Remember, when an abundance of water is brought into an area, a community, or city it is obvious that the waste waters are disposed of via a series of septic systems or through a central sewer system. And since the castle or fortress obviously contained many people, warriors, children, etc. it apparently had a central sewer system and outflow described as a gutter (II Samuel 5:8). The gutter obviously carried excess unused water, unclean waste waters, and other sewage out of the castle (fort) and city to be disposed of at some distance from the castle or fort. Perhaps waters flowing in from one or two sources became the waste waters flowing out to form a third water course.
The Three Rivers: Any search for ancient Jebus [later called (preExilic) Jerusalem] should consider the water sources for the three rivers: the Ajalon, the Sorek, and the Elah. Remember, any considerations for establishing a habitation for a single person or a whole city include water. And, when the early Jebusites (Canaanites) settled and brought forth the ancient community of Jebus, one of three rivers (probably the Sorek) was their obvious choice.
Note: The post Babylonian region wherein the new Jerusalem was built rests on the dry side (the East side) of the watershed; whereas, the three rivers are on the West. But, by the time Nehemiah returned from Babylon, ancient wells had been dug and a religious significance guided Nehemiah's choice rather than water.
However, when the earlier Solomonic Temple was constructed, waters from the Ajalon's sources apparently were tunneled into the Solomonic Temple's subterranean cisterns. Whereas, the Sorek apparently supplied the city of Jebus (the preExilic Jerusalem).
En-Rogel: The well of Rogel, a fountain of the traveler (See Strong's Hebrew Lexicon #5883; Joshua 15:7; 18:16; II Samuel 17:17,27; 24:16-24; I Kings 1:9).
Enrogel is the spring(s) or prime water source for the stream (the Sorek River: Joshua 15:7) flowing down the Sorek Valley spoken of as "... the waters of En-Shemesh, and the goings out thereof were at (originating at) Enrogel" (Joshua 15:7-8; 18:16). Therefore, since the North-South ridge line dividing the watershed lies West of the Valley of Ben Hinnom, Enrogel must be on the ridge or West of the ridge line dividing the watershed. That is, for the waters of Enrogel to flow Westerly past En-Shemesh and on down the Sorek Valley ... Enrogel must be West of the watershed line. This too is only common sense!
Also, Enrogel is marked by the Stone of Zoheleth, a long narrow serpentine ridge of rock (I Kings 1:9). Zoheleth could be the watershed line that stretches from Beersheba to Carmel; but, more probably Zoheleth is a much shorter segment marked by the source of the Sorek. (Enrogel is obviously not the traditional 125 foot deep well in the Kidron just South of where the Hinnom and Kidron Valley meet. I Kings 1:9 exposes that false identification).
Furthermore, as mentioned, Jebus, like any other city, required ample water sources for drinking, cooking, washing, animals, etc. And, Enrogel appears to be such a water source for the ancient city of Jebus (II Samuel 17:17-20).
Actually, a second water source fed the Elah which flows Westerly from the area towards Ashdod where it eventually flows into the Lakhish River (or Brook). The Lakhish originates Southwest of Hebron and flows Westerly passing North of the town of Lachish and on North of Ashdod where the Elah joins it and flows on to the Mediterranean.
Note: There are three interrelated fresh water sources: (1) Rain water which comes from evaporation from various water bodies including oceans, lakes, streams, etc. (2) The underground river systems which provide waters for both mountain and valley springs and polar fresh water ice caps. (See Chanoch's Water Supply which explains the unique system of natural distillation plants operating deep beneath the oceans of this world that provide both underground fresh water rivers and a source of crude oil replenishment). (3) The underground water table, a fresh water reservoir, which is fed by both rain waters and springs. It is expected that the underground river system is a basic source of water for En-rogel at the stone of Zoheleth.
Searching For The Hidden City: Any competent search for the ancient city of Jebus (the preExilic Jerusalem) would begin by searching the water sources of the three rivers, searching for tunnels that channelled waters into the city and tunnels that carried the waste waters out of the city. The Solomonic Temple outflow has been described in "Reentering Temple History - A and B"in Brian's Annex Menu.
The Gihon: The definition of Gihon (Gîchôwn) is a river or stream [from gôach meaning to gush forth (as water); to issue] (See Strong's Hebrew Lexicon #1521, 1518).
The Nile River is called the Gihon (Genesis 2:13) apparently because of its annual historic propensity to gush forth and inundate the lands. The Scriptures also refer to the Gihon with respect to the castle in the city of Jebus (I Kings 1:33,38,45; II Chronicles 33:14) and also with respect to the Solomonic Temple (II Chronicles 32:30). Subsequently, archaeologists, theologians, politicians, and others have applied the name Gihon to the traditional site South of the phony temple mount.
Now, without intent of being vulgar, the term gihon could be applied to every modern toilet. That is, when the chain is pulled or lever actuated, a gush of water rushes forth to flush the waste down the gutter or sewer outflow. The inflowing water into the tank (a reservoir) is clean, the outflow is not.
(1) The castle or fortress called the City of David, (2) the Temple built by Solomon, (3) Nehemiah's Temple, (4) Herod's Temple, and probably (5) Hadrian's pagan Temple ... each had their own water-sewer system; excepting, the sewer outflow from Herod's Temple was undoubtedly used to provide "fresh water" for Hadrian's edifice. That is, Jews conscripted to build Hadrian's Temple probably smiled when they tapped into the sewer outflow from Herod's Temple.
The traditional Gihon in the Kidron Valley appears to be the outflow from the phony temple mount. Its periodic flushing action can readily be seen. Whereas, the Solomonic Temple's outflow nearly a mile West is just North of the elbow of the Valley of Ben Hinnom. It's called the Serpent's Pond, the Pool of Siloam (not the traditional Siloam in the Tyropoean Valley), and the Pool in the King's Garden. And, the outflow from the Gihon associated with the real City of David should be to the West of the ridge line, probably closer to the source of the Elah (II Chronicles 33:14). All could still be periodically flushing even today.
Those who understand the Temple design realize that the tower atop the Holy of Holies is designated as the Tower of Siloam. During the destruction of each Temple, it was this tower that was felled atop the 18 floors of side chambers (9+9) which had been toppled atop the inner Temple. This was done to preserve it and to keep others out (Luke 13:4).
In the subterranean spaces beneath this Tower of Siloam (i.e. beneath the Holy of Holies) is where the immersion pool is located. Downstream from the immersion pool is a gas barrier wall that separates the clean from the unclean. Whereas, upstream from the immersion pool are a series of reservoirs or cisterns. And when each of these cisterns fill, the upper portion of each reservoir is siphoned to fill each of the succeeding lower pools. Then when the last cistern is filled, the whole siphon system triggers a great flush and the sewer side gets a wash down. Yes, the King's Garden gets more well fertilized waters. Oh, solid waste materials apparently were collected in catchments so only liquids flowed out. Periodically, prisoners such as Jeremiah (Jeremiah 37:15-16; 38:13) were required to clean out the decomposed material. That's where the term dung(eon) originated ... the house of the pit.
Thus, springs feed a series of pools or cisterns with clean water which then siphons to flush the sewer system which should be an enclosed system to limit odors, etc. A gas barrier wall would be a wall with a pool at its base and below the surface of that pool the wall would have a large opening to allow the gushing waters to readily pass through. Otherwise, a trickle of waters would not provide any flushing action. However, over the years sediment would fill much of this pool at the base of the wall. Thus, to the naive the waters would appear to be gushing from deep beneath the ground when in reality the waters are coming from a higher level on the opposite side of the wall.
In the case of the traditional Gihon in the Kidron, a tunnel on the upstream side of the wall should lead beneath the phony traditional mount, perhaps beneath the Al Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock and on to other gas barrier walls associated with Hadrian's pagan temple and still another as one approaches the preserved ruins of the inner Temple of Herod's Temple. Then from beneath Herod's Temple, tunnels may also lead to Nehemiah's Temple. Again, expect another gas barrier wall as Herod undoubtedly channelled all available water into his Temple.
O.K., the gate between the walls associated with the tunnel from beneath the Solomonic Temple leading into the Serpent's Pond (II Kings 25:4) may also be fashioned like the gas barrier wall. Thus, anyone attempting to come or go via that route would have to duck under that wall (i.e. duck underwater and through the submerged opening). So, anyone entering the Solomonic Temple's preserved remains via the gutter may have to duck under two walls: (1) the outer wall which would be beneath the city wall and, again, (2) under the gas barrier wall. Remember, when King Zedekiah escaped beneath Nebuchadnezzar's forces he made the Copper Scroll describing the hiding places of the Temple Treasures. And that scroll was made of copper to allow it to survive immersion as the King fled by ducking underwater perhaps twice enroute out of the now buried Temple's remains.
The Gihon As A Pool: When King David lay dying in the castle, Adonijah, the rightful heir to David's Throne, had assumed David's Throne without his father's blessings nor knowledge. And, instead of mourning his father's impending death, Adonijah was celebrating at the Stone of Zoheleth by the Spring of Enrogel (I Kings 1:1-9).
Nathan, Benaiah, and Solomon had not attended Adonijah's celebration (I Kings 1:10).
Nathan then told Bathsheba to speak to David and Nathan then confirmed Bathsheba's words regarding Adonijah's actions and David's promises made to Bathsheba.
David obviously was irritated at Adonijah's actions and summoned Nathan, Zadok the priest, and Benaiah. David then instructed them to take Solomon, put him upon the King's mule, take Solomon down to the Gihon, and to anoint Solomon King in front of the people (I Kings 1:11-46). Note: The anointing involved the profuse use of oil and the Gihon of the castle apparently was a public washing pool where Solomon could have been baptized and/or where excess oil could be washed off. Why else would David instruct them to take Solomon to the Gihon for his anointing? Solomon was then paraded around the castle grounds and then seated upon the King's throne.
The significance is that Solomon was placed on the King's mule and taken "down to Gihon" (a pool) indicating that the Gihon of the castle was an outdoor pool down stream from the water source. Note also, Solomon had been chosen to build the Temple even before he was born (I Chronicles 22:1 thru 23:6 et al). So, the Gihon of the castle played a major historic role in the anointing of King Solomon to sit upon David's Throne (Jeremiah 22:2; 22:1-9).
Ophel And Millo: Now those interested should have enough wisdom (knowledge with understanding) to readily search out Ophel and Millo.
Ophel pertaining to the Solomonic Temple and the City of David (II Chronicles 27:3; 33:14) and Ophel pertaining to the Second Temple (Nehemiah 3:26-27; 11:21). Ophel simply refers to the complex or community as a protrusion, a mound or tumor, a fortress or emerod, a swelling or stronghold upon the landscape. Ophel could be applied to any city as it stands out relative to the landscape. It's almost as if one were flying at night and looked down, each community would be illuminated and stand out much like the proverbial sore thumb.
Millo pertaining to the Solomonic Temple and/or the City of David (Judges 9:6,20; II Samuel 5:9; I Kings 9:15,24; 11:27; II Kings 12:20; I Chronicles 11:8; II Chronicles 32:5). Millo, of course, refers to the walls about the City, Fortress, and/or Temple area. Millo refers to a rampart (as filled in) or built up. Again, it's the walls about the complex. Whereas, the House of Millo or Houses of Millo would be the houses within the walls including houses on the walls.
The White Tipped Cane And Seeing Eye Dog: Scripture makes it rather obvious that extensive walls existed, that the ancient Jebus with the castle called a fortress existed therein, and later the Solomonic Temple with its surrounding Levitical City were added. Specific measures of the latter have been provided. The water-sewer systems offer means for easy reentry into the preserved ruins of each complex. How is it possible that such great tumors, emerods, on the landscape have remained undetected since the historic return of the Jews from Babylon?
The following items are not directly related to preExilic Jerusalem but offer a greater understanding of matters.
Now, during the Exodus, the children of Israel had been instructed to dwell about the Holy Ark in a specific pattern. However, following the Exodus, Joshua appointed certain lands to the children of Israel who built houses therein and obviously disregarded the pattern for dwelling about GOD'S Holy Ark.
GOD'S Instructions For
Israel's Dwelling About His Holy Ark
North: Numbers 2:25-31
South: Numbers 2:10-16
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