Paganism is the broad term used to describe any religion or belief that is not Christian, Jewish or Muslim. Paganism can be traced back to Neolithic times and survived up until the middle ages when Christianity became powerful enough to erase it from existence. Paganism is an earth based religion which lays emphasis on the worship of all aspects of nature. Paganism appeared very early on in the history of the world. Examples of early paganism, can be seen in ancient Greek and Roman religions, as well as in ancient Goddess worship and Druidic religions.
Ancient people believed that everything had a spirit and were polytheistic and they placed great importance on the worship of many Gods, Goddesses and Deities. Gods were a part of everyday life and great emphasis was placed on placating them through worship and ritual. Pagans believed that the Gods were immanent and entered every aspect of their society, influencing everything from laws and customs to the general workings of their community.
As Pagans were polytheistic they had gods and goddesses of the forests, the sea and of all aspects of nature. Pagans began to personify the energies of the land, sky and other elements by giving specific responsibilities to individual Gods. As ancient civilizations began to develop and change, the Gods grew and changed with the people. New Gods appeared, one's which were relevant to village life, for example, gods of milling and smithcraft. The old gods remained, but aspects of them changed to conform to the changing people. For example, as war became more prominent, so too did the gods of war, such as Ares and Mars.
Pagans held no belief in heaven and hell as Christians do, rather they believed in reincarnation. They believed that when the body could be re-incarnated in another form. There are many varying beliefs relating to re-incarnation, however the theme remains the same in most forms of Paganism.