(Anatolian Mother Goddess' Two Leopards)  

Çatalhöyük, Anatolia - 6300 B.C Etruscans in Italy - 600 B.C.


By Selahi DIKER

That 'one language', Sumerian, and many other similar 'lost' languages including Etruscan, Scythian, Achaemenid Elamite and Aramaic, Parthian are deciphered.

Book Summary
Türkçe Özet
Parthian Inscription
Achaemenid Elamite Inscription
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And the Whole Earth Was of One Language (Book Summary)

Against the observation of Prof. W. F. Albright, "Archaeology proves the correctness of the old philosophical adage, 'natura non facit saltum'; there is a continuity in all the apparent discontinuity of history," an obvious artificial anomaly stands apart in history books created by the so-called 'lost languages.' There is a reasonable continuity in major languages such as Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Germanic languages, Persian, Arabic, Turkish, as well in such minor languages as Albanian, Georgian and Armenian. Lost languages of significance were those of the Sumerians, Elamites, Medes, Scythians, Hittites ( Hattians), Phrygians, Lydians, Trojans, Etruscans and Arameans, great nations of their times, some creating the civilization itself and some making contributions to the arts and cultures that established the foundations of the Greek Renaissance, and through it, made possible our present civilizations. Languages of many of these nations still lived in Strabo's age. Why then, their languages should be lost while those of the minor nations lived. How could a great nation such as the Sumerians be lost who, in the words of the chronicler, spoke 'the language of the whole earth?' ( Gen 11.1-2: "AND THE WHOLE EARTH WAS OF ONE LANGUAGE"). Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson who became known as "The first successful decipherer of the cuneiform writings", at first had considered the Sumerian a Turanian language. In any case, logic will rule that these ancient languages could not possibly die out if normal historical process and continuity had to be preserved.

According to scholars, 'lost languages' in question were generally non-Semitic, non-Indo-European, and also agglutinative. Languages meeting these conditions, such as Sumerian, Elamite, Etruscan, Urartian (the language of Urartu), and Hurrian, branded vaguely 'Asian' must be related to the Ural Altaic group of which Turkish is the only major language spoken today in Eurasia. Thus, the elimination of this anomaly from the history books depended on the proof that these languages were akin to Turkish in some form or dialect. Based on this logical point, the book solves the secrets of the lost languages, and a global distribution and development of the Turkish languages during the last five thousand years has been established.

It may be shown that the culture of 6300 B.C. Anatolia discovered at Çatalhöyük by Archaeologist James Mellaart is Turkish. The Anatolian Mother Goddess represented by two leopards (back cover of the book - above picture on the left; photo by Mrs. Mellaart) found by Prof. Mellaart was also known 6000 years later to the Etruscans (front cover - picture on the right; photo by Editions d'art Albert Skira) who have been shown in this book to have spoken a Turkish dialect.

Other lost languages including Sumerian, Scythian, Phrygian, Trojan, Lycian, Hittite (Hattian), Hurrian, Urartian, Pelasgian (Oghur Turkish, the ancestor of the Hungarian - Finnish, Chuvash and perhaps the ancient Cimmerian language), Achaemenid Aramaic (official language of the Achaemenid Persians, translated partly by R. A. Bowman), Elamite (also an official language of the Persians, phonology and morphology of which is well investigated by Herbert H. Paper), Median, Parthian (the language of the super power of the East that challenged the Roman Empire), and several languages of Central Asia including that of Sakas (Yueh-Chih), Sogdians (considered by Richard N. Frye and others as Iranian), White Huns (Hephtalites) have been deciphered in this book through translations of existing texts, using normally accepted phonetics of the Aramaic-Phoenician alphabet or applying a modified 'filtered' cuneiform reading in which according to Hincks (transmitted by Sumerologist Samuel Noah Kramer) 'one and the same cuneiform sign could stand for more than one sound or value', and / or through translation of local geographical names and of personal names of kings and nobles. All these languages are thus proved to be basically Turkish. It has also been established that Turkish-speaking peoples had important roles in the founding of the ancient Chinese civilization as well as Egyptian civilization.

Again, in this long period, Turkish languages have not changed very much in their basic structures. Even the border-line languages such as the Hungarian language and the Finnish language which have apparently borrowed large amounts of foreign words from neighbouring nations to swell their vocabulary, have preserved the character, the structure and the grammar, all undoubtedly Turkish, of their basic languages.

Through re-translation of part of 8th century Gokturk (Göktürk) inscriptions a contemporary Turkish Buddhist Kingdom on the Silk Road has been discovered, a kingdom that may go back at least to the beginning of the first century.

It has been further shown that 13th century Mongol language and present Chuvash language are not independent Ural Altaic languages but are essentially Turkish in their structure and vocabulary. Along with this, a Turkish-speaking world of Marco Polo is also discovered and some of Polo's Turkish words and expressions are explained in this work for the first time.

The Issyk inscription found recently in a fifth-century B.C. royal tomb in Central Asia near Lake Issyk (ıssik Gol) belonging to a royal person dressed in a magnificent gold attire, have been re-translated correctly and it is discovered that the man and relatives accompanying the dead royal persons in Turkish tombs were doing so 'voluntarily'.

It has been shown in Chapter 6 that the smallpox inoculation, the first important break-through in the medical history, was invented in the Ottoman Empire.

The book is divided into four parts. First part (Chapter 1 thru 6) discusses and re - discovers Turkish languages and civilizations of the last fourteen hundred years. Part II (Chapters 7 thru 29) covers the main subject, deciphering of lost languages. Part III (Chapters 30 thru 32) discovers the effect of ancient Turkish dialects on the other language groups. Here, it is shown that ancient Greek language was most likely first built on the language of the Pelasgians who inhabited Greece before the Greeks, and that the majority of the names of the Greek gods and goddesses can be explained in Turkish dialects. Finally Part IV (Chapter 33) is devoted to analysis end decipherment of ancient and modern geographical names. The work ends with an epilogue.

Some of the additional conclusions derived from the book will include the following :

1. The Japhetic language assumed to be the origin of the Kurdish language and the Armenian language is a Turkish dialect. Japheth, his brother Shem and their father Prophet Noah were Sumerians who spoke a Turkish language.

2. Epic stories such as Homer's Iliad, Firdawsi's Shahname and Virgil's Aeneid were most likely originally written or told in some Turkish dialect. In the first two, the heroes fighting on both sides were most likely Turkish - speaking peoples.

3. First Cretan civilizations were most likely created by Turkish - Speaking peoples.

4. From the borrowed words we have found in the Sumerian Turkish, we may deduct that other languages especially Indo-European Iranian and the Semitic Arabic were also well developed in the ancient world of the Sumerians.

5. All alphabets including Arabic and Latin are continuation of the Aramaic alphabet. Amongst these, Gokturk (Kok - Turk) alphabet stands apart as the most perfect with several independent modifications, additions and improvements to accommodate hard or soft vowels and their associated consonants.

Copyright 1996; revised edition November 1999, 864 pages, 39 illustrations, 16 x 22.5 cm. in actual size, 1st grade paper, hardcover. ISBN 975-96037-1-3

Price : $50.00 plus postage

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And the Whole Earth Was of One Language (Türkçe Özet)

Prof. W. F. Albright tarafindan hatırlatılan "İşte burada arkeoloji yine eski bir felsefi söz olan 'natura non facit saltum' "tarihteki bütün zahiri devamsızlık içinde (bile) bir devamlılık mevcuttur" vecizesinin tam aksine tarih kitaplarında mevcut olan "Kayıp Diller" olgusu büyük bir tarihi 'anomali' oluşturmaktadır. Sanskritçe, Grekçe, Latince, Anglo - Cermen dilleri, Farsça, Arapça, İbranice, Türkçe gibi büyük diller ve hatta Arnavutça, Gürcüce ve Ermenice gibi küçük diller makul bir devamlılık gösterirler. Kayıp dillerin sahiplerinden başlıcaları olan Sumerliler, Elamlılar, Medler, İskitler, Hititler (Hattiler), Frigler, Lidyalılar, Truvalılar, Etrüskler ve Aramiler hepsi zamanlarının büyük milletleri olmuşlar, uygarlığın keşif ve yaradılışında rol oynamışlar, sanat ve kültür'de yaptıkları atılımlarla eski Yunan Rönesansının temellerini atmışlardır. Öyleyse niçin bu büyük milletlerin dilleri kayboluyor da bugün yaşayan küçük milletlerin dilleri kaybolmuyor. Mesela koca bir Sumer devleti, milleti ve dili yokoluyor ki bu dil İbrani Tevrat yazarının ifadesi ile "bütün dünyanın tek dili" idi (Genesis - Tekvin 11.1-2 " BÜTÜN DÜNYANIN DİLİ BİRDİ "). Çivi yazılarının ilk başarılı çözümünü yapan kişi olarak bilinen Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson Sumer dilinin Turani bir dil olduğunu ileri sürmüştü. Her halukarda mantık gösteriyor ki eğer normal tarihi gelişim ve devamlılık korunacaksa bu eski dillerin asla kaybolmamaları, bunların bugüne kadar yaşamaları ve bizce malum herhangi bir şekil veya diyalekt içinde devam etmeleri gerekiyordu.

Uzmanlara göre 'kayıp diller' genellikle Sami veya Hint - Avrupa dilleri dışında kalan aglutinatif bir dil grubunu oluşturuyorlardı. Bu şartlara uyan birçok kayıp diller arasında olan ve muhtelif yazarlarca 'Asyanik' tabiriyle anılan Sumerce, Elamca, Etrüskçe, Urartuca ve Hurrice gibi dillerin Ural Altay dilleri grubuna bağlanması gerekmekteydi ki bu grubun Avrasyadaki yegane büyük temsilcisi Türkçe'dir. Böylece, yukarıda belirttiğimiz tarihi anomalinin tarih kitaplarından çıkarılmasını istiyorsak, bu kayıp dillerin herhangi bir şekilde veya diyalektte Türkçe ile akrabalıklarının ispatı gerekmekteydi. Biz bu noktadan hareket ederek kayıp dillerin sırrını çözmeyi başarmış, insanlık tarihinin son 5000 yılı boyunca Türk dilinin global yayılışı ve gelişimini tesbit etmiş bulunuyoruz.

Çatalhöyük'te Arkeolog James Mellaart tarafından keşfedilen M.Ö 6300 yılına ait Anadolu kültürünün bir Türk kültürü olduğu gösterilebilir. Prof. Mellaart'ın bulduğu iki pars rolifeyi (kitabın arka kapağı - soldaki resim; foto: Mrs. Mellaart) ile temsil edilen Ana - Tanrıçayı 6000 yıl sonra İtalya'da Etrüskler de aynen tanıyorlardı (ön kapak - sağdaki resim; foto: Editions d'art Albert Skira) ki Etrüsklerin bir Türk diyalekti ile konuştukları kitabımızda ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Ve bu 8300 yıl önceki Anadolu kültürü bir gün içinde varolmadığına göre kültür tarihi bakımından eserimizin ikinci adını "Türklerin On Bin Yılı" olarak ifade ettik. Hakiki yani yazılı Türk tarihi ise çağımızdan 5000 yıl öncesine yazının Sumerliler tarafından icadına uzanmaktadır ki Sumer dilinin de bir Türk diyalekti olduğunu göstermiş bulunuyoruz. Çok muhtemeldir ki, Sumer dili daha sonra Farsçadan ve bilhassa Arapçadan bol miktarda alıntı yaparak zamanla dil bilginlerince Akadca, Asurice, Babilce, ve Aramca ismi verilen ve Sami dil grubuna sokulan sofistike bir 'yazı dili' veya dilleri haline dönüşmüştür ki bu dilleri Osmanlı Türkçesi ile kıyaslamak mümkündür.

Ayrıca İskitçe, Frigce, Truvalıların, Likyalıların dilleri, Hitit - Hattice ve Hurrice, Urartuca, ve Macarca - Fince ve Çuvaşcanın atası saydığımız Pelasg (Ogur) dili ve Hazreti İbrahim'in dili ve de Perslerin resmi dili olan Aramca ve yine Perslerin diğer resmi dili olan Elamca ve Partça dahil birçok kayıp dillerin çivi yazısı veya Arami (Fenike) alfabesiyle yazılmış eski yazıtların ve / veya bu milletlerin krallarının ve asillerinin adlarının ve bazı coğrafi terimlerinin normal Arami - Fenike fonetiği kullanmak suretiyle tercüme edilerek, esasta Türkçe oldukları ispat edilmiş böylece Yunan ve Roma'nın temellerini kuranların Türk uygarlıkları olduğu ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Aynı metotla Türkçe - konuşan milletlerin eski Çin ve Mısır uygarlıklarında büyük roller oynadıkları; Orta Asya'da ise az miktarda yazıtların incelenmesine rağmen Saka - Yüeçilerin, Sogd'ların, Eftalitlerin Türkçe konuştukları saptanmıştır.

Bu uzun tarih devresinde Türk dilleri ana yapılarını oldukça iyi korumuşlardır. En uç Türk dilleri olarak gördüğümüz Macarca ve Fince bile büyük miktarda yabancı kelimeler alarak lügatlerini şişirmelerine rağmen Türkçe olan gramer yapılarını korumuşlardır.

VIII. asır Göktürk yazıtlarının yeniden tefsiri ile o zamanki Orta Asya'da İpek Yolu üzerinde kökü eskilere dayanan yeni bir Budist Türk Devletinin varlığı keşfedilmiştir.

XIII. yüzyıl 'Moğol' dilinin ve bugünkü 'Çuvaş' dilinin müstakil birer Ural Altay dilleri olmayıp, karakterleri, yapıları, ve kelime hazineleri bakımından Türkçe birer dil oldukları gösterilmiştir. Büyük bir Türk dünyası içinde seyahat eden Marco Polo'nun bazı Türkçe kelime ve tabirleri ilk defa bu kitapta ortaya çıkarılmıştır.

Yakın zamanlarda Orta Asya'nın İsik Gölü civarında altın elbiseli bir Türk beyine ait kurganda keşfedilen bir gümüş kasenin üzerinde bulunan ve Göktürkçeye benzer bir alfabeyle yazılmış M.Ö. 5. asra ait iki satırlık bir yazıt yeniden tercüme edilmiş ve bu suretle eski Türk mezarlarında başka bir dünyaya göç eden bir beye refakat eden yakınlarının 'gönüllü' olarak ona katıldıkları tesbit edilmiştir.

Eser dört kısımdır. I.kısım (bölüm 1 - 6), son 1400 yılın Türk dillerini ve uygarlıklarını kısaca incelemekte, bir anlamda yeniden keşfetmektedir. II. kısım (bölüm 7 - 29), asıl mevzu olan 'Kayıp Dillerin Çözümü' ile ilgilidir. III. kısım ( Bölüm 30 - 32) eski Türk diyalektlerinin Hint - Avrupa ve ve Sami dilleri dahil diğer bazı dillere tesirlerini incelemektedir. Bu arada eski Yunancanın başlangıçta kuvvetli bir ihtimalle Yunanistan'ın eski otokton halkı olan Pelasgların konuştuğu Ogur Türkçesi üzerine inşa edildiği, Greklerin tanrı ve tanrıçalarının adlarının ekserisinin Türkçe ile izah edilebileceği gösterilmiştir. IV. kısım da (bölüm 33) birçok coğrafi isimlerin deşifre ve tercümesine hasredilmiştir. Eser bir sonuç yazısıyla tamamlanmaktaduır.

Eserden şu önemli sonuçlar da çıkarılabilir.

1. Kürtler ve Ermeniler tarafından ilk konuşulan dil farzedilen Yafes dili aslında bir Türk dilidir. Yafes, Sam ve babaları Hazreti Nuh birer Sumerlidir yani Türktür.

2. İlyada, Şehname ve Roma şairi Virjil tarafından yazılmış olan Aeneid adlı destanların ilk önce Türk dili ile yazılmış veya söylenmiş olmaları pek muhtemeldir. Truva ve İran - Turan savaşları büyük bir ihtimalle aynı milletin (Türkler'in) iki unsuru arasında geçen iç savaşlardır.

3. İlk Girit uygarlıklarını çok muhtemelen Türkçe - konuşan uygarlıklar yaratmıştır.

4. Sumer Türkçesinde bulduğumuz alıntı kelimeler gösteriyor ki Indo-Avrupa dili olan Farsça ve Sami dili Arapça da Sumerlilerin eski dünyasında mevcut idi.

5. Arapça ve Latince dahil bütün eski alfabeler Arami - Fenike alfabesinden türemişlerdir. Göktürk alfabesi, bilhassa ince ve kalın ünlü ve ünsüz fonemleri belirleyen kendine özgün harfler eklemek suretiyle bu alfabeler arasında en mükemmeli olarak ortaya çıkar.

Bu bilimsel çalışma ile ortaya çıkan yeni, daha doğrusu asıl Türk kimliği, onu içine sindiren her Türk vatandaşının bugünkü ve yarınki yaşam tarzını düzenleyecek, Atatürk’ün hedeflediği çağdaş uygarlık seviyesinin üstüne çıkmamızda en büyük rolü oynayacaktır.


Copyright 1996, 864 sayfa, 39 resim, 16x22.5 cm. ebat, birinci hamur, ciltli;

ISBN 975-96037-1-3

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Below is a 1st century A.D. Parthian inscription, which I call Tutuk-tarı Inscription in my book, written with an Aramaic alphabet and read from right to left:

[Parthian Inscription (New Test., American Bible Society, p. 133)]

Writing from left to right and putting in the proper phonemes, a or e for )aleph (Gk. alpha); o, u, ö, ü for (aiyn (Gk. omicron); s, ş (sh) or z for / (zayn), the text becomes:

1 tnhn s?n?t : ndük : arnht m swnp : tthtr : bdz : tzdü

2 m? : mny : swdn : ddmk : ahmn : şd sr : awşdn arp : hlw : şat

3 dzyşp : kyzl bdz : bknü : rn : key : kle : swü nççs ssü

4 mirymn : bn?maz tp : kzn erp : amş : arlp : hdm hpr

5 kerü : hyrd : bdz : atu : mh?u? : bdz : durp : kdümz

6 bdz : eknş : bdzy bzrz : bdz : mh rtrz : hod bdz : müktwrw

7 ddmk : ahmn : ddmk : swnt : kyzl mn

8 tthtr : kle : swü nççs sst

Filling in the proper hidden vowels (bold letters, where ı is an i without dot and pronounced close to an English -er as in father), and putting g/ga/gı or hard k(aa) for h, and putting in places v or u for waw (w), and i or y for yod (y), the text will read:

1 tangın sene-t : nedük : arıngtım, sevinip : Tutuk-tarı : bediz : tüzdü

2 m. : meni : sevdin : dedem ki : Agamen : şad sar : avışdan arıp : kalu : şad.

3 dizişip : kizli bedizi : beknü : urun : key : kele : sevü neççesi? süsü.

4 miri men : banmaz ti(yi)p : közün erip : amşu : arılıp : kadam kapar

5 kerü. : kayırdı : bedizi : atu : umugu? : bedize. : durup : ökdümüz

6 bedizi, : ekün-eşi. : bedizi bezeriz, : bedize : umug örteriz. : kod bedizi : mükturu

7 dedemke. : Agamen : dedemki : sevinti. : kizli men

8 Tutuk-tarı, : kele : sevü neççesi? süsti.

which translates more or less literally as follows (with words in brackets to clear meaning) :

1 Years? of wonder: much : I have been cleansed; rejoicing, : I, Tutuk-tarı : made (a) statue. :

2 Me (acc.) : you loved : my father who (is named) : Ahamen, : prince (of the West?) (and) king, : (who) from spell and sorcery being cleansed, : remaining : happy (in heaven).

3 While racing to line up : the statue having (a) base-throne, : erect! : the king (his statue) : properly (rightfully); : let come : love (to me); much of it rising up.

4 I, who is the leader (head) of this (undertaking), : saying that it cannot be attached (put) together : while (only) attaining (using) (physical) power; : (in addition) the sacrificial gift (food) : having being cleansed : (that which) my God takes

5 unto (towards) Himself. : He (God) stood as a protector over : the statue : casting (planting) : hopes : (at) the statue. : Standing up, : we praised

6 the statue, : the two mates (the statue and its base-throne). : We decorate (adorn) the statue, : the statue : we veil (our) hopes on. : Set the statue : while bowing in reverence

7 to my father. : Ahamen : who is my father : has rejoiced. : With throne I am (King),

8 Tutuk-tarı, : let it come : love (to me); much of it (the statue) is raised up.

From its content, we suspect that the above inscription belongs to a King named Tutuk-tarı (Ttktr) which must be the real name of King Vonones I I (A.D. 51), son of Vonones I (r. A.D. 7-12) and grandson of Phraates. According to Tacitus, he was the ruler of the Parthian province of Media and was on the side of a group of Parthian nobles eager to get rid of the cruel King Gotarzes (r. A.D. 38-51) who however died after an illness. Crowned as the next king, young Vonones [ttktr] had a very short reign and was followed by his son Vologeses I, the hero of another inscription we have in our book. The name of the elder Vonones is written by Prof. Frye with a question mark as whwnm? which name is very similar to the name Ahmn (Ahamen) of the inscription: thus, Whwnm > Whwmn > Ahmn > Ahmn which is: Ahamen or Agamen "lord I am," or Akaman "true lord." The life of the father Vonones had a sad ending: According to Tacitus, he was sent by his father Phraates to Augustus "to cement friendship, not so much from dread of us as from distrust of the loyalty of his countrymen." After the death of Phraates and the ensuing civil wars, the Parthian nobles had asked Augustus to give them Vonones for the throne of Parthia. Thus, loaded with wealth from Augustus, Vonones returned home to become king. However, his apparent sympathy for the Romans and his foreign manners and training caused a national uprising headed by Artabanus III (r. A.D. 12-38) also an Arsakid (on the mother's side) "who had grown to manhood among the Dahae." Vonones went to Armenia where soon he was asked to be king of the land. However, Romans not willing to go to war against Artabanus, sent him to Pompeiopolis, a city on the coast of Cilicia, where he was killed by a Roman officer when trying "to escape to his kinsman, the king of Scythia" (Annals II.1-4, 58, 68).

A very significant conclusion from the inscription is that concerning the word dede "father" which in this content is proven to be truly an Oghuz Turkish word since Mahmud Kashgari, more than a millennium after the Parthians, clearly indicates that the word dede is "father" in Oghuz Turkish (DLT). However, the Oghuz Turks later took from the other Turks the word ata "father," and used dede for "grandfather."

Parthian (Turkish) Glossary :

Ahamen/Agamen : Parthian king Vonones (whwnm?). (Turk. Ahamen/Aga-men ("lord I am") or Akaman ("true lord"). See: Ahmn: (L:2, 7). amşu : "sacrificial food" (UYGhur Dict.); amuç "present" (DLT). See: amş (L:4). arı- : < Turk. arı- "to become clean, to recover health". See: arp (L:2). arıl- : to be cleansed; to get well". See: arlp/arılıp "having being cleansed" (L:4). arıng-/arın- : "to be cleansed, to be purified; to recover health". See: arnh (L:1). at- : "to cast, to throw, to shoot (an arrow)". See: at-u/at-ı " ing" (L:5). avış/arvış : "spell, incantation, sorcery" (UYG; DLT). See: awşdn /avış-dan in L:2. bediz/bedez : "statue; painting; picture". See: bdz in L:1, 3, 5, 6. bek : beg/bey "lord, king". See: bknü "the king, the lord" (L:3). ban- : "to be tied (attached) together" (DLT). See: bnmaz/banmaz "(it) does not tie (attach) together" (L:4). beze- : "to adorn; to decorate" (DLT; REDHouse). See: bzrz/bezeriz (L:6). dede : < Oghuz Turk. dede "father." See: ddmk/dedem-ke "to my father" (L:7); ddmk/dedem-ki "my father who" (L:2, 7). diz-/tiz- : "to line up". See: diziş-. diziş- : "to race to line up" (DLT). See: dzyşp/dizişip "While racing to line up" (L:3). dur- /tur- : "to stand, to stand up." See: durp/durup "while standing up; standing" (Line 5); and mük-tur-u "standing in reverence" (L:6). ekün : "two, double" (UYG). See: eknş/ekün-eş "two mates", in L:6. er- : "to be; to exist; to attain, to find; to reach". See: közün below. : "mate, friend" (L:6). hada : Turk. kada/gada "god." See: hdm/kadam/gadam "my god" (L:4). hal- : < Turk. kal- "to remain." See: hlu/kalu/kalı "remaining" (L:2). hap- : < Turk. kap- "to take, to catch." See: hpr (L:4). hayır- : < Turk. kayır- "to protect, to support, to stand as a protector (over something); to look after, to care for"; < Par. Turk. kadır- "to cause to turn round, to cause to change; to bend, to bow; to refuse; [to worry]" (DLT; UYG). See: hyr-d/kayır-dı "He stood as a protector (over)" (L:5). kel- : "to come." See: kle/kele (L:3, 8). kerü : < Turk. kerü, karu, geri "back; again; then; towards". See: L:5. key : < Turk. key "sure, good, strong" (DLT), "good, rather well, rightfully, properly, thoroughly, very, much" (TiYED: Timurtaş, Yunus Emre Divanı). The word derives from a Par. Turk. ked, (a strengthening tense) "the best, what a!" as in ked at! "what a wonderful horse!" (DLT), "much; strong; fame" (UYG). See: L:3. ki : (Persian loanword) "who" (in the word ddmk/dedem-ki in L:2, 7). kiz : "throne, seat, base" (DLT). See: kizl/kizli "having throne; with base" (L:3, 7). közün : "force, power". See: kzn erp/közün erip "while attaining power" (L:4). men : < Turk. men/ben "I, I am." See: L:4, 7. meni : < Turk. meni/beni (acc.) "me, myself" (L:2). mir : < Pers. mir "leader, king" (REDH). See: miri. miri : < Turco-Pers. mir-i "its leader; the leader of." See: mry/miri (L:4). müktur- : < Turk. mük-tur- "to stand in reverence" (DLT). See: mükturu (L:6). neççesi < Turk. niçe-si/nice-si "much of it," where -s/-si "its" is the possessive pronominal suffix. See: nççs/neççesi (L:3, 8). nedük : < Turk. netek/neteg/nitük "many, much; whatever" (DLT; UYG). See: L:1. ök- : < Turk. ök-/ög- "to praise". See. kdmüz/ökdümüz "we praised" (L:5). ört- : "to cover, to veil" (DLT; REDH). See: rtrz/örteriz "we veil, we cover" (L:6). senet (snt)? : < Turco-Aram. sene-t "years" with Semitic sene "year," and -t, old Turkish plural suffix (L:1). ser : < Turco-Pers. ser/sar "chief, king." See: sr (L:2). sev- : "to love". See: sw- (L:1, 2, 3, 7, 8). sevin- : "to rejoice." See: swnp (L:1), swnt (L:7). sevü : < Turk. sevü/sevgü "love, affection". See: swü (L:3, 8). süs- : "to grow, to grow longer; to toss, to gore". See: ssü (L:3), sst (L:8). şad : (Kök-Türk) "ruler of the West"; Pers. şad "merry, happy". See: şd (L:2). şad (Shad) was the ruler of the West and Yabgu was of the East in the Göktürk Empire. tang : < Turk. tang/tan "a wondering thing, miracle; amazing, strange; amazement, surprise, wonder; wonderful". See: tnhn/tang-ın "of the wonder(s)" (L:1). tarı : tanrı "god". See: Tutuk-tarı. ti-/di- : < Turk. de-/demek "to say." See: tp/tip < Turk. tiyip "saying" (L:4). tut- : "to hold". See: Tutuk-tarı. Tutuk-tarı (Tthtr) : lit., "powerfull god" (L:1, 8), apparently the personal name of Vonones II (the son of Vonones I "Ahamen") whose inscription above tells how he made a statue for his father. Tutuk/tutuk : personal name (ErOA: Muharrem Ergin, Orhun Abideleri); also, according to Turkish mythology, the name of one of the four sons of `Türk' son of Japheth; a Turkish name (DLT): tutuk/tutug "military governor" (UYG), lit., "one who holds (power)"; also, tutuk/tutug "charm, spell, enchantment"; tutug "hostage" (DLT). tüz- : < Turk. tüz-/düz- "to put to rights; to arrange; to prepare, to make" (DLT; REDH). See: tzdüm/tüzdüm "I made" (L:1-2). umuh : < Turk. umug "hope, expectation" (ErOA; UYG). See: mhu (L:5), mh (L:6). urun : "place!, erect!, lay!"; ur- "to lay, to dress (stone); to hit." See: rn/urun (L:3).



"God (Ahuramazda) Created... the Heaven..."

The Royal Achaemenid Elamite (and the Achaemenid Aramaic) were the official languages of the Achaemenid royalty of the Persian Empire. According to Prof. Ghirshman, "Out of several thousand tablets found in the archives at Persepolis, not one was written in Persian, very few in Aramaic, and most in Elamite" (GhirIR 164).

The opening words of the The Royal Elamite text below, transcribed by Herbert H. Paper from its original cuneiform symbols, and deciphered by us in Turkish, is almost identical to the opening words of the Genesis: "In the beginning God created the heaven...":

dna-ap ir-$á-ir-ra dura-ma$-da ak-ka hmu-ru-un hi be-i$-da ak-ka dki-ik hu-ib-be be-i$-da ak-ka vruhME$-ir-ra-ir be-i$-da ak-ka $i-ya-ti-i$ be-i$-da vruhME$-ra-na akka vik-$e-ir-i$-$á vsunki-ir hu-ut-ta$-da

This text (1) can be transliterated as:

an-im er-sar-ra (Dingir) Urı-Mazda aka muruun hi beizdı aka ki-ki hube beizdı aka ruhME$-er-ri beizdı aka ziyati iş beizdı ruhME$-eri-na aka Ikzeirişá sunk-ir utıtdı.


an-im er-sar-ı (Tingri) Urı-Mazda o-ki meraan-ı bezedi, o-ki kök-i hep bezedi, o-ki urıLAR-e-ri bezedi, o-ki ziyade-eş bezedi urıLAR-eri-ne, o-ki Hızır-Şahı) sunuk-er otı(r)tdı.

This obviously Turkish sentence translates, in the order of the Elamite syntax, as:

"The (hero-) lord of gods, (god) Ahuramazda, who the pastures created (designed), who the heaven wholly created (adorned), who the man-heroes (lit., hero-man of the males) cre-ated (designed), who much mates created (designed) for His man-heroes, (and) who made Xerxes sit (as) king-hero on the throne."

which in smoother English becomes:

"The (hero-) lord of gods, Ahuramazda, who created the pastures, who created the heaven, who created the man/men and (then) many mates for His man/men, (and) who made Xerxes king-hero."

or possibly, with the last ak-ka transliterated as agga/aga "lord":

"The (hero-) lord of gods, Ahuramazda, who created the pastures, who created the heaven, who created the man/men, who (then) created many wives; (and) for His men, (He) made lord (ak-ka) Xerxes king-hero" (2).

Here are the words in the sentence:

na-ap ir-$á-ir-ra: also written as na-ap ir-$á-ra which is transliterated here as possessive an-im er-sar-(r)ı "the hero-lord of gods," with er sar-(r)ı "the hero-lord," where Turk. ér/er "man, man-hero, hero" and the suf-fix -(r)ı (Turk. -ı) is the possessive suffix of the third person. The word na, corectly transliterated as An, is Sumerian (and Elamite) an "heaven, god," and naap > na-p > an-im "gods," where -im/-m is the Semitic plural suffix corresponding to the Turkish plural suffix -lar. Paper accepts the -p element as the Elamite plural suffix, however, he considers the word nap ("god") as singular in this sentence.

duramazda: Elamite word duramazda "(God) Ahuramazda" can be transcribed as (Dingir)-Urı-Mazda: < Turk. (Tengri)-Urı-Muz-Da(ğ), lit., "(god-) man the ice-mountain" or "(god) the personification of Muz-Dağ," with Turk. urı "man" (DLT), and Muz-Dağ "ice-mountain" with which some of the highest peaks of Central Asia are named, with muz/buz "ice," and Turk. dağ/tağ) "mountain." Here it is helpful to remember the words of Mahmud Kashgari who wrote about one and a half millennium later: "The infidels (non-Muslim Turks) call the sky (Turk. kök/gök `heaven') tengri ("god"). They call tengri everything that is great and big whether it be a great mountain or a big tree. For that reason, they prostrate in worship before such things" (DLT III, 377).

ak-ka: < Turk. o-ki "he who."

muruun > mera-an "pastures," with Arabic loanword mer'a "pasture," and Persian plu-ral suffix -an. The word mer'a is still a Turkish word.

be-i$-: < Turk. beze- "to adore, to decorate, to design," which is still a living Turkish word. Full word be-i$-da, written as pe-i$-ta by Oriental İnstitute, University of Chicago (3), and translated as "created" with pe- ("to create") as the verb which is shown more accurately as pi$-/bi$- by Paper. The correct phrase is Turk. beze-di "adored, designed" which involves a meaning more than just creation, rather, "a beautiful design, a beautiful creation." Below, is a religious piece of poetry written more than eighteen cen-turies after the Achaemenids by Yunus Emre of Anatolia, one of the world's greatest mystic poets:

Göklere haber oldı yir gök şâdılık toldı / Eydürler Ahmed geldi beze-ndi sekiz uçmak (4)

"Message was heard from the heavens, joy filled the earth and the heaven / They cried: `Ahmed (the Prophet) came, the eight heavens became adorned.'"

hi < Turk. o "this/that," or -hi < Turkish -ı/-i, the accusative suffix.

ki-ik: < Turk. kök-i [written also as ki-ik-ka (PapRAE, DE 1) > ki-ka > kik-a < Turk. kök-i] "the heaven, the sky," with -i theTurkish accusative suffix.

hu-ib-be or hu-pe < Turk. hep < Middle Turk. köp "much, all, whole."

ruh: < Turk. urı "man."

$i-ya-ti-i$ > ziyade-eş "much mate(s)," with Arabic ziyade "much, many," and Turk. / "mate."

İk$eir-i$$á [Hızır-Şah] : Elamitic ik$eir-i$$á or ik$eir-$á (Bab. Xi$iaar-$áa, Old Persian X$ayar$a, and Gk. Xerxe(s) where the root Xerxe is pronounced kser-kse or khzr-khse) can be transliterated as ik$eir-$á > ikzeir-şá> ikzir-şá, which is Turco-Pers. Hızır-Şah.

sunki [sunuk]: The cuneiform sunki `king' can be easily read sun-k or sun-uk in which we have a basic Turkish syntax: a verb sun- "to grant; to attract, to draw towards (himself)," and the suffix -ık/-uk/-k which forms nouns and adjectives. Thus, sun-uk "one that grants (land and privileges): (a) granting man" or "one that attracts and draws (men) towards (himself)," thus "leader (of men); lord; king." The older Elamite form sunkik or sunkuk (PapRAE 2.3.3) correlates much better with Turk. sung-uk, where the verb sun- is pronounced with the guttural Turkish `ng' instead of `n.' We have also shown that the Achaemenid Elamite word sunuk appears in the ancient Elamite name of Inshushinak [< Turk. Inçü-sunuk (M. Turk. Yinçü-sunuk) "pearl granter; pearl-like king"], ancient Elamite national god, chief god of Susa (Larousse), the name becoming a surname of many Elamite kings. It also appears as Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian sanga/sangu/sungu [sunug] `temple head, high priest, spiritual leader; king' (KraHBAS 7; SaBA; SagBA); as snk [sunuk], in an early 4th-century B.C. Lycian inscription (Chapter 12); and as snq [sunuq] in an Old Syriac inscription referred to Parthian King Vologeses III (DrijOSI, Text 63/1-2)].

ir: < Turk. ér/er "man, man-hero, hero," which is also found in the phrases ruhME$-ir-ra-ir > Turk. urıLAR-er-(r)i "the man-heroes"; in ruhME$-ra-na < Turk. ruhLAR-eri-ne "to the man-heroes"; and in sunki-ir < Turk. sunuk-er "king-hero, (a) granting man-hero; (an) attracting man-hero."

hu-utta$-da: The final verb, written as hu-ut-ta$-ta by Oriental İnstitute, University of Chicago, and normally translated as "made" by Paper, becomes in our translation, with $ = t, Turk. otu(r)t-dı which is the causative of the verb otur- "to sit (on the throne)." Thus the Elamite root verb hu-ut-ta$- or otu$- becomes otu(r)t- "to cause to sit; to put (on the throne)." The verbal suffix -da/-/- is the Turkish third person past tense.

It must be remembered that cuneiform signs are not read correctly especially when an unknown language is in question. Sumerologist Prof. Kramer is aware of that when he admits that "Sumerian is still not fully understood and that in time some of the translations will be modified and improved." (KraHBAS, Chap. 15). And he adds: "Hincks discovered (while deciphering) the all important feature of Baby-lonian writing, `polyphony,' that is, one and the same sign could stand for more than one sound or `value'" (KraSUM 16). Herbert H. Paper himself agrees with Prof. Kramer on the phonology of the Elamite inscriptions as he writes: "I must finally mention that the phonological system here described should not be assumed to be completely equivalent to the actual phonemic system of the spoken language, nor should precise phonetic identifications of these reconstructed phonemes be attempted" (PapRAE, Introd., p. 3). As if to clarify this statement, I have discovered, for example, that the phoneme $ found in the cuneiform signs can stand for phonemes s, ş(sh), and z (as in zone). Thus, in the Elamite and other languages using the cuneiform system of writing it is vitally important that the cuneiform characters are transliterated into correct sounds. We have discussed this problem in detail in our book, mostly in Chapters 17, 18, 21), and seen that such errors in estimating or finding these true sounds happened almost at every transliterated word. A most significant case that I came across in these transliterations was the case of the phoneme $, already referred to above, which is generally shown to represent the sound sh or s. Both in our (Royal) Elamite and in the Hurrian transliterations, the phoneme $ seems also to correspond to the phoneme t in Hurrian word a$-$u-$an-ni "horse attendant" and in the Elamite word Si-i$-$a-an-takma or Si-$aan-takma [Gk. Tritantaechmes (5)]. With replacement of t for $, these words become at-tu-tan-ni, lit., "the holder of the horse," and Sii-taan-takma or Isi-tan-tokma, lit., "from god born (man)," all having Turkish syntax. Especially the second word is fully supported by its Greek form where Tri-tan-taechme < Turk. Tarı-dan-tochma "from god born," definitely shows that the cuneiform $ must be t. The words tarı/tanrı and isi are synonyms, both meaning "god, lord, master."

The t-sound in the word Tritantaechmes is supported by two other names from Herodotus, Artayctes (6) "man-hero has risen; man is born," and Artochmes (7) "he who is born a man-hero," which also have the Turkish verb tokh-/toğ- "to be born, to rise." We can see the relationship of these words if we write them as follows:

Isi-tan tak ma

Tritan taech me(s)

Ar tayc te(s)

Ar toch mes

or in understandable Turkish:

Isıdan toğ ma

Tanrıdan toğ ma

Er toğ tı

Er toğ mış

where in the center column the root of the verb tokh-/toğ- is located. Verbal suffixes are: -ma, Turkish suffix forming adjective or participle often preceded by -dan "from," or forming adjective or noun with a meaning "the act of"; -/-, the 3rd person past tense; and -mış, suffix forming past participle. Thus, the Elamite -aan or -an, in this case, is -tan [or -dan], or $ = t. I have observed many more Elamite words which became meaningful with the transliteration of $ into t. One of these is the pure Elamite word hi-$e (`his name') in which Turkish a-tı "his name" is hidden, where at/ad "name, and , the Turkish possessive and possessive pronominal suffix of the third person.

Thus, we have listed in our book many new values for cuneiform phonemes and signs, amongst which some important ones are: hi- = a-; $e = tı; -i$-$a-/-$a- = -ta-; -i$- = -ze-; -ki = -ık/-uk; -da = -dı; kiik = kök, -i$ = -şı/-şi(shi).

The major difficulty in the decipherment of the Elamite language lies in the fact that it contains, like the later Ottoman Turkish, many borrowed Persian and Arabic words. In fact, both the Persian and the Babylonian (Akkadian?) versions of the royal inscriptions contain also Turkish words as we have shown in our book. The Achaemenid scribes knew perfectly the three languages in question. For example, in the Babylonian expression, scribe uses the phrase a-$ú-$á Kuraa$ (PapRAE, 5.10.3, DB 13), translated as "son of Kurash/Cyrus" by Paper, is transliterated by us as aşusı kurash which means means, "his bud, his grafting (is) Kurash," with Turk. aşı "inoculation, grafting; a budding," and - "his (her, its)," Turkish possessive (pronominal) suffix. On the other hand, the scribe, most likely an Elamite scholar and indeed a most intriguing person, uses in the Elamite inscription a Turco-Semitic phrase, Kura$ $á-ak-ri, which we read as Kura$ zekhr-i, meaning "the bloom (flower) of Kurash," with Arab. zehr "flower, bloom," and -i, Turkish possessive suffix. In another Elamite text, he uses, for the same expression, the Sumero-Pers. DUMU Ku-ra-na (PapRAE 6.2, DB 40) [Turk. Kuraş-ın tohum-u] "the seed of Kurash," with Pers. dum/tohum "seed, semen," -u/-ı, Turkish possessive suffix of the third person, and -na/-ın, the genitive suffix. In the Persian versian of the same text, the expression is Kuraa$ puça which we read as Kurash piç-i "(an) envy (offshoot) of Kurash," where Pers. piç "perplexity, envy" (> Turk. piç "illegitimate child; offshoot"), and -i, Turkish possessive suffix. In all three, Elamite, Babylonian and Persian texts, the grammatical syntax of the word for `the son of' is Turkish: a-$ú-$á > a-şı-, $á-ak-ri > zakhr-i, dumu > tohum-u, puça > piç-i.

In another example, we have so-called Babylonian word adimuh ("while, up to, as far as") is actualy Turk. o démek "it (is) to say, so, thus, therefore," with Turk o "it; he, she," and de-mek/ti-mek "to say." However, its Elamite equivalent ku-i$ (PapRAE 8.3.8) is read by us as the Arab. keza "in the same way, so, likewise."



DLT Kashgari, Mahmud, Divanı Lügat-it Türk, Besim Atalay tercümesi, TDK Yayınları 521, Ankara, 1986.

DrijOSI Drijvers, H. J. W., Old Syriac (Edessean) Inscriptions, E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1972.

ErOA Ergin, Muharrem, (Göktürk) Orhun Abideleri, Istanbul, 1978.

Herod Herodotus, The Persian Wars, trans.by George Rawlinson, The Modern Library, New York, 1942.

KraHBAS Samuel N. Kramer, History Begins at Sumer, Doubleday & Company, Inc., New York, 1959

KraSUM Kramer, Samuel Noah, The Sumerians, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1967.

PapRAE Paper, Herbert H., The Phonology and Morphology of Royal Achaemenid Elamite, The University of Michigan Press, 1955.

SaBA Sayce, Archibald Henry, Babylonians and Assyrians, New York, 1899.

SagBA Saggs, H. W. F., Everyday Life in Babylonia and Assyria, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1965.


1) Translation by Paper: "A great god (is) Ahuramazda who this earth created, who that heaven created, who man created, who happiness created for (lit., of) man, who made Xerxes king" (PapRAE,, XPa1). A similar text by Darius from Naksh-i-Rustam (DN) is translated in the same manner, "who made Darius king," where the last word is written as ú-ut-ta$da.

2) We have a similar phrase in the Orkhun inscription of Bilge Kaghan: Özümün ol tengri kağan ol(t)urt-dı "That God of my own set me on the throne (as) emperor" (ErOA, Bilge Kaghan Inscription E-21).

3) See: www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/PROJ/ARI/ARI.html.

4) Timurtaş, F. K., Yunus Emre Divanı, Tercüman 1001 Temel Eser, Istanbul, 1972, P. 90.

5) PapRAE 3.10.2. According to Herodotus, Tritantaechmes was the governor of Assyria under Cyrus the Great, son of Artabanus (uncle of Xerxes), and one of the six generals of the Persian army (Herod I.192; VII.82

6) A commander in Xerxes' army (Herod VII.78). King Xerxes ruled 486-465 B.C.

7) Son-in-law of Darius (Herod VII.73).




Dr.Selahi Diker, born in Trabzon, Turkey, finished Istanbul Erkek Lisesi, attended Istanbul Technical University for two years, graduated from King's College, University of Durham as a mining engineer. He completed his graduate work in Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, and received a Doctor of Science degree majoring in geophysical engineering.

In 1952, he joined the Institute of Mineral Research and Exploration in Ankara, he held from 1955 to 1958 the position of chief geophysicist. From 1958 to 1962 he was employed by the Empire Geophysical in U.S.A., where he was made Assistant Chief Geophysicist.

In 1962, he joined Pure Oil Company where he helped set up Pure's Dallas (Exploration) Center in Texas and was instrumental in the discovery of some of Pure's oil and gas fields in West Texas and Southern New Mexico. After Pure's merger into Union Oil Company of California, he spent three years in the Middle East in the company's exploration efforts in the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula.

diker.jpg (5899 bytes)

After spending a year in Union's Los Angeles office, he returned to Turkey in 1968 to work for Turkish Petroleum Company as exploration advisor. In 1969 he set up a consulting office and helped several oil companies including; Hamilton Brothers and Turkish Petroleum Company, in their petroleum exploration activities in Turkey.

He also held, for a few years, a part - time teaching position in Middle East Technical University's Graduate School in Ankara.

His main hobby; history and languages, had started back in his school years in Istanbul Turkey, and continued in England and U.S.A. His new findings and original discoveries reached such a stage that he retired from his professional work in late nineteen eightees to spent his full time to put them into a scientific form. Result was the book; AND THE WHOLE EARTH WAS OF ONE LANGUAGE, with a second title, Ten Thousand Years of the Turks. His Turkish version of the book, TÜRKLER’İN KÖKENLERİ ("Turkish Roots") will soon be published.
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