Chapter Outlines - CHAPTER 1



Exponential demands and exponential waste do not equal exponential resources.

A.    For environmental sustainability, mankind must satisfy his basic needs and must neither deplete nor degrade earth’s natural resources.

B.    Population growth, economic growth and development, poverty, and globalization must be controlled to sustain the environment.

C.    Pollution must be decreased and other environmental problems must be addressed now, especially by the industrialized nations.

D.    Cultural changes, the agricultural, industrial information and global revolutions have all affected the environment.

E.    What shall we do?


1-1 Living more sustainably

A.    Natural resources and/or natural capital form the cornerstone of resource sustainability.

B.    Different environmental professionals--be they ecologists, conservation biologists, environmentalists, preservationists, restorationists, or environmental scientists--are concerned with environmental sustainability.


1-2 Population growth


1-3 Economic growth, economic development, poverty, and globalization

Economic growth and development must consider sustainability of the environment, not production of wealth, for the future of the planet. Widespread poverty in developing nations requires developed nations to use less of the planet’s resources.


1-4 Resources

Perpetual and Renewal resources must be examined in light of economic needs.

A.    Tragedy of the commons

B.    Ecological footprints

C.    Nonrenewable resources


1-5 Pollution

Pollution threats to environments

A.    Point and nonpoint sources

B.    Environmental impacts of pollutants


1-6 Environmental and resource problems: Causes and connections

Problems in the environment and problems with resources

A.    Air and water pollution, biodiversity depletion

B.    Waste production, food supply issues


1-7 Cultural changes and sustainability

Cultural Changes’ Influence on the Environment

A.    Agricultural Revolution
B.    Industrial Revolution
C.    Information and Globalization Revolution
D.    Environmental History has covered four separate eras.

1. Tribal era (before 1600)

2. Frontier era (1607-1890)

3. Early Conservation era (1832-1870)

4. Federal Government/private citizen influential era

(1870-- )


1-8 Is our present course sustainable?

The environmental sustainability revolution has changing emphases.

A.    It is better to prevent pollution than to clean it up.
B.    It is better to prevent/reduce waste production than to dispose of it.
C.    Protecting species’ environments is the most effective action.
D.    More efficient and less wasteful use must be made of resources
E.    Decreased birth rates will stabilize world populations.
F.    Natural capital must be protected with the world’s living off its biological interest, not the capital itself.

Outline for Chapter 2
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Glossary for Chapter 1