FACE ON MARS
"Face" on Mars is a rock formation on the surface of Mars resembling an enormous
humanoid face staring straight up into space. It is about 2.5 km long x 2.0
km wide x 0.4 km tall and is located on a flat plain known as Cydonia Mensae
in Mars' northern hemisphere (41 deg. N latitude 9.5 deg. longitude). The
Face and other objects described on this page were imaged by one of the Viking
Orbiters in the summer of 1976.
Face was dismissed by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a trick
of light and shadow and forgotten. The original image
(Viking orbiter image 1) was rediscovered by Vincent DiPietro and Gregory
Molenaar, two engineers at the Goddard Spaceflight Center, several years later.
They also found a second image (image 2) containing
the Face under slightly different illumination with the sun about 20 deg.
higher in the sky.
picture on the left (below) is from frame 35A72. It has been digitally restored with
minimal contrast alteration. The picture on the right is from frame 70A13.
This image more clearly shows the right shadowed side of the face. Of particular
interest are crossed lines in the forehead area and fine structure in the
mouth that look like teeth. Since they are in both images and are not aligned
with the scan lines it is likely that they correspond to real features on
the Face that are near or slightly below the resolution limit of the sensor.
Face is not an isolated formation. As shown in the above picture from 35A72,
about 20 kilometers west-southwest of the Face are several other unusual objects
(dubbed the "City" by author Richard Hoagland). Where the Face is a rounded
formation (geologists would call it a mesa or knob) the City contains an assortment
of pyramidal objects with sharp angular sides.
City and Face
the most unusual object within the City is a pyramidal object (the "Fortress")
that appears to have been stripped down almost to its base revealing an enclosed
inner space. The perspective view (above right) was generated from the overhead
view (above left) using a single image shape-from-shading algorithm. Fine
scale detail in the restored imagery includes a regular pattern of indentations
along the lower wall of the structure and linear features on the terrain to
the right (below>.
20 kilometers south-southwest of the Face is a larger pyramidal structure
first noticed by DiPietro and Molenaar. The D&M pyramid appears to have
five sides. One of the sides is shadowed and two of the sides appear to be
degraded. The south face appears to be oriented almost exactly due south.
CLICK picture below to view RAW NASA PHOTO!
The "Face" on Mars has now passed each test of artificiality yet proposed. These
tests include a three dimensional structure, a lack of fractal patterns in
the image, non-random distribution of the nearby small mounds, proximity of
other anomalous landforms, an apparent bilateral symmetry, being located on
the martian equator, having a culturally significant orientation, and serving
an apparent culturally significant purpose. It would be an exaggeration to
say that the case for artificiality is now compelling, and many thoughtful
people will still find that conclusion less likely than all these "coincidences"
put together. Yet the balance of the evidence, considered objectively, now
weighs clearly in favor of artificiality over a natural origin of the Cydonian
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