Assyrian and Babylonian Kings

Dating generally follows the chronologies of the tables in The Cambridge Ancient History, (2nd ed.) volumes III and IV, Brinkmann in Oppenheim Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization (2nd revised ed.) pp. 335-340, and Oates Babylon, pp. 199-202.

Babylon and Aššur trace a common genealogy to nomadic Amorites

Babylon Aššur
1. Tudiya
2. Adamu
3. Yangi
4. Kitlamu
5. Harharu
6. Mandaru
7. Imsu
8. Harsu
9. Didanu
10. Hanu
11. Zunbu
12. Nuabu
13. Abazu
14. Belu
15. Azarah
16. Ušpiya
17. Apiašal
18. Hale
19. Samanu
20. Hayani
21. Ilu-mer
22. Yakmesi
23. Yakmeni
24. Yazkur-ilu
25. Ilu-kabkabi
26. Aminum (c. 2060)
27. Sulilu (c. 2040)
28. Kikkiya (c. 2020)
Ašmadu (c. 2000)29. Akiya (c. 2000)
Abi-yamuta (c. 1980)30. Puzur-Aššur I (c. 1980)
Abi-ditan (c. 1960)31. Šaliamahu (c. 1960)
Mam-(x)-(y)-(z) (c. 1940)32. Ilu-šumma (c. 1940)
Šu-(x)-(y)-(z) (c. 1920)33. Erišum I (c. 1920)
Dadbanaya (c. 1900)34. Ikunum (c. 1900)
1. Sumu-Abum 1894-188135. Šarru-kin I (c. 1880)
2. Sumu-la-el 1880-184536. Puzur-Aššur II c. 1860
3. Sabium 1844-183137. Naram-Sin c. 1840
4. Apil-Sin 1830-181338. Erišum II c. 1819
5. Sin-muballit 1812-179339. Šamši-Adad I 1814-1782
6. Hammurabi 1792-175040. Išme-Dagan I 1782-1742
41. Aššur-dugul 1741-1735
7. Samsu-iluna 1749-171242. Aššur-apla-idi (1735)
43. Nasir-Sin (1734)
44. Sin-namir (1734)
45. Ibqi-Ištar (1733)
46. Adad-salulu (1733)
47. Adasi (1732)
48. Bel-bani (1732-1722)
8. Abi-ešuh 1711-168449. Libaya (1722-1705)
50. Šarma-išku I (1705-1693)
9. Ammi-ditana 1683-164751. Ib-tar-Sin (1693-1681)
52. Bazaya (1681-1653)
53. Lullaya (1653-1647)
10. Ammi-saduqa 1646-162654. Kidin-Ninua (1646-1632)
55. Šarma-iškur II (1632-1629)
56. Erišum III (1629-1616)
11. Samsu-ditana 1625-159557. Šamši-Adad II (1616-1610)
58. Išme-Dagan II (1610-1594)
2nd Dynasty of Babylon
(1st Sealand Dynasty)
5 Kings before becoming rulers of Babylon:
  1. Iliman 1783-1724
  2. Itti-ili-nibi 1723-1667
  3. Damiq-ilišu 1666-1641
  4. Iškibal 1640-1626
  5. Šušši 1625-1602
12. Gulkišar 1601-1547
  • (conquers Babylon 1595)
59. Šamši-Adad III (1594-1578)
60. Aššur-nirari I (1578-1552)
61. Puzur-Aššur III (1552-1528)
13. Išten (?)(mGÍŠ.EN) 1546-1535 62. Enlil-nasir I (1528-1515)
14. Pešgal-daramaš 1534-1485 63. Nur-ili (1515-1503)
64. Aššur-šaduni (1502)
65. Aššur-rabi (1502-1465 (?))
15. Adara-kalamma 1484-145766. Aššur-nadin-ahhe I (1465-1431 (?))
16. Akurul-anna 1456-143167. Enlil-nasir II 1430-1425
17. Melam-kurkurra 1430-142468. Aššur-nirari II 1424-1418
18. Ea-gamil 1423-141569. Aššur-bel-nišešu 1417-1409
3rd Dynasty
(Kassite)
14 Rulers before taking
Babylon in 1415 (dates are highly conjectural):
  1. Gandaš 1724-1708
  2. Agum I 1708-1695
  3. Kaštiliaš I 1684-1662
  4. Ušši 1662-1654
  5. Abirattaš 1654
  6. Kaštiliaš II 1650
  7. Urzigurumaš 1647
  8. Harbašihu 1644-1630
  9. Tiptakzi 1630-1560
  10. Agum II 1560-1490
  11. Burnaburiaš I 1490-1465
  12. Kaštiliaš III 1465-1460
  13. Ulamburiaš 1460-1450
  14. Agum III 1450
19. Kara-Indaš 1415-1400 (?)70. Aššur-rim-nišešu 1408-1401
20. Kadašman-Harbe I 1400-1385 (?)71. Aššur-nadin-ahhe II 1400-1391
21. Kurigalzu I 1385-1374(?)
  • Builds city Dur-Kurigalzu as administrative capital
72. Eriba-Adad I 1390-1364
22. Kadašman-Enlil I 1374-135973. Aššur-uballit I 1363-1328
23. Burnaburiš II 1359-133374. Enlil-nirari 1327-1318
24. Kara-hardaš 1333
25. Nazi-bugaš 1333
26. Kurigalzu II 1332-130875. Arik-den-ili 1317-1306
27. Nazi-maruttaš 1307-128176. Adad-nirari I 1305-1274
28. Kadašman-Turgu 1281-126377. Šalmaneser I 1273-1244
29. Kadašman-Enlil II 1263-125478. Tukulti-Ninurta I 1243-1207
30. Kudur-Enlil 1254-1245
31. Šagarakti-šuriaš 1245-1232
32. Kaštiliaš IV 1232-1224
33. Tukulti-Ninurta (of Assyria) 1224
  • This Assyrian King conquered Babylon in 1224 and ruled it through the next three Kassite Kings
34. Enlil-nadin-šumi 1224
35. Kadašman-Harbe II 1223-1221
36. Adad-šuma-iddina 1221-1215
37. Adad-šuma-usur 1215-118579. Aššur-nadin-apli 1206-1203
38. Melišipak 1185-117080. Aššur-nirari III 1202-1197
39. Marduk-apla-iddina I 1170-115781. Enlil-kudurri-usur 1196-1192
40. Zababa-šuma-iddina 115782. Ninurta-apil-Ekur 1191-1179
41. Enlil-nadin-ahi 1156-115483. Aššur-dan I 1178-1133
4th Dynasty
(2nd Isin Dynasty)
42. Marduk-kabit-ahhešu 1156-1139
43. Itti-Marduk-balatu 1138-113184. Aššur-reš-iši 1132-1115
44. Ninurta-nadin-šumi 1130-1125
45. Nabu-kudurri-usur (Nebuchadnezzar I) 1124-110385. Ninurta-tukulti-Aššur 1115
86. Mutakkil-Nusku 1115
87. Tukulti-apil-Ešara I 1114-1076
46. Enlil-nadin-apli 1102-1099
47. Marduk-nadin-ahhe 1098-1081
48. Marduk-šapik-zeri 1080-106888. Ašred-apil-Ekur 1075-1074
89. Aššur-bel-kala 1073-1056
49. Adad-apla-iddina 1067-104690. Eriba-Adad II 1055-1054
91. Šamši-Adad IV 1053-1050
92. Aššur-nasir-apli I 1049-1031
50. Marduk-ahheriba 1045
51. Marduk-zer.... 1044-1033
52. Nabušumlibur 1032-102693. Šulmanu-ašared II 1030-1019
5th Dynasty
(2nd Sealand Dynasty)
53. Simmašši 1026-100994. Aššur-nirari IV 1018-1013
54. Eamukin 100995. Aššur-rabi II 1012-972
55. Kaššunadinahhe 1009-1006
6th Dynasty
(Bazi Dynasty)
56. Eulmaš-šakin-šumi 1006-989
57. Ninurta-kudurri-usur I 989-986
58. Širiqti-suqumu 986
7th Dynasty
(Elamite)
59. Mar-biti-apli-usur 985-980
8th Dynasty
(called "Dynasty of E")
60. Nabu-mukin-apli 979-94496. Aššur-reš-iši II 971-967
61. Ninurta-kudurri-usur II 94397. Tukulti-apil-Ešarra II 966-935
62. Mar-biti-ahhe-iddina 942-91098. Aššur-dan II 934-912
63. Šamaš-mudammiq c. 910-88099. Adad-nirari II 911-891
64. Nabu-šuma-ukin I c. 880-860100. Tukulti-Ninurta II 890-884
65. Nabu-apla-iddina c. 860-820101. Aššur-nasir-apli II 883-859
  • Moves capital from Aššur to Kalhu
102. Šalmau-ašred III 858-824
66. Marduk-zakir-šumi I c. 820-810103. Šamši-Adad V 823-811
67. Marduk-balasu-iqbi c. 810-805104. Sammuramat (Semiramis) 811-806
68. Baba-aha-iddina c. 805105. Adad-nirari III 806-783
(5 unknown names)
74. Ninurta-apla-(x) c. 800-790
75. Marduk-bel-zeri c. 790-780106. Šulmanu-ašred IV 782-773
76. Marduk-apla-usur c. 780-760107. Aššur-dan III 772-755
77. Eriba-Marduk c. 760-750108. Aššur-nirari V 754-745
78. Nabu-šuma-iškun c. 750-747
79. Nabu-nasir (Nabonassar) 747-734109. Tukulti-apil-Ešara III (Tiglath-Pileser) 744-727
80. Nabu-nadin-zeri 733-732
81. Nabu-šuma-ukin II 732
9th Dynasty
(Assyrian Dynasty)
82. Nabu-mukin-zeri 731-729
83. (Tukulti-apil-Ešara III;
called "Pulu"
728-727
110. Šulmanu-ašared V
(Shalmaneser) 726-722
84. (Šulmanu-ašared V
called "Ululayu") 726-722
85. Marduk-apla-iddina II
"Merodach-Baladan" 721-710
111. Šarru-kin (Sargon II)
  • Builds Dur-Šarru-kin as new capital
721-705
85. (Sargon II of Assyria 709-705)
86. (Sennacherib of Assyria 704-703)112. Sin-ahheriba (Sennacherib)
  • Chooses Nineveh as new capital)
704-681
87. Marduk-zakir-šumi II 703
88. Marduk-apla-iddina II (2nd time) 703
89. Bel-ibni 702-700
  • (Native Babylonian, appointed by Sennacherib)
90. Aššur-nadin-šumi 699-694
  • (Son of Sennacherib)
91. Neral-ušezib 693
92. Mušezib-Marduk 692-689
93. (Sennacherib of Assyria, 2nd time) 688-681
94. Esarhaddon 680-669113. Esarhaddon 680-669
95. Aššurbanipal 668114. Aššur-ban-apli (Aššurbanipal) 668-627
96. Šamaš-šum-ukin 667-648
  • (Brother of Ashurbanipal)
  • Civil war between Šamaš-šum-ukin and Aššurbanipal 652-647
97. Kandalanu 647-627
  • Appointed by Ashurbanipal
115. Aššur-etelli-ilani 627-624
10th Dynasty
(Chaldean Dynasty)
98. Nabu-apal-usur (Nabopolassar)
626-605
116. Sin-šum-lišir 623
117. Sin-šar-iškun 623-612
  • Nineveh destroyed by Babylonians and Medes, 612
118. Aššur-uballit II 612-609
  • Last Assyrian King: he fled to Harran with compatriots and tried to regain the throne from a distance. Last evidence is 609 b.c.e.
99. Nabu-kudurri-usur II (Nebuchadnezzar) 604-562
100. Amel-Marduk 561-560
101. Nergal-šar-usur 559-556
102. Labaši-Marduk 556
103. Nabu-na'id (Nabonidus) 555-539

Persians under Cyrus conquer Babylon in 539/538 b.c.e.

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