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O n e o t a

Oneota: an archaeological culture in upper central U.S., ca. AD 900- ca. AD 1700.

This is the ONEOTA site.

Oneota Culture, North American archaeology, archeology, Upper Mississippian, Wisconsin archaeology, Dammers, prehistory, ceramics, pottery, Ioway, Ho-Chunk

Latest numerousadditions to the site: 31 December 2003. Latest addition: May 2009 (Page 3 only); entries from Dec. 2003-2005 on are preceded by asterisks; entries from 2007 on are preceded by dollar signs. (You can find these by using your computer's search function and entering an asterisk (*) or dollar sign ($) in the search field. Please note that some of these entries occur on pp. 2 and 3 as well as on this one.) Best viewed with Netscape

"Archaeologically Oneota refers to a number of post- woodland cultures in the Prairie Peninsula which date from ca. A.D. 1000 to Historic times. Shelltempered pottery typifies Oneota sites and serves as the diagnostic artifact for the Oneota tradition" (Tiffany 1982:1, in Gibbon). The pottery is often decorated with parallel wavy or zig-zag lines. On the prairie lands, bison and corn play a crucial role in subsitance. In the forests, wild rice, deer, corn and squash are also important. Geographically, Oneota extended over much of Iowa, into Missouri, Minnesota, much of Wisconsin (up to the Door Peninsula), western and perhaps north-eastern Illinois and perhaps Michigan.


A - B

(for C - Z, go to the end of this page and link on "Continuing on in the Oneota Site")

Alex, Lynn M.
1999 Iowa's Archaeological Past. University of Iowa Press:Iowa City.

See especially Chapter 10 "Late Prehistoric Oneota" = pp. 185-210 but also much of Chapter 11 "Protohistoric and Early Historic Sites Archaeology" = pp. 211-38, i.a.

Anderson, Duane C.
1994 Stone, glass, and metal artifacts from the Milford Site (13DK1) : an early 18th century Oneota component in northwest Iowa. Office of the State Archaeologist, the University of Iowa:Iowa City.

* Anon (AP) "Archaeology..."
2003 "ARCHAEOLOGY: Site Yields Evidence of Prehistoric Farming on Door County Peninsula," Associated Press story in Pioneer Press, Wisconsin, posted on 3 Sept. 2003. Viewed 19 September 2003.
James Clark Jr., researcher for the Marquette University's Center for Archaeology Research, is quoted as saying that this site, in the town of Union belongs to the Mero Complex and dates ca. AD 1200. Burnt corn kernels and a "milling stone" were reported found.

Arzigian, Constance M.; Robert F. Boszhardt; James L. Theler; Roland L. Rodell; and Michael J. Scott
1989 "Human Adaptation in the Upper Mississippi Valley: A Study of the Pammel Creek Oneota Site (47Lc61) La Crosse, Wisconsin. (Complete issue of:) The Wisconsin Archeologist 70(1-2):1-281.

Arzigian, Constance M.
1994 "Gundersen Site: an Oneota Village and Cemetery In LA Crosse, Wisconsin," Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 41:3-75.

Arzigian, Constance
1995 Phase I Archaeological Investigations At the Terminal Points of Two Diversion Dikes In the Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge. Mississippi Valley Archeological Center, U of Wisc, Lacrosse. Submitted to US Fish and Wildlife Service, Fort Snelling, MN. {NADB}

Ashman, H
1989 "Hawks, Serpents, and Bird-Men: Emergence of the Oneota Mode of Production," Plains Anthropologist 34(125):233-66.
The emergence of the agricultural mode of production among the Oneota, supplemented by hunting and gathering, allowed for the development of an economy of accumulation, tribal organization, unequal distribution of surplus prodctins and the development of a symbolic system and ideology that supported this system. {Eureka}

Benn, David W.
1997 Phase II Archeological Testing of 15 Sites, Lake Odessa Habitat Rehabilitation & Enhancement Project, Upper Mississippi River System, Pools 17 & 18, Iowa. Report No. 466, Bear Creek Archeology, Inc.:Cresco, Iowa. {JIAS97}
Some of the material found was Oneota.

* Benn, David W.
2003 "Decorative Types and the Oneota Culinary Assemblage," MwAC 2003 (Milwaukee, 16-19 October).
Decorative types and vessel shapes are summarized for two Oneota assemblages: the Wever site (13LE110) in southeastern Iowa and the Christenson site (13PK407) in the Central Des Moines River valley. Decorative motifs are reconstructed to show that they represent, for the most part, the 'quartered circle' style of the Mississippian period. Vessel shapes are reconstructed to illustrate a potential range of vessel functions. Little correlation is found between potential function (shape) and decorative." {MWAC Web site}

Benton, Charles Kim
2001 Oneota Settlement Patterns in Northwest Iowa : Site Catchment Analysis and Predictive Modeling Using Geographic Information Systems. M.A. thesis -Iowa State University. {OCLC}
"Geographic information systems (GIS) software was utilized in the analysis of the settlement patterns of Oneota sites in northwest Iowa along the Little Sioux River and Big Sioux River. Site catchment analysis was performed for each site utilizing a cost distance algorithm to calculate a two hour catchment to assess whether or not sufficient resources would have been found in the catchment area. Resources thought to be of particular importance to Oneota groups include permanent water sources, arable land for cultivation, and sufficient quantities of wild plants and large game animals. These resources and other variables such as elevation, slope aspect, and slope were then compared between known sites and non-sites using statistical measures to create a predictive model of the Little Sioux Valley to determine areas that have high potential to contain Oneota sites. Ultimately based upon these analyses, it is argued that Oneota groups settled in areas to take advantage of multiple vegetation zones and well drained soils suitable for both habitation and for cultivation of crops. These conclusions suggest that the reliance upon bison in the subsistence economy and influence in determining site location may not be as important as originally thought. Other factors such as settlement shifts, cultural influences on settlement patterns, and the possible effect of climate shifts had upon Oneota lifeways, subsistence, and settlement patterns are also discussed" (OCLC First Search). 229 pp.

* Berres, Thomas Edward
2001 "Power and Gender in Oneota Culture: A Study of a Late Prehistoric People. Northern Illinois University Press: DeKalb, Ill.

Review: Brian G. Redmond 2003 AAtq 68 (2):...

* Betts, Colin
2003 "Protohistoric Oneota Mound Construction: An Early Revitalization Movement," MwAC (Milwaukee, 16-19 October).
"Oneota groups inhabiting northeastern and northwestern Iowa embarked on a renewed program of mound building in the 17th and 18th centuries, on a scale unseen since the Woodland period. An explanation for this florescence of mound construction can be found in the symbolic meaning of mound ceremonialism and the impact of European diseases in the region. Like the later Ghost Dance, it is posited that protohistoric mound construction represents an early revitalization movement stimulated by a preceding period of extreme population loss." {MwAC web site, abstract}

* Betts, Colin
2000 Symbolic, Cognitive, and Technological Dimensions of Orr Phase Oneota Ceramics. PhD: University of Illinois at Champaign Urbana. 332 pp. DAI 61-04A: 1490. (DFH 9971029)

Blakeslee, Donald J.; Michelle Peck; and Ronald D. Dorsey
2001 "Glen Elder: A Western Oneota Bison Hunting Camp," MidContinental Journal of Archaeology 26: .79-104 {RDJ}
the White Rock Phase located in North-Central Kansas and southern Nebraska

Boszhardt, Robert F.
1991 Phase II Archaeological Investigations At the Trane Site (47LC447): a Proposed Disposal Area For the Pammel Creek Flood Control Project, At LA Crosse, Wisconsin. Archaeological Center, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse. Submitted to Corps of Engineers, St. Paul District. {NADB}

Boszhardt, Robert F.
1992 Phase III Archaeological Mitigation at the Trane Site (47LC447), LA Crosse, Wisconsin. Mississippi Valley Archaeological Center, University of Wisconsin. Submitted to Corps of Engineers, St. Paul District. {NADB}

Boszhardt, Robert F.
1992 Phase I Archaeological Investigations at the Hillview Site (47LC287). Mississippi Valley Archaeological Center, University of Wisconsin. Submitted to Corps of Engineers, St. Paul District. {NADB}

Boszhardt, Robert F.
1994 "Oneota Archaeology at La Crosse, Wisconsin: Introduction," The Wisconsin Archeologist 75(3-4):165-72.
Introduction to double issue of WA "pertaining to the late prehistoric Oneota occupation of the La Crosse locality along the Mississippi River in western Wisconsin. The environs of the La Crosse locality and chronological considerations of the resident Oneota are summarized in the first article. In that paper I [Boszhardt] also offer a sequence of local Oneota phases and ceramic styles..... "one of the principal reasons for publishing these papers in T h e W i s c o n s i n A r c h e o l o g i s t is to more widely disseminate data and interpretations from technical reports of the Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center (MVAC)." Most of the sites that are featured in the articles in WA 75(3-4) are listed and briefly described: North Shore (47 Lc 185), Jim Braun (47 Lc 59), Midway Village (47 Lc 19), Tremaine (Midvale Interceptor) (47 Lc 95), Holley Street (47 Lc 485), State Road Coulee (47 Lc 176), and Trane Site (47 Lc 447).

Boszhardt, Robert F.
1994 "Oneota Group Continuity at La Crosse: The Brice Prairie, Pammel Creek, and Valley View Phases," The Wisconsin Archeologist 75:173-237.

"Extensive investigation of Oneota sites at La Crosse, Wisconsin, has produced data supporting the definition of three sequential phases within a three-century occupational continuum. Key evidence to date lies in the evolution of ceramic styles, a refined chronology based on nearly 70 radiocarbon dates, and shifting settlement patterns through time. These data reveal that inital Oneota settlers to La Crosse arrived from the Red Wing/Lake Pepin area about A.D. 1300. Fourteenth-century components in the La Crosse locality share ceramic styles dominated by Perrot Punctate and companion types, and are designated the Brice Prairie phase. Transitional ceramic styles in the early to mid-fifteenth century, including bold-lip varieties of a number of types, are diagnostic of the Pammel Creek phase. From ca. A.D. 1500 to 1625, La Crosse Oneota ceramics conformed to the types Allamakee Trailed, Midway Incised, and companion forms, all of which denote the Valley View phase. During the span of this group continuity, settlements shifted from the banks of the Mississippi River to bluff-base settings. About A.D. 1625, the Oneota abandoned La Crosse in favor of more interior, western settings that were more accessible to Pains bison herds" . All available radiocarbon dates are listed, and the 3 phases are described and illustrated. A "Schematic diagram of Oneota ceramic type evolution at La Crosse ca. A.D. 1300-1625" is on p. 213. An appendix presents formal ceramic type descriptions.

Boszhardt, Robert F.
1994 "Oneota Ceramics" IN: The Gundersen Site: An Oneota Village and Cemetery in La Crosse, Wisconsin. (=Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society 41:24-33.) {B97}

Bray, Robert T. and Jeffrey K. Yelton (Editors)
1993 Utz Site: An Oneota Village in Central Missouri. Missouri Archaeological Society. 146 pp. {Barnes and Noble WWW}

Brown, James A.
1993 „Oneota Mortuary Contexts.? Paper presented at the MwAC, Milwaukee, October 1993. { 78:292}

Brown, Michael D.; Seyed H. Hosseini; Antonio Torroni; Hans-J?gen Bandelt; Jon C. Allen; Theodore G. Schurr; Rosaria Scozzari; Fulvio Cruciani; and Douglas C. Wallace
1998 "mtDNA Haplogroup X: An Ancient Link between Europe/Western Asia and North America?" The American Society of Human Genetics 63:1852-1861 and

"On the basis of comprehensive RFLP analysis, it has been inferred that 97% of Native American mtDNAs belong to one of four major founding mtDNA lineages, designated haplogroups "A""D." It has been proposed that a fifth mtDNA haplogroup (haplogroup X) represents a minor founding lineage in Native Americans. Unlike haplogroups AD, haplogroup X is also found at low frequencies in modern European populations. To investigate the origins, diversity, and continental relationships of this haplogroup, we performed mtDNA high-resolution RFLP and complete control region (CR) sequence analysis on 22 putative Native American haplogroup X and 14 putative European haplogroup X mtDNAs. The results identified a consensus haplogroup X motif that characterizes our European and Native American samples. Among Native Americans, haplogroup X appears to be essentially restricted to northern Amerindian groups, including the Ojibwa, the Nuu-Chah-Nulth, the Sioux, and the Yakima, although we also observed this haplogroup in the Na-Denespeaking Navajo. Median network analysis indicated that European and Native American haplogroup X mtDNAs, although distinct, nevertheless are distantly related to each other. Time estimates for the arrival of X in North America are 12,000-36,000 years ago, depending on the number of assumed founders, thus supporting the conclusion that the peoples harboring haplogroup X were among the original founders of Native American populations. To date, haplogroup X has not been unambiguously identified in Asia, raising the possibility that some Native American founders were of Caucasian ancestry. {journal hp article summary}

Please go to the bottom of this page and click on "Page 2" to continue in the bibliography.

Site Manager: KIM DAMMERS: kdammers at yahoo dot com. Please send any information on Oneota articles, site reports, or conference presentations to me (you will have convert "at" to "@" and "dot" to "." and run it all together: I've had too much span to keep it listed in machine-readable form.)! Please note that I am not responsible for nor have any association with any of the advertisements that Angelfire might put up over this site. This site is for scholarly and educational use only and is totally non-commercial. I do not deal in the sale of artifacts.
5. Mai 1999 - 13. Juli 2007

Archaeology on the Net Web Ring

This Archaeology on the Net Web Ring site is owned by KIM DAMMERS (kdammers, [no space] at, [no space] yahoo [no space] dot [no space] com) --. Join Previous Next Next 5 Sites Random Site List Sites

Oneota Links

Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center, LaCrosse, Wisconsin. Nice Oneota ceramic graphics
Gottshall Site overview
Oneota Bibliographic Database Project
The Oneota Culture. A concise summary by Rich Fishel
Oneota Scholars List
About Ioway Indians
Endangered Iowa site shown.
Joseph Tiffany, Oneota archaeologist
Terms and concepts often used in Oneota archaeology
Minnesota Ceramics
Mankato Museum
Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center, often with abstracts
Steed-Kisker Phase Assessment
Note on Taylor Village, IN; BSU
The Siouan Languages Bibliography
Midwest Archaeological Conference, 2003
The Crescent Bay Hunt Club Site:

Archaeology Links

ArchNet: A world-wide guide to archaeology on the Net
Annotated list of links to North American archaeology sites, regionally organized
Web Weaver: Annotated list of links to North American Archaeological Home-pages, by state
SAAweb: Home-page for the Society for American Archaeology
Middle Mississippian site
Cahokia Bibliography

Continuing on in the Oneota Site

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