Text of the Age of Anxiety Review

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Who most wanted the Treaty of Versailles enforced? Why?

France, most damaged & all alone vs. Ger.

What was Leninís solution to the economic problems the Communists faced after the Russian Civil War?

New Economic Policy (NEP)

Lenin's death led to a power struggle between whom? Who was the victor?

Stalin & Trotsky, Stalin

What was the main threat that fascist regimes responded to?

spread of communism

What do fascist rulers insist the individual must put before everything?

the State

How did Muss. become Prime Minister?

appointed by king after Black Shirts march on Rome

What did France do in 1923 when Germany fell behind on repsarations?

occupied Ruhr

How did this impact the German economy?

huge inflation, some unemployment

Name 2 parts of the Nazi Party Platform.

repudiation of T of V, unification of Austria & Germany, eradication of Jews, agrarian reform, confiscation of war profits, etc.

What was the first attempted takeover by the Nazi Party?

Beer Hall Putsch (Munich, 1923)

What did the Dawes Plan do?

restructured rep pay back (tied to Ger. economy)

Name 2 of the key causes of the Great Depression.

Crisis in currency & investments, commodities crisis, lack of leadership

How did the crash of Ď29 affect U.S. investment in Europe?

stopped it

Why couldnít farmers pay their debts in the Ď20s?

glut of agricultural goods in market

How did most European govíts respond to the Great Depression?

cut spending, wage & price controls

Who rose to power in response to the Great Depression in Germany? Who did they use as scapegoats?

Nazis, Jews and Communists

What did Hitler blame on the Communists & use as an excuse to expand his power?

Reichstag Fire

What act of terror made the Nazi anti-Semitic program a clear reality?

Kristallnacht

What was the name of Hitlerís elite secret police force? Who led it?

SS, Himmler

What kinds of propaganda were used by the Nazis? Who was their minister of propaganda?

marches, rallies, radio, print; Joseph Goebbels

What was the Nazisí economic policy?

Gear all production toward strong military state

What instrument guided the Soviet economy between 1927 & 1942?

the Five Year Plans

What did these plans call for?

rapid industrialization w/ specific goals for production

How did the plans expect to pay for these increases?

grain exports from collectivized farms

What class strongly opposed collectivized farming?

kulaks

What was done to those who opposed?

death or imprisonment

What was the cost of this industrialization?

millions of deaths, lack of economic equality, years of self denial

What was Stalinís goal in the great Purges?

eliminate all opposition w/in the Party (old Bolsheviks)

What old empire had controlled the Middle East for hundreds of years prior to 1900? What event brought the collapse of this empire?

The Ottoman Empire, WWI

How did the Ottoman govít respond to the uprising of Armenian Christians in 1915?

They killed 600,000 Armenians and sent 500,000 more into exile

What leader took over Turkey at the end of WWI and allowed for the official end of the end of the Empire? What was his biggest reform?

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, make Turkey a secular state, free from connections with Islam

What resource was discovered in Persia that served to increase foreign interest?

Oil

Name at least two of the new "states" created in the Middle East after WWI?

Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan

What was the first new kingdom created by Arabs in the Middle East? What specific industry brought great wealth to this kingdom in the 1930ís?

Saudi Arabia, the American oil industry

In what part of the former Ottoman empire is there a great deal of tension today? Who is the tension between?

Former Palestine; Arab Palestinians and the Israelis

Who took over leadership of the Nationalists after Sun Yat Senís death?

Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai Shek)

Who did Jiang Jieshi identify as the two major enemies to Chinese unification in the late 1920ís ?

the Communists and Japan

What is the basic message of Maoís Four Slogans?

do the opposite of what the enemy wants/expects

What was Maoís "Long March"?

when Mao and the communists broke the nationalist siege and marched north to their only remaining base

Why did Jiang feel the peasants were not ready for a republic?

They were very poor and illiterate

Why did Jiang suppress all opposition and censor free expression?

he feared Communist influence

Sum it all up by identifying 3 of the major problems China faced during the 1930ís.

the Great Depression, Japanese aggression, internal conflict (comms vs. nats)

Where did Gandhi receive an education that emphasized nationalism and self-reliance?

Great Britain

Where was Gandhi when his eyes were opened to racial injustice?

South Africa (and its policy of Apartheid)

How did Gandhi respond to the massacre at Amritsar?

Launched his first major campaign of non-violent passive resistance

What kind of things did Gandhi encourage the Indians to do in their resistance of the British?

Boycott, refuse to pay taxes, refuse to work for the British

What event exposed the British to a great deal of outrage from the rest of the world?

The march on the slat mine

When will India finally get itís independence?

In 1947, after WWII