with him, watching Jesus, having seen the earthquake, and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, "Truly this was the Son of God."

L3  M1  27:55-66. Burial.
    M2  28:1-15. Resurrection.

27:55-66. BURIAL.
M1  N  55,56. The Women. Mary and the others.
     O  p  57. Joseph of Arimathǽ.
         q  58-. His application to Pilate.
          r  -58. Pilate's compliance.
           s  59,60. Tomb. Body placed.
M2  N  61. The Women. Mary and the others.
     O  P  62. Chief Priests and Pharisees.
         q  63,64. Their application to Pilate.
          r  65. Pilate's compliance.
           s  66. Tomb secured.

55 And many women were there beholding from afar, who (i.e. such as) followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering to Him:
56 Among which was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedee's children.

57 When the evening was come, there came a rich man of Arimathaea, named Joseph, who himself also had been discipled to Jesus:

58 This man went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. (The Lord was buried by 2 secret disciples. See John 19:38,39. Cp. Mark 15:42,43. Luke 23:50-53.)

Then Pilate commanded the body to be given up.

59 And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth,
60 And laid it in his own fresh monument, (i.e. unused and as yet undefiled by any dead body) which he had hewn out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the monument, and departed. (When Joseph rolled the stone against the door he departed; when the angel rolled it away, he "sat upon it" [Matt. 28:2])

61 And there was Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary, sitting over against the burying-place.

62 Now the next day, that followed the day of the preparation, (this was the "high Sabbath" of John 19:42, not the weekly Sabbath of 28:1) the chief priests and Pharisees came together to Pilate,

63 Saying, "Sir, we [have been] reminded that that impostor said, while He was yet alive, 'After three days I will rise again.' (They had heard the Lord say this in 12:39,40. This is how they understood the "three days and three nights". Cp, "after" in v.53)
64 Command therefore that the burying-place be secured until the third day, lest His disciples come by night, and steal Him away, and say to the people, 'He is risen from the dead:' so the last deception shall be worse than the first." (They do not say what the 1st was. It may be the crucifixion itself.)

65 Pilate said to them, "You may have a guard: (the word being a transliteration of the Latin custodia, consisting of 4 soldiers [Acts 12:4]) go your way, make it as sure as you know [how]."

66 So they went, and made the burying-place sure, sealing the stone, with the watch. (i.e. in the presence of the watch, leaving them to keep guard)

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