This order of metatherians contains two species, the marsupial moles (Notoryctes caurinus and N. typhlops; the status of N. caurinus has been questioned). Marsupial moles are astonishingly like eutherian golden moles (Insectivora, Chrysochloridae) in size and shape, and in the silky, irridescent texture and appearance of their fur. They have vestigial, functionally blind eyes that lack lens and pupil. They also have no external ears. Their snouts are covered by a horny shield, and their short and stout tails are also encased in leathery skin. The foreclaws are modified to be like miniature spades, with the third and fourth digits of the forefeet greatly enlarged and bearing enormous triangular claws. They do not appear to be syndactylous. The last five cervical vertebrae are fused, apparently to brace the neck when the animal pushes against the soil with its head. These animals "swim" through the soil, leaving no permanent burrow.
The teeth of the marsupial moles appear degenerate. They are neither fully polyprotodont nor diprotodont. The dental formula varies somewhat, but it is usually around 4-3/3, 1/1, 2/3, 4/4 = 40-44. The upper molars are zalambdodont, and the lower molars have lost their talonid basins.
Marsupial moles feed on invertebrate larvae. They are active day and night, and they often forage on the surface as well as beneath the ground.
The marsupium (pouch) is small but well developed.
The phylogenetic relationships of marsupial moles remain uncertain. Biochemically, they do not appear to be close to any other marsupial.
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