I have just released a paper back at Amazon. The book,"Energy, Antigravity, and Cold Fusion", is also available on Kindle. Please purchase a copy of this historic work.
Conventional, unconventional, and antigravitational
THE LIMITATIONS OF A ROCKET
Rockets operate on the basis of Newton's second law.
This law states that every action produces an equal and opposite
reaction. The force that drives a rocket forward is produced in
opposition to the ejection of a rocket's exhaust. In more exact
terms, the momentum of the gas exiting a rocket equals the
forward momentum delivered to the rocket.
The momentum of the rocket = The momentum of the exhaust
The momentum delivered to a rocket varies directly with the
mass and velocity of the gas ejected from the rocket.
The mass that is ejected from a rocket is carried by the rocket in
the form of a propellant fuel. There is a limit to the amount of
fuel that can be carried by a rocket. Consequentially, a rocket
can only exhaust a limited number of pounds of gas.
In order to get sufficient thrust from a limited weight of gas,
rockets must exhaust gas at very high velocities. The kinetic
energy of moving matter increases with the square of the exhaust's
KINETIC ENERGY = 1/2 Mv2
Most of the energy contained in a rocket's fuel is expended in
the rocket's high velocity exhaust stream. Only a small portion
of the fuel's energy is actually imparted to the rocket. This is a
limitation inherent to all rockets. This limitation restricts the
weight of a rocket's payload to a small percentage of the rocket's
weight. One way to increase a rocket's efficiency would be to
expel more mass from its exhaust stream. The ejection of
additional mass would deliver more momentum to the rocket and
reduce the kinetic energy thrown away to its exhaust stream.
Additional mass cannot be obtained by placing more fuel into
a rocket. Additional fuel will make the rocket heavier. The
additional weight will negate any gains in efficiency that were
obtained from the more massive exhaust stream.
Mass can be obtained from the atmosphere. Airplanes, for example,
grab air with their wings, propellers, and jet engines. The weight of the
air thrown down by an airplane greatly exceeds
the weight of the plane's fuel. Airplanes are, therefore, much
more efficient than rockets. In order to get into space, rockets
must travel at hypersonic velocities. It is difficult to get a stable
flame in air breathing jet engines at hypersonic velocities.
Hypersonic engine technology is, however, being developed.
This technology will allow a single stage vehicle to reach orbit.
Better, more efficient launch vehicles are needed to colonize
space. The engines in these vehicles must be very efficient. The
most efficient engine would not expel a light gas. It would push
away from a heavy object. In the future, advanced propulsion
systems will push down upon the large mass of the earth. Very
little kinetic energy will be transferred to the earth. All of the fuel's
energy will be imparted to the vehicle. These engines will be very
The idea of magnetically propelling a space craft as been around for a long time.
In 1950, Frank Scully wrote in "Behind the Flying Saucers"
"Now that we have learned that these ships from another world fly magnetically, it is my opinion that our own magnetic engieers will solve the problem magnetic flight and match the ships of the visitors with saucers made on this earth."
More recently, Dr. Jan Pajak of Invercargill New Zealand spent many
years developing methods of using the earth's magnetic field to
propel a spacecraft. He designed a machine called the magnocraft.
Pajak's magnocraft is a simple device that
operates on the principle of magnetic repulsion. 1, 2
Pajak tried to design a magnet strong enough to push away from
one of the earth's magnetic poles.
The required strength was called, by Pajak and his associates in
Poland, the starting flux. After many years of work, Pajak
uncovered some serious problems. The problems have to do
with dipole forces. An example will be offered to explain the
problems Pajak encountered.
An attractive force is developed between the opposite poles of a
dipole, and a repulsive force is developed between the like poles
of a dipole.
TWO CLOSELY SPACED DIPOLES
In the figure above, an attractive force is developed
between poles #1 & #3 and poles #2 & #4. A repulsive force is
developed between poles #2 & #3, and poles #1 & #4. The
repulsive force between poles #2 & #3 is much stronger than the
forces developed between the other poles. A stronger
force is produced because the distance between poles #2 & #3
is the least. As the general rule, the force between two dipoles,
which are separated by a distance shorter than their length, drops
off with the square of their separation distance.
TWO DIPOLES SPACED AT A DISTANCE
The figure below depicts two dipoles separated by a distance
longer than their length.
In this second example, the distance separating the dipole's
opposite poles is about the same as the distance separating the
dipole's like poles. The attractive force between poles #1 &
#3, and poles #2 & #4 is about equal to the repulsive force
between poles #2 & #3 and poles #1 and #4. As a general rule,
the force between two dipoles, which are separated by a distance
greater than their length, drops off with the forth power of their
separation distance. Any force that decreases with the fourth power
drops off to almost nothing in rather short order. This is the reason
that inductance is a local phenomena.
Dr. Pajak found that the only real force produced by dipoles,
separated by a distance greater then their length, is rotational.
The magnocraft would not levitate, it would only spin on the
ground like a compass. Pajak is still working on the problem,
he is examining every detail in his search for a solution. 8
Literature abounds with descriptions of spaceships that
"ride a beam".2
"He found he was getting a strong 3000 mcs signal from about there
2 o'clock position, just the relative bearing at which the unknown
luminous source had blinked out moments earlier."
Astronautics & Aeronautics July 1971, http://homepage.ntlworld.com/ufophysics/jimcd.htm
Pick the icon to view the various types of proposed propulsion systems.
A beam ship operates by ejecting a beam of energy.
The momentum carried by a beam of electromagnetic energy is equal to
the energy in the beam divided by the speed of light.
Any means no exceptions, This author should know; he spent
years in a misguided effort attempting to produce a high momentum
beam of electromagnetic energy. Any includes light beams, radar beams, laser
beams, and X-ray beams. Flows of energy are measured in watts.
The relationship between the flow of energy in watts
and the momentum of the energy flow is:
Momentum = (Watts) / (3 x 108 meters/second)
A large power plant burning 600 tons of coal an hour can produce
1,800,000,000 watts of energy. If the entire output of the plant
was channeled into a beam of energy, this beam would generate
a meager 6 newtons of thrust.
Six newtons of thrust will just about lift a two ounce mass. The
efficiency of a beam ship is very low. Rockets are better,
at least a rocket can get off of the ground.
A sensitive experiment
performed by Hideo Hayasaka and Sakae Takeuchi of the engineering
faculty at Tohoku University Sendai, Japan, detected a faint gravitomagnetic
that was induced by a super high speed Gyroscope. They found that
rapidly spinning gyroscopes
tended to loose weight. Gyroscopes weighing 176 grams lost 11
thousandths of a gram when spun at 216 revolutions/second.
General Relativity states that a gravitomagnetic field will be produced by
a spinning mass. The gravitomagnetic field is similar in structure to
the magnetic field produced by an electron moving in a circle.
The gravitomagnetic field, however, is very much weaker than its
Pick the icon to view various induced fields.
The gravitomagnetic field of a spinning mass is attached to the
kinetic energy of the
spinning mass and is very weak. Sensitive satellite experiments (ie
the Stanford Gravity Probe-B Experiment) are
just barely able to detect the gravitomagnetic field associated with
the whole of the spinning earth.
In 1992, a strong gravitomagnetic field was detected above a rotating
superconductive disk by researchers at the Tampere University in
Finland. This effect was 300 million times stronger than the effect
observed with the gyroscope in Japan. This gravitomagnetic field is
is attached to the mass energy of the spinning superconductor (not the kinetic energy
as in the case of the spinning gyroscope) and is very much stronger.
The will be explained in detail in later chapters.
Pick the icon to view the gravitational devices invented
by Dr. Eugene Podkletnov at Tampere University. This device produces a local
gravitomagnetic field. Note: For the gravitomagnetic field local is less than a hundred meters.
This device generates a strong local gravitomagnetic field.
In an historic new release in September of 1996, Robert Matthews and
Ian Sample of the 'Sunday Telegraph' UK reported
"Scientists in Finland are about to reveal details of the world's first anti-
gravity device. Measuring about 12in across, the device is said to reduce
significantly the weight of anything suspended over it.....
According to Dr. Eugene Podkletnov (right), who led the research, the discovery was
The team was carrying out tests on a rapidly spinning disc of
superconducting ceramic suspended in the magnetic field of three electric coils,
all enclosed in a low-temperature vessel called a cryostat.
"One of my friends came in and he was smoking his pipe," Dr Eugene Podkletnov said.
"He put some smoke over the cryostat and we saw that the smoke was going to
the ceiling all the time. It was amazing - we couldn't explain it."
In February of 1997 'Final Frontier' Magazine reported that Ning Li was
following up on Podkletnov's work at NASA Marshall.
"NASA is working with theorist
of the University of Alabama at Huntsville.
Equipment and test materials are being prepped for a set of experiments that
could, if successful, lead to new knowledge about gravity fields. If Li's ideas
work, modifying and controlling gravity may be the outcome........."
In NASA Technical Memorandum 107,289, "The Challenge to Create the Space Drive",
Marc G. Millis of NASA Lewis writes:
"New theories have emerged suggesting that gravitational an inertial forces
are caused by interaction with the electromagnetic fluctuations of the vacuum.
There have also been studies suggesting experimental tests for mass altering
affects.......it may be time to revisit the notion of creating the visionary
Space drive, as defined here, is an idealized form of propulsion
where the fundamental properties of matter and space-time are used to create
propulsive forces anywhere in space without having to carry and expel
a reaction mass."
Scientists around the world are
following up on Dr. Podkletnov's discovery.5
The team lead by Dr. Ning Li 6
of the University of Alabama attempted to replicate the experiment. NASA Marshall
is also experimenting with the technology.
This author expects the results of this work to be slow in coming
and revolutionary in scope.
Historic picture. Pick the icon to view a picture of Witt Brantley
Chief of NASA's Advanced Concepts Office
showing Frank Znidarsic one of the mechanisms used to spin
Historic picture. Pick the icon to view a NASA scientist Glen A. Robinson
showing one of the test
superconductive disks. One of the problems has been that the disks
shatter when spun at high velocities. The ring around the disk is
part of the press used to make the disk. Glen went on to establish the Space and Propulsion
Historic picture. Pick the icon to view another of the NASA
machines designed to spin superconductive disks.
Nasa has completed its gravitational experiments. NASA applied a magnetic
field to a high temperature superconductor and searched for a gravitational anomaly.
No anomaly was found. NASA did not rotate or apply a radio frequency field to
the superconductor. NASA did not follow Podkletnov's suggestions. The author has obtained a copy
of Ning Li's unpublished paper, "Gravitomagnetic fields arising from the lattice ion rotations of
superconductors." Ning's method does not require rotation or the application of a radio frequency field.
Li may have led NASA down the wrong path. Just as a spinning charge generates an
electromagnetic field, a rotating mass generates a gravitomagnetic field. The gravitational
field is 1039 weaker than the electromagentic field. To get an idea of how
weak the gravitomagnetic field is, envision the mass of the earth rotating. The gravitomagnetic
field produced by the rotation of the entire mass of the earth is just barely detectable using
the most sensitive satellite experiments. No mechanical machine on earth could ever spin
fast enough to generate a useable gravitomagnetic field. Ning Li suggested that nucleons
could be spun up by a factor of 1045. This author does not appreciate her mechanism
for adding spin to the nucleus. As with the electron each level of spin is accompanied by a higher
level of energy. It would be impossible to maintain energy levels that are a factor of 1045
above the ground state. The energy would be released long before this level of spin was obtained
through the decay of the state and the emission of a photon. Gravity is normally a very weak force.
AN OVERVIEW OF GRAVITOMAGNETIC PROPULSION
There is one instance, however, when all of the fields, including gravity, strongly interact. That instance
is during the quantum transition. Lot Brantly asked Znidarsic, "What purpose does the radio frequency stimulation serve." If Brantly
or Znidarsic had known the answer NASA may have followed a different path and mankind would have gravitomagnetic propulsion.
Lot's question proved to be a vital clue. Znidarsic discovered that the quantum transition is proceeds at
a velocity of 1.094 million meters per second. This understanding will be applied in later chapters
to demonstrate how to place a macroscopic object into a state of quantum transition. Millions of atoms will be adjoined into a single state of quantum transition. Strong local gravitomagnetic fields will be induced. The gravitomagnetic field will tend to align the protons of the matter in which it comes into contact. This alignment requires energy. This expenditure of energy indicates the gravitomagnetic field is repulsive in nature. The repulsive effect can be used to levitate a spacecraft a hundred or so meters above the surface of the earth. A stronger gravitomagnetic field may be able to repel off of the atmosphere. Longer range repulsive effects may be obtained above the rotational poles of the earth. The range of the translational force above the poles of the earth should approximate the radius of the earth. In order to obtain thrust over interstellar distances the spacecraft engine could rotate with respect to the rest of the universe. This rotation will induce a weak gravitomagnetic field. The strong gravtomagnetic field of the spacecraft will interact with the weak gravitomagnetic field of the universe. The gravitation field is monopolar (it does not contain a field of opposite polarity). The interactions of a monopolar field should induce a long range translational force.
The translational force can be employed for propulsion.
There is the possibility that the reaction of strong local gravitomagnetic field and the long range gravitomagnetic field of the universe will be purely rotational. There is another method, abet more difficult, to obtain a translational thrust. Strong local gravitomagnetic structures may be modulated and arranged into an array. This array will resemble a directional electromagnetic antenna. An electromagnetic antenna emits a beam of energy. A gravitomagnetic antenna should emit a beam of momentum.
The relationship between force, gravity, and the gravitomagnetic
field has been known for 100 years. This author was the first to place
force in a model of matter. This author's work is fundamental to the
development of zero point levitational technologies. Published
November 1998, INFINITE ENERGY, Volume 4, Issue 22.
Stories abound about the top secret air force base Area-51. It has been said that flying saucers, aliens, and
Roswell crash debris are located there. Physist Bob Lazar claims to have seen captured alien
spacecraft at the base.
Lasar claims that spacecraft fly with the help of Element-X. This author questions this claim. What
could Element-X be? All of the stable elements have been identified. Unknown elements heavier that
uranium have very short half lives. The laws of physics are known well enough to rule out the existence
of reasonably stable unknown elements. Lasar's claim does not ring true.
Air Force consultant Edgar Fouche
claims that Aurora program has developed a craft known as the TR-3B. Picture of the TR-3B
courtesy of Edgar Fouche. 7
Fouche states,. "Sandia and Livermore laboratories developed the reverse
engineered MFD technology. The plasma, mercury based, is pressurized at 250,000 atmospheres
at a temperature of 150 degrees Kelvin and accelerated to 50,000 rpm to create a super-conductive
plasma with the resulting gravity disruption."
This author has
shown that the rotation of a superconductor (a bose condensate) will induce a gravitomagnetic field.
Indeed the Advanced Concepts Group at NASA Marshall is currently experimenting with this idea. Could
Fouche's rotating plasma be a Bose condensate? Plasmas tends to condense into liquids and solids under
high pressure and low temperature. What keeps the TR-3B's plasma from condensing? This author has
many more questions than answers, however, Fouche's claim has some technical basis and just could be true.
Interseller space travel is impossible with conventional methods of propulsion. Promising graviational technologies appear to have
been discovered. It appears that small engines, producing several
newtons of thrust, will soon be built. More powerful engines,
capable of lifting off from earth, will require extensive development.
These engines do not expel mass. They push off of other matter.
They will be efficient. Their only requirement is energy. Someday
soon man will begin to colonize the universe. He will do this in
spaceships that are propelled by gravtomagnetic engines. These engines
will be powered by "zero point" cold fusion technology. This author
is looking forward to a bright new future. In this future limitless
energy will be available from new energy machines and the galaxy will
be traversed in spaceships propelled by gravitomagnetic engines.
The Latest from NASA
1. "The Oscillatory Chamber" Jan Pajak ,
ISBN 0-9597698-2-X, 50 pages, 1984
2. "Flyiing Saucers Uncensured"
Harold T. Wilkins, Citadel Press, 1955, Page 19
3. Physical Review Letters December 18, 1989
4. The Sunday Telegraph may be directly accessed on the
Internet at http:// www.telegraph.co.uk/et
Then search for Podkletnov
5. Popular Mechanics, December 1997, page 44
6. "Gravitatioanl effects on the magnetic
attenuation of superconductors" Ning Li and D. G. Torr,
Physical Review B, Vol 46, # 9 Sept. 1992
"Effects of a gravitomagnetic field on pure superconductors"
N. Li and D.G. Torr, Physical Review D, vol 43 # 2
Li,N. Noever, D.A., Koczor, R. Robertson, T, Brantley, W, "Static test for
a gravitational force coupled to type II YBCO superconductors," Physica C
281 (1997) 260-267.
Noever, D., Koczor, R. "Superconductor-mediated Modification of gravity?
AC Motor Experiments with Bulk YBCO Disks in Rotating Magnetic Fields,"
AIAA 98-3139, Proceedings, 1998 AIAA/AASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion
Conference, Cleveland, OH July 13-15, 1998.
Noever, D., Koczor, R. "Test Status for Proposed Coupling of A
Gravitational Force to Extreme Type II YBCO Ceramic Superconductors"
NASA/CP-1999-208694, NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop
Proceedings, August 12-14, 1997, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH.
David Noever, Neural Net Method for HTS Combinatorial Optimization
Bi:Cu:Sr:Ca Ratio, presentation at the 3rd European Conference on Applied
Superconductivity 7-9 July 1997
David Noever and Ron Koczor, Radio-frequency illuminated superconductive
disks: Reverse Josephson effects and implications for precise measuring of
proposed gravity effects, NASA JPL-Ninth Advanced Space Propulsion
Research Workshop and Conference, Pasadena, CA March 11-13, 1998
D. Noever and C. Bremner, Large-Scale Sakharov Condition, 35th
AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Los Angeles, CA, 20-23
R. Koczor, Noever, D, Fabrication of large YBCO superconducting disks,
Physica C: Superconductivity, (submitted, 1999)
Dr. Harrald Reiss, "Weight Anomalies Observed During the Cool-Down of High Temperature Superconductors"
, Vol 16, No. 2 June 2002
Replication at the European Space Agency
"Alien Rapture", Edgar Fouche, Box 760094, San Antionio TX, 78245
Edgar Fouche appeared on the TLC program "Alien Invasion" on March 5, 1999
Reference provided as required in exchange for this use of the TR-3B picture.
"Alien Rapture", Edgar Fouche, Box 760094, San Antionio TX, 78245
Edgar Fouche appreared on the TLC program "Alien Invision" on March 5, 1999
Reference provided as required in exchange for this use of the TR-3B picture.
"Scientific American", Aug. 2004, Pg. 51
Tethers in Space 50 KM long tethers may produce some thrust.
F = The gravitomagnetic field in newtons/ (kg/sec)
Mearth = Mass of the Earth = 5.98 x 1024 kg
re = The gravitational radius of the earth = 5 x 106 meters
R = Radius of the spinning disc or gyroscope = .2 meters
Note: the gravitomagnetic field is induced by the movement of
a collimated energy field.
Note R & re also define the length of the collimated energy field.
Only the kinetic energy of the spinning earth and gyroscope are colliminated.
m = Mass of spinning disc or gyroscope = 700 grams
THE GYROSCOPE CALCULATION
v = velocity at the edge of the gyroscope = 2p (f) (R)
v = 2p (216rev/sec)(.2 meters)
v = 271 meters/second
For the sake of analysis this velocity will be split evenly between
the earth and the spinning gyroscope.
v = v / 2 = 135 meters/second
The gravitomagnetic field "F" is similar to the
electro-magnetic field in that it is induced by motion.
It is induced by the movement of mass "dm/dt" not charge "dq/dt".
The gravitomagnetic is very weak and involves the very large
constants "G" and c2.
The gravitomagnetic field "F" is given by:
F = (G/c2) dm/dt
F = (G/c2r) Mv
Fearth = (6.67 x 10-11) / [(9 x 1016)(3 x 106)](5.98 x 1024)(135)
The field density B is given in units of 1/meters.
B = F /meter
Bearth = 2 x 10-7 newtons/(kg-meter/sec)
The electro-magnetic field tends to repel like charges moving in
opposite directions. Likewise the gravitomagnetic field tends to repel
masses moving in opposite directions. The gravitomagnetic effect is
ordinarily to weak to be detected.
Force on gyroscope = Bearth Mv
Force on gyroscope = (2 x 10-7)(.7KG)(135m/s)
Force on gyroscope = 2 x 10-5 newtons
Converting newtons to grams.
Weight loss = (100 grams/newton) (2 x 10-5newtons)
Weight loss = 2 milligrams
The results of the gyroscope experiment are consistent
with those expected from the interaction of the gravitomagnetic field.
In the gyroscope experiment, the kinetic rotational kinetic energy of the
gyroscope is collimated produced the effect. The mass energy of a superconductor
is collimated. The mass energy of a rotating superconductor is much
larger than its kinetic energy. The antigravitational effect will therefore
be much larger. For a disc with a radius of .2 meters rotatating at
2 revolutions per second the calculation is:
For the sake of analysis this velocity will be split evenly
between the earth and the spinning disc.
v = velocity at the edge of the disc = 2p (f) (R)
v = 2p(.2)(2rev/sec) = 2.51 meters/second
The induced gravitomagnetic field is given by:
F = (G/c2r) Mv
Fearth = (6.67 x 10-11)/[(9 x 1016)(3 x 106)](5.98 x 1024)(1.25 m/sec)
Fearth = 1.8 x 10-9 newtons/(kg-meter/sec)
B = F /meter
Force on disc = Bearth Mv
Due to the collimation of the mass energy of a superconductor
momentum "P" is substituted for "Mv". The kinetic contribution
to "P" is small and was not included with the calculation. As before
the mass of the disc is .7kg.
Force on disc = Bearth P
Force on disc = Bearth E/c
Force on disc = Bearth (Mc2)/c
Force on disc = ( 1.8 x 10-9) (.7kg) (3 x 108)
Force on disc = .37 newtons
Converting newtons to grams.
Weight loss = (100 grams/newton) (.37 newtons) = 37 grams