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F. A. Hayek


Written in 1973 for the Italian Enciclopedia del Novicento where the article appeared in an Italian translation.


Reprinted as Chapter Nine of  Hayek, F. A., New Studies in Philosophy, Politics,  Economics and the History of Ideas, Routledge & Keagan Paul, London and Henley, 1982 [1978], pp. 119-151 ORDER THIS BOOK






I. The different concepts of liberalism



2. The classical and medieval roots

3. The English Whig tradition

4. The development of Continental liberalism

5. Classical British liberalism

6. The decline of liberalism



7. The liberal conception of freedom

8. The liberal conception of law

9. Law and the spontaneous order of actions

10. Natural rights, the separation on powers, and sovereignty

11. Liberalism and justice

13. Liberalism and democracy

14. The service functions of government

15. Positive tasks of liberal legislation

16. Intellectual and material freedom