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Cochise, Mogollon, and Hohokam Resources



  • To Outline of Class Discussion
  • To Cochise Culture
  • To Mogollon Culture
  • To Hohokam Culture
  • Other Resources
  • To Ancient Pueblo Peoples (Anasazi)
  • To Hopi Indians
  • To Navajo Indians
  • To Zuni Indians
  • American Indians Main Page
  • Pottery Page
  • Archaeology/Anthropology Page
  • Mimbres

    Cochise Culture

  • Cochise Culture
  • Arizona Early History
  • Cochise Tradition (Wikipedia)
  • Cochise Culture
  • Cochise Culture
  • Cochise Culture Video

    Mogollon Culture

  • Painted Earth: The Art of the Mimbres Indians - Pottery photos
  • The Mogollon - Brief article
  • The Mimbres Art & Archaeology - Article, links
  • Chronology of Southwestern Archaeology - Timeline with explanations
  • Mogollon and Mimbres Cultures
  • Mogollon Culture
  • The Mogollon and Mimbres
  • Images of Mimbres Pottery
  • Mimbres Black-on-White
  • The Mogollon Prehistoric Desert People

    Hohokam Culture

  • Hohokam Canals, Culture, etc.
  • The Archaeology of Ancient Arizona - Article with maps
  • Prehistoric Pueblo Pottery - Chart of pottery developments
  • Chronology of Southwestern Archaeology - Timeline with explanations
  • The Hohokam - Article, photos, links
  • Hohokam Culture - useful overview of development of culture with illustrations
  • The Southwest - Hohokam, Anasazi, Mogollon - Lecture notes
  • Hohokam - article with photo
  • Hohokam Pottery - one photo
  • The Hohokam Tradition - article with map
  • Hohokam Pottery
  • Hohokam People of the Tucson Basin - online book
  • The Hohokam of the Southwest - article with photos
  • Hohokam Culture - article with photos
  • Hohokam - images of pottery

    Other Resources

  • Primitive Southwestern Archaeoastronomy - Links
  • Ancient Civilizations of the Southwest - Useful site with all sort of info and illustrations

    Exercise to Enhance Your Studies:
    Mimbres Pottery Exercise - Make your own Mimbres-style pottery

  • Outline of Class Discussion: The Cochise, Hohokam, and Mogollon Peoples of the Southwest

    1. When people speak of the Indians of the Southwest, generally referring to peoples of New Mexico, Arizona, Southern Colorado/Utah/California, Northern Mexico, and West Texas.
    2. Today, two major divisions
      A. Athabascans - includes U.S.'s largest tribal group, the Navajo, and the Apache (Jicarillos of NE New Mexico, Chiricahuas of SE Arizona/SW New Mexico and Northern Mexico, Western Apaches of E. Arizona, Lipan & Kiowa Apache of Texas, etc.); they relative newcomers; arrived about the same time as the Europeans. (See Capstone Page for outlines of class discussion relating to Athabascans.)

      B. Pueblos - Pima, Papago, Hopi of Arizona; Zuni & Tewa of New Mexico, Acoma, Laguna, Cochiti, Zia, Mansos, etc.); some of best known pre-Columbian peoples due to artifacts preserved in the dry climate, erosion that exposes, not obscured by heavy vegetation like East Texas or Mesoamerica; many of the tribes still retain some of old cultural traits.

    3. No agreement when first arrived - estimates range from 10,000 to over 20,000 years ago - the Sandia culture
    4. But does not appear to have been heavily populated like Plains of Panhandle in Texas until about 9,000 years ago
    5. By then, DESERT CULTURES had developed - based on collecting wild foods, trapping/hunting small game, small nomadic bands, shelter in caves and rock overhangs
    6. The Cochise People
      A. Sequence of gatherers occupied central and southern portions of region
      B. From about 9,000 years to beginning of Common Era
      C. Ground nuts, seeds, lived in caves, dome shaped wickiups, hunted but no evidence of agriculture or potter until 300 BCE (San Pedro stage)
      D. Those traits spread northward from Mexico
      E. By 300 BCE, Southwest became a far northern frontier of Mesoamerican cultures with some strong and some weak influences
      F. Came to rgion about 4500 years ago but took 2000 years for agriculture to supplant wild foods
      G. By 300 BCE, began settling down = pit houses partly subterranean, beams covered with brush and earth (source unknown but some believe from California)
      H. By 100 BCE, pottery - almost certain from Mexico - MOGOLLON Culture emerged
    7. The Mogollon People

      A. SE Arizona, SW New Mexico, Northern Mexico as well as the Jornado Mogollon of West Texas
      B. Maintained Desert Culture traits until about 1100 CE
      C. Main change - pottery of MIMBRES culture
    8. Mimbres Pottery and Culture

      A. Mimbres culture centered arond the Mimbres and Gila river valleys in southwest region of New Mexico; branch of Mogollon culture and art related to Hohokam and Anasazi neighbors
      B. Periods and styles: 200-550 CE = Early Pithouse Period - rough, unpainted, coiled construction
      550-1000 CE = Late Pithouse Period - Pottery painting develops in Mimbres Valley and Mogollon regions including Mogollon Red-on-Brown and Three Circle Red-on-White
      750-900 CE = Style I - Pattersn covering entire inner surface of bowls
      750-1000 CE - Mimbres Boldface Black-on-White (Mangas);Radial designs; first stylized animal motifs; emphasis of negative space
      900-1000 CE - Style II - greater precision, increased figure-ground ambiguity, fine lines and hatch marks on bowl rims
      1000-1150 CE - Style III - Classic Mimbres - finely detailed drawings of human or animal figures, some polychrome pottery
      C. Much of pottey produced 1000-1150 CE
      D. Classic motif - black on white includes abstract designs, animals, creatures, human figures
      E. Also many pictographs, stone idols
      F. Art instructive - bowls with hunters, antelope hunting
      G. Great abundance of designs and absence of conventionalism is interpreted to mean that pottery making in the Mimbres was not limited to a few as among the Hopi; many Mimbres women were potters; some designs so unusual theory they used psyilosybin
      H. Art and trade items indicate mesoamerican influences (remains of macasw, shell ornaments, copper bells; also depictions of the plumed serpent and butterflies not indigenous to area); probably used turquoise and native copper as items of exchange.
      I. Not clear what happened to Mimbres culture - may have merged with Apache or just disappeared
    9. Meanwhile, a second culture developed by the beginning of the Common Era or 200 years earlier - The Hohokam

      A. Southern Arizona
      B. Better strains of corn gave rise to sedentary settlements in mid-Gila River area - the Hakataya
      C. Developed similarly to Mogollon with different pottery coloring/art
      D. Also worked skillfully with stone
      E. Practiced cremation
      F. Fashioned human figures from clay which probably came from Western Mexico or Guatemala
      G. Around 600 CE began to build irrigation ditches, large ballcourts, and even small earthen pyramids
      H. One network of canals covered 150 miles
      I. Little is known of Hohokam society except seems to have been a peaceful one; democratic rather than class structured; villages of huts over pits
      J. Art and craft skills improved
      K. About 1000 CE developed process of etching shells with fermented saguaro juice making it possibly the first etchings in the world - appeared nowhere else in the hemisphere
      L. Weaving varied, excellent textiles
      M. Expanded northward coming in contact with the Sinagua
      N. About 1100 CE Anasazi (Pueblo) influences swept over Sinagua, taking the Hohokam with them
      O. About 1300 another Pueblo group, the Saladoans of East Central Arizona migrated into Hohokam territory
      P. Many Hohokam traits began to diappear; some believe they became the Pima and Papago; others say they left the area, leaving the region to original occupants who became the Pima and Papago

      (1) Pimas - known as River People and close relatives of the Papagos (arguably means "Bean People")
      (2) Continued Hohokam traditions
      (3) Papagos - semi-nomadic
      (3) Strong tribal organization among Pimas while Papagos looser

    To Ancient Pueblo Peoples (Anasazi) and Outline of Class Discussion

    To Capstone Program Main Page - Outlines of Navajo, Apache, Zuni, and Hopi Class Discussions

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