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Chapter Three

I have just released a paper back at Amazon. The book,"Energy, Antigravity, and Cold Fusion", is also available on Kindle. Please purchase a copy of this historic work.
[Elementary Antigravity


Conventional, unconventional, and antigravitational


Rockets operate on the basis of Newton's second law. This law states that every action produces an equal and opposite reaction. The force that drives a rocket forward is produced in opposition to the ejection of a rocket's exhaust. In more exact terms, the momentum of the gas exiting a rocket equals the forward momentum delivered to the rocket.

[This rocket is a HTML marque.]

The momentum of the rocket = The momentum of the exhaust

MassrocketVelocityrocket = MassexhaustVelocityexhaust

The momentum delivered to a rocket varies directly with the mass and velocity of the gas ejected from the rocket. The mass that is ejected from a rocket is carried by the rocket in the form of a propellant fuel. There is a limit to the amount of fuel that can be carried by a rocket. Consequentially, a rocket can only exhaust a limited number of pounds of gas. In order to get sufficient thrust from a limited weight of gas, rockets must exhaust gas at very high velocities. The kinetic energy of moving matter increases with the square of the exhaust's velocity.


Most of the energy contained in a rocket's fuel is expended in the rocket's high velocity exhaust stream. Only a small portion of the fuel's energy is actually imparted to the rocket. This is a limitation inherent to all rockets. This limitation restricts the weight of a rocket's payload to a small percentage of the rocket's weight. One way to increase a rocket's efficiency would be to expel more mass from its exhaust stream. The ejection of additional mass would deliver more momentum to the rocket and reduce the kinetic energy thrown away to its exhaust stream. Additional mass cannot be obtained by placing more fuel into a rocket. Additional fuel will make the rocket heavier. The additional weight will negate any gains in efficiency that were obtained from the more massive exhaust stream.

Mass can be obtained from the atmosphere. Airplanes, for example, grab air with their wings, propellers, and jet engines. The weight of the air thrown down by an airplane greatly exceeds the weight of the plane's fuel. Airplanes are, therefore, much more efficient than rockets. In order to get into space, rockets must travel at hypersonic velocities. It is difficult to get a stable flame in air breathing jet engines at hypersonic velocities. Hypersonic engine technology is, however, being developed. This technology will allow a single stage vehicle to reach orbit.

Better, more efficient launch vehicles are needed to colonize space. The engines in these vehicles must be very efficient. The most efficient engine would not expel a light gas. It would push away from a heavy object. In the future, advanced propulsion systems will push down upon the large mass of the earth. Very little kinetic energy will be transferred to the earth. All of the fuel's energy will be imparted to the vehicle. These engines will be very efficient.

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The idea of magnetically propelling a space craft as been around for a long time.


In 1950, Frank Scully wrote in "Behind the Flying Saucers"
"Now that we have learned that these ships from another world fly magnetically, it is my opinion that our own magnetic engieers will solve the problem magnetic flight and match the ships of the visitors with saucers made on this earth."
More recently, Dr. Jan Pajak of Invercargill New Zealand spent many years developing methods of using the earth's magnetic field to propel a spacecraft. He designed a machine called the magnocraft. Pajak's magnocraft is a simple device that operates on the principle of magnetic repulsion. 1, 2

Pajak tried to design a magnet strong enough to push away from one of the earth's magnetic poles. The required strength was called, by Pajak and his associates in Poland, the starting flux. After many years of work, Pajak uncovered some serious problems. The problems have to do with dipole forces. An example will be offered to explain the problems Pajak encountered. An attractive force is developed between the opposite poles of a dipole, and a repulsive force is developed between the like poles of a dipole.



In the figure above, an attractive force is developed between poles #1 & #3 and poles #2 & #4. A repulsive force is developed between poles #2 & #3, and poles #1 & #4. The repulsive force between poles #2 & #3 is much stronger than the forces developed between the other poles. A stronger force is produced because the distance between poles #2 & #3 is the least. As the general rule, the force between two dipoles, which are separated by a distance shorter than their length, drops off with the square of their separation distance.


The figure below depicts two dipoles separated by a distance longer than their length.


In this second example, the distance separating the dipole's opposite poles is about the same as the distance separating the dipole's like poles. The attractive force between poles #1 & #3, and poles #2 & #4 is about equal to the repulsive force between poles #2 & #3 and poles #1 and #4. As a general rule, the force between two dipoles, which are separated by a distance greater than their length, drops off with the forth power of their separation distance. Any force that decreases with the fourth power drops off to almost nothing in rather short order. This is the reason that inductance is a local phenomena. Dr. Pajak found that the only real force produced by dipoles, separated by a distance greater then their length, is rotational. The magnocraft would not levitate, it would only spin on the ground like a compass. Pajak is still working on the problem, he is examining every detail in his search for a solution. 8

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Literature abounds with descriptions of spaceships that "ride a beam".2
"He found he was getting a strong 3000 mcs signal from about there 2 o'clock position, just the relative bearing at which the unknown luminous source had blinked out moments earlier."

Astronautics & Aeronautics July 1971,

Pick the icon to view the various types of proposed propulsion systems.

A beam ship operates by ejecting a beam of energy. The momentum carried by a beam of electromagnetic energy is equal to the energy in the beam divided by the speed of light. Any means no exceptions, This author should know; he spent years in a misguided effort attempting to produce a high momentum beam of electromagnetic energy. Any includes light beams, radar beams, laser beams, and X-ray beams. Flows of energy are measured in watts. The relationship between the flow of energy in watts and the momentum of the energy flow is:

Momentum = (Watts) / (3 x 108 meters/second)

A large power plant burning 600 tons of coal an hour can produce 1,800,000,000 watts of energy. If the entire output of the plant was channeled into a beam of energy, this beam would generate a meager 6 newtons of thrust. Six newtons of thrust will just about lift a two ounce mass. The efficiency of a beam ship is very low. Rockets are better, at least a rocket can get off of the ground.

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A sensitive experiment performed by Hideo Hayasaka and Sakae Takeuchi of the engineering faculty at Tohoku University Sendai, Japan, detected a faint gravitomagnetic that was induced by a super high speed Gyroscope. They found that rapidly spinning gyroscopes tended to loose weight. Gyroscopes weighing 176 grams lost 11 thousandths of a gram when spun at 216 revolutions/second. 3 General Relativity states that a gravitomagnetic field will be produced by a spinning mass. The gravitomagnetic field is similar in structure to the magnetic field produced by an electron moving in a circle. The gravitomagnetic field, however, is very much weaker than its electromagnetic counterpart.

Pick the icon to view various induced fields.

The gravitomagnetic field of a spinning mass is attached to the kinetic energy of the spinning mass and is very weak. Sensitive satellite experiments (ie the Stanford Gravity Probe-B Experiment) are just barely able to detect the gravitomagnetic field associated with the whole of the spinning earth.

In 1992, a strong gravitomagnetic field was detected above a rotating superconductive disk by researchers at the Tampere University in Finland. This effect was 300 million times stronger than the effect observed with the gyroscope in Japan. This gravitomagnetic field is is attached to the mass energy of the spinning superconductor (not the kinetic energy as in the case of the spinning gyroscope) and is very much stronger. The will be explained in detail in later chapters.

Pick the icon to view the gravitational devices invented by Dr. Eugene Podkletnov at Tampere University. This device produces a local gravitomagnetic field. Note: For the gravitomagnetic field local is less than a hundred meters.

This device generates a strong local gravitomagnetic field.

In an historic new release in September of 1996, Robert Matthews and Ian Sample of the 'Sunday Telegraph' UK reported 4 :

"Scientists in Finland are about to reveal details of the world's first anti- gravity device. Measuring about 12in across, the device is said to reduce significantly the weight of anything suspended over it.....

According to Dr. Eugene Podkletnov (right), who led the research, the discovery was accidental................

The team was carrying out tests on a rapidly spinning disc of superconducting ceramic suspended in the magnetic field of three electric coils, all enclosed in a low-temperature vessel called a cryostat.

"One of my friends came in and he was smoking his pipe," Dr Eugene Podkletnov said. "He put some smoke over the cryostat and we saw that the smoke was going to the ceiling all the time. It was amazing - we couldn't explain it."

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In February of 1997 'Final Frontier' Magazine reported that Ning Li was following up on Podkletnov's work at NASA Marshall.

"NASA is working with theorist Ning Li of the University of Alabama at Huntsville. Equipment and test materials are being prepped for a set of experiments that could, if successful, lead to new knowledge about gravity fields. If Li's ideas work, modifying and controlling gravity may be the outcome........."

In NASA Technical Memorandum 107,289, "The Challenge to Create the Space Drive",
Marc G. Millis of NASA Lewis writes:

"New theories have emerged suggesting that gravitational an inertial forces are caused by interaction with the electromagnetic fluctuations of the vacuum. There have also been studies suggesting experimental tests for mass altering may be time to revisit the notion of creating the visionary "space drive." Space drive, as defined here, is an idealized form of propulsion where the fundamental properties of matter and space-time are used to create propulsive forces anywhere in space without having to carry and expel a reaction mass."

Scientists around the world are following up on Dr. Podkletnov's discovery.5 The team lead by Dr. Ning Li 6 of the University of Alabama attempted to replicate the experiment. NASA Marshall is also experimenting with the technology. This author expects the results of this work to be slow in coming and revolutionary in scope.

Historic picture. Pick the icon to view a picture of Witt Brantley Chief of NASA's Advanced Concepts Office showing Frank Znidarsic one of the mechanisms used to spin superconductive disks.

Historic picture. Pick the icon to view a NASA scientist Glen A. Robinson showing one of the test superconductive disks. One of the problems has been that the disks shatter when spun at high velocities. The ring around the disk is part of the press used to make the disk. Glen went on to establish the Space and Propulsion International Forum.

Historic picture. Pick the icon to view another of the NASA machines designed to spin superconductive disks.


Nasa has completed its gravitational experiments. NASA applied a magnetic field to a high temperature superconductor and searched for a gravitational anomaly. No anomaly was found. NASA did not rotate or apply a radio frequency field to the superconductor. NASA did not follow Podkletnov's suggestions. The author has obtained a copy of Ning Li's unpublished paper, "Gravitomagnetic fields arising from the lattice ion rotations of superconductors." Ning's method does not require rotation or the application of a radio frequency field. Li may have led NASA down the wrong path. Just as a spinning charge generates an electromagnetic field, a rotating mass generates a gravitomagnetic field. The gravitational field is 1039 weaker than the electromagentic field. To get an idea of how weak the gravitomagnetic field is, envision the mass of the earth rotating. The gravitomagnetic field produced by the rotation of the entire mass of the earth is just barely detectable using the most sensitive satellite experiments. No mechanical machine on earth could ever spin fast enough to generate a useable gravitomagnetic field. Ning Li suggested that nucleons could be spun up by a factor of 1045. This author does not appreciate her mechanism for adding spin to the nucleus. As with the electron each level of spin is accompanied by a higher level of energy. It would be impossible to maintain energy levels that are a factor of 1045 above the ground state. The energy would be released long before this level of spin was obtained through the decay of the state and the emission of a photon. Gravity is normally a very weak force.


There is one instance, however, when all of the fields, including gravity, strongly interact. That instance is during the quantum transition. Lot Brantly asked Znidarsic, "What purpose does the radio frequency stimulation serve." If Brantly or Znidarsic had known the answer NASA may have followed a different path and mankind would have gravitomagnetic propulsion. Lot's question proved to be a vital clue. Znidarsic discovered that the quantum transition is proceeds at a velocity of 1.094 million meters per second. This understanding will be applied in later chapters to demonstrate how to place a macroscopic object into a state of quantum transition. Millions of atoms will be adjoined into a single state of quantum transition. Strong local gravitomagnetic fields will be induced. The gravitomagnetic field will tend to align the protons of the matter in which it comes into contact. This alignment requires energy. This expenditure of energy indicates the gravitomagnetic field is repulsive in nature. The repulsive effect can be used to levitate a spacecraft a hundred or so meters above the surface of the earth. A stronger gravitomagnetic field may be able to repel off of the atmosphere. Longer range repulsive effects may be obtained above the rotational poles of the earth. The range of the translational force above the poles of the earth should approximate the radius of the earth. In order to obtain thrust over interstellar distances the spacecraft engine could rotate with respect to the rest of the universe. This rotation will induce a weak gravitomagnetic field. The strong gravtomagnetic field of the spacecraft will interact with the weak gravitomagnetic field of the universe. The gravitation field is monopolar (it does not contain a field of opposite polarity). The interactions of a monopolar field should induce a long range translational force. The translational force can be employed for propulsion.

There is the possibility that the reaction of strong local gravitomagnetic field and the long range gravitomagnetic field of the universe will be purely rotational. There is another method, abet more difficult, to obtain a translational thrust. Strong local gravitomagnetic structures may be modulated and arranged into an array. This array will resemble a directional electromagnetic antenna. An electromagnetic antenna emits a beam of energy. A gravitomagnetic antenna should emit a beam of momentum.

[ Znidarsic's lecture at the Univerity of Pittsburgh 1994 ] The relationship between force, gravity, and the gravitomagnetic field has been known for 100 years. This author was the first to place force in a model of matter. This author's work is fundamental to the development of zero point levitational technologies. Published November 1998, INFINITE ENERGY, Volume 4, Issue 22.

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The Legend of air force base Area-51

Stories abound about the top secret air force base Area-51. It has been said that flying saucers, aliens, and Roswell crash debris are located there. Physist Bob Lazar claims to have seen captured alien spacecraft at the base. Lasar claims that spacecraft fly with the help of Element-X. This author questions this claim. What could Element-X be? All of the stable elements have been identified. Unknown elements heavier that uranium have very short half lives. The laws of physics are known well enough to rule out the existence of reasonably stable unknown elements. Lasar's claim does not ring true.

Air Force consultant Edgar Fouche claims that Aurora program has developed a craft known as the TR-3B. Picture of the TR-3B courtesy of Edgar Fouche. 7 Fouche states,. "Sandia and Livermore laboratories developed the reverse engineered MFD technology. The plasma, mercury based, is pressurized at 250,000 atmospheres at a temperature of 150 degrees Kelvin and accelerated to 50,000 rpm to create a super-conductive plasma with the resulting gravity disruption." 7 This author has shown that the rotation of a superconductor (a bose condensate) will induce a gravitomagnetic field. Indeed the Advanced Concepts Group at NASA Marshall is currently experimenting with this idea. Could Fouche's rotating plasma be a Bose condensate? Plasmas tends to condense into liquids and solids under high pressure and low temperature. What keeps the TR-3B's plasma from condensing? This author has many more questions than answers, however, Fouche's claim has some technical basis and just could be true.

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Interseller space travel is impossible with conventional methods of propulsion. Promising graviational technologies appear to have been discovered. It appears that small engines, producing several newtons of thrust, will soon be built. More powerful engines, capable of lifting off from earth, will require extensive development. These engines do not expel mass. They push off of other matter. They will be efficient. Their only requirement is energy. Someday soon man will begin to colonize the universe. He will do this in spaceships that are propelled by gravtomagnetic engines. These engines will be powered by "zero point" cold fusion technology. This author is looking forward to a bright new future. In this future limitless energy will be available from new energy machines and the galaxy will be traversed in spaceships propelled by gravitomagnetic engines.

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The Latest from NASA

1. "The Oscillatory Chamber" Jan Pajak , ISBN 0-9597698-2-X, 50 pages, 1984 New Zealand

2. "Flyiing Saucers Uncensured" Harold T. Wilkins, Citadel Press, 1955, Page 19

3. Physical Review Letters December 18, 1989

4. The Sunday Telegraph may be directly accessed on the Internet at http:// Then search for Podkletnov

5. Popular Mechanics, December 1997, page 44

6. "Gravitatioanl effects on the magnetic attenuation of superconductors" Ning Li and D. G. Torr, Physical Review B, Vol 46, # 9 Sept. 1992

"Effects of a gravitomagnetic field on pure superconductors" N. Li and D.G. Torr, Physical Review D, vol 43 # 2 January 1991
Li,N. Noever, D.A., Koczor, R. Robertson, T, Brantley, W, "Static test for a gravitational force coupled to type II YBCO superconductors," Physica C 281 (1997) 260-267.

Noever, D., Koczor, R. "Superconductor-mediated Modification of gravity? AC Motor Experiments with Bulk YBCO Disks in Rotating Magnetic Fields," AIAA 98-3139, Proceedings, 1998 AIAA/AASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Cleveland, OH July 13-15, 1998.

Noever, D., Koczor, R. "Test Status for Proposed Coupling of A Gravitational Force to Extreme Type II YBCO Ceramic Superconductors" NASA/CP-1999-208694, NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop Proceedings, August 12-14, 1997, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH.

David Noever, Neural Net Method for HTS Combinatorial Optimization Bi:Cu:Sr:Ca Ratio, presentation at the 3rd European Conference on Applied Superconductivity 7-9 July 1997

David Noever and Ron Koczor, Radio-frequency illuminated superconductive disks: Reverse Josephson effects and implications for precise measuring of proposed gravity effects, NASA JPL-Ninth Advanced Space Propulsion Research Workshop and Conference, Pasadena, CA March 11-13, 1998

D. Noever and C. Bremner, Large-Scale Sakharov Condition, 35th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Los Angeles, CA, 20-23 June, 1999

R. Koczor, Noever, D, Fabrication of large YBCO superconducting disks, Physica C: Superconductivity, (submitted, 1999)

Dr. Harrald Reiss , "Weight Anomalies Observed During the Cool-Down of High Temperature Superconductors"

, Vol 16, No. 2 June 2002

Replication at the European Space Agency

7. "Alien Rapture", Edgar Fouche, Box 760094, San Antionio TX, 78245
Edgar Fouche appeared on the TLC program "Alien Invasion" on March 5, 1999
Reference provided as required in exchange for this use of the TR-3B picture.

7. "Alien Rapture", Edgar Fouche, Box 760094, San Antionio TX, 78245
Edgar Fouche appreared on the TLC program "Alien Invision" on March 5, 1999
Reference provided as required in exchange for this use of the TR-3B picture.

8. "Scientific American", Aug. 2004, Pg. 51
Tethers in Space
50 KM long tethers may produce some thrust.

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F = The gravitomagnetic field in newtons/ (kg/sec)

Mearth = Mass of the Earth = 5.98 x 1024 kg

re = The gravitational radius of the earth = 5 x 106 meters

R = Radius of the spinning disc or gyroscope = .2 meters

Note: the gravitomagnetic field is induced by the movement of a collimated energy field. Note R & re also define the length of the collimated energy field. Only the kinetic energy of the spinning earth and gyroscope are colliminated.

m = Mass of spinning disc or gyroscope = 700 grams


v = velocity at the edge of the gyroscope = 2p (f) (R)

v = 2p (216rev/sec)(.2 meters)

v = 271 meters/second

For the sake of analysis this velocity will be split evenly between the earth and the spinning gyroscope.

v = v / 2 = 135 meters/second

The gravitomagnetic field "F" is similar to the electro-magnetic field in that it is induced by motion. It is induced by the movement of mass "dm/dt" not charge "dq/dt". The gravitomagnetic is very weak and involves the very large constants "G" and c2. The gravitomagnetic field "F" is given by:

F = (G/c2) dm/dt

F = (G/c2r) Mv

Fearth = (6.67 x 10-11) / [(9 x 1016)(3 x 106)](5.98 x 1024)(135)

The field density B is given in units of 1/meters.

B = F /meter

Bearth = 2 x 10-7 newtons/(kg-meter/sec)

The electro-magnetic field tends to repel like charges moving in opposite directions. Likewise the gravitomagnetic field tends to repel masses moving in opposite directions. The gravitomagnetic effect is ordinarily to weak to be detected.

Force on gyroscope = Bearth Mv

Force on gyroscope = (2 x 10-7)(.7KG)(135m/s)

Force on gyroscope = 2 x 10-5 newtons

Converting newtons to grams.

Weight loss = (100 grams/newton) (2 x 10-5newtons)

Weight loss = 2 milligrams

The results of the gyroscope experiment are consistent with those expected from the interaction of the gravitomagnetic field.

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In the gyroscope experiment, the kinetic rotational kinetic energy of the gyroscope is collimated produced the effect. The mass energy of a superconductor is collimated. The mass energy of a rotating superconductor is much larger than its kinetic energy. The antigravitational effect will therefore be much larger. For a disc with a radius of .2 meters rotatating at 2 revolutions per second the calculation is:

For the sake of analysis this velocity will be split evenly between the earth and the spinning disc.

v = velocity at the edge of the disc = 2p (f) (R)

v = 2p(.2)(2rev/sec) = 2.51 meters/second

The induced gravitomagnetic field is given by:

F = (G/c2r) Mv

Fearth = (6.67 x 10-11)/[(9 x 1016)(3 x 106)](5.98 x 1024)(1.25 m/sec)

Fearth = 1.8 x 10-9 newtons/(kg-meter/sec)

B = F /meter

Force on disc = Bearth Mv

Due to the collimation of the mass energy of a superconductor momentum "P" is substituted for "Mv". The kinetic contribution to "P" is small and was not included with the calculation. As before the mass of the disc is .7kg.

Force on disc = Bearth P

Force on disc = Bearth E/c

Force on disc = Bearth (Mc2)/c

Force on disc = ( 1.8 x 10-9) (.7kg) (3 x 108)

Force on disc = .37 newtons

Converting newtons to grams.

Weight loss = (100 grams/newton) (.37 newtons) = 37 grams

% weight change = (37 grams/ 700 grams)(100%) = 5.4 %

The weight loss is consistent with the weight loss observed in spinning disks. This consistency indicates that the gravitational effects are the result of an induced gravitomagnetic field.

// end of Chapter 3 ...........................................................................