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F. A. Hayek


Written in 1973 for the Italian Enciclopedia del Novicento where the article appeared in an Italian translation.


Reprinted as Chapter Nine ofá Hayek, F. A., New Studies in Philosophy, Politics,á Economics and the History of Ideas, Routledge & Keagan Paul, London and Henley, 1982 [1978], pp. 119-151 ORDER THIS BOOK








The best accounts of the liberal movement will be found in some of the histories of the major European countries during the nineteenth century, such as 9. HalÚvy, Histoire du peuple anglais au XIX siÚcle, 6 vols, Paris, 1912‑32, trans. as History of the English People, London, 1926, etc.; and F. Schnabel, Deutsche Geschichte im Neunzehnten Jahrhundert, vol. 11, Freiburg, 1933. The fullest survey of the development of the ideals of liberalism is [149] G. de. Ruggiero, Storia dos liberalismo europea, Bari 1925 trans. by R. G. Collingwood as The History of European Liberalism, Oxford 1927, which contains an extensive bibliography to which reference must be made for all the works of an earlier date, including the classical works of the founders of modern liberalism. The following list gives in chronological order the more important works of later date dealing with the history of liberal ideas and movements and the present state of liberal doctrine.


Martin, B. Kingsley, 1926, French Liberal Thought in the Eighteenth Century, London; new ed. 1954


Mises, L. von, 1927, Liberalismus, Jena. Croce, B., 1931, Etica e Politica, Bari.


Laski, H., 193 1, The Rise of European Liberalism, London.


Pohlenz, M., 1935, Die griechische Freiheit, Heidelberg; trans. as The Idea of Freedom in Greek Life and Thought, Dordrecht, 1963


Lippmann, W., 1937, An Inquiry into the Principles of the Good Society, Boston and London.


Sabine, G. H., 1937, A History of Political Theory, New York.


McIlwain, C. H., 1939, Constitutionalism and the Changing World, New York.


Hallowell, J. H., 1943, The Decline of Liberalism as an Ideology, Berkeley, Calif.


Slesser, H., 1943, A History of the Liberal Party, London. Roepke, W., 1944, Civitas Humana, Zurich.


Diez del Corral, L., 1945, El Liberalismo doctrinario, Madrid.


Popper, K. R., 1945, The Open Society and Its Enemies, London.


Rustow, A., 1945, Das Versagen des Wirtschaftsliberalismus als religionssoziologisches Problem, Zurich.


Federici, F., 1946, Der deutsche Liberalismus, Zurich


Watkins, F., 1948, The Political Tradition of the West, Cambridge, Mass. Wormuth, F. D., 1949, The Origin of Modern Constitutionalism, New York. Polanyi, M., 1 95 1, The Logic of Liberty, London.


Eucken, W., 1952, Grundsatze der Wirtschaftspolitik, Tubingen.


Robbins, L. C., 1952, The Theory of Economic Policy in English Classical Political Economy, London.


Talmon, J. L., 1952, The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy, London. Cranston, M., 1953, Freedom, London.


Lubtow, U. von, 1953, Blute und Verfall der romischen Freiheit, Berlin. Neill, T. P., 1953, Rise and Decline of Liberalism, Milwaukee, Wis.


Thomas, R. H., 1953, Liberalism, Nationalism and the German Intellectuals, Chester Springs, Pa.


Mayer‑Maly, T., 1954, 'Rechtsgeschichte der Freiheitsidee in Antike und Mittelalter', Osterreichische Zeitschrift fur offentliches Recht, N.F.V1.


Hartz, L., 1955, The Liberal Tradition in America, New York.



Bullock, A., and Shock, M., 1956, The Liberal Traditionf rom Fox to Keynes, London.


Wirszubski, C., 1956, Libertas as a Political Ideal at Rome, Cambridge. Feuer, L. S., 1958, Spinoza and the Rise of Liberalism, Boston.


Grif˛ G., 1958, 'Su alcuni aspetti della. libertÓ in Roma', Archivoi Giuridico 'Filippo Serafini', 6 serie XXIII.


Grampp, W. D., 1960, The Manchester School of Economics, Stanford, Calif. Hayek, F. A., 1960 The Constitution of Liberty, London and Chicago.


Friedmann, M., 1962, Capitalism and Freedom, Chicago.


Macpherson, C. B., 1962, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes to Locke, Oxford.


Girvetz, H. K., 1963, The Evolution of Liberalism, New York.


Schapiro, J. S., 1963, Condorcet and the Rise of Liberalism, New York.


Wheeler, 1963, The Rise and Fall of Liberal Democracy, Santa Barbara, Calif.


Grampp, W. D., 1965, Economic Liberalism, New York.


Bohm, F., 1966, 'Privatrechtsgesellschaft und Marktwirtschaft', in Ordo, XVII.


Lucas, J. R., 1966 Principles of Politics, Oxford.


Vincent, John, 1966, The Formation of the Liberal Party 1857‑1868, London. Selinger, M., 1968, The Liberal Politics of John Locke, London.


Cumming, R. D., 1971, Human Nature and History, a Study of the Development of Liberal Thought, Chicago.


Douglas, R., 1971, The History of the Liberal Party 1890‑1970 London.


Hamer, D. A., 1972, Liberal Politics in the Age of Gladstone and Rosebery, Oxford.