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                                 ~TIPS AND TRICKS~

DISK PARTITIONING

FDISK.EXE is a DOS based command line driven Microsoft partitioning utility. Its purpose is to display boot, disk and partition information, modify existing partitions, create new ones and/or delete the ones you want on all installed fixed hard disk(s), but ONLY WITH COMPLETE DATA LOSS!
run one of these commands from any DOS prompt:
FDISK /?
or:
HELP FDISK
to display the FDISK.EXE help screen.

Hidden parameter are not documented by Microsoft and is find by users threw experiments.

1) FDISK /FPRMT :
FDISK /FPRMT bypasses the FDISK startup screen, but enables interactive FAT16/FAT32 support. This can be used to force FDISK to create FAT32 partitions smaller than 512 MB, normally not possible by default.
2) FDISK /MBR :
FDISK /MBR recreates the boot sector of the first (bootable) hard disk overwriting it with a fresh copy, by writing a new Master Boot Record (MBR) based on existent disk structure, without altering the partition table information.
Can be used to repair a damaged/corrupted MBR (i.e. by a virus).
3) FDISK /ACTOK :
FDISK /ACTOK skips disk integrity checking, thus speeding up the partitioning process.
4) FDISK /PARTN :
FDISK /PARTN saves the partition information to a plain text file called PARTSAV.FIL, which can be viewed afterwards using any text editor/viewer, like EDIT.COM in DOS or Notepad in Windows.


FORMAT.COM is an external MS-DOS command, located by default in C:\Windows\Command
Hidden Parameter :
Hidden parameter are not documented by Microsoft and is find by users threw experiments.

1) FORMAT /AUTOTEST :
FORMAT /AUTOTEST checks for the existing format of your disk, unless the /U (UNCONDITIONAL) parameter is also used, and then proceeds with an UNATTENDED DISK(ETTE) FORMAT:

DOES NOT prompt for a volume label!
DOES NOT prompt to format another disk(ette)!
NO delay: NO user intervention!
Ends WITHOUT pausing!
After completion, it DOES display disk space statistics.

2)FORMAT drive: /U :
FORMAT drive: /U performs an UNCONDITIONAL format, which DESTROYS every byte of data on ANY hard disk/floppy by overwriting it with zeroes (hex F6h).

3) FORMAT drive: /SELECT /U :
FORMAT drive: /SELECT /U makes a disk(ette) UNREADABLE by filling the system area (sector 0) with zeroes (hex F6h), due to using these two incompatible options together. All other sectors are left intact.


If you try to install Windows 95/98 from a DOS prompt, SETUP allows several command line switches, also available to their Windows GUI based counterpart.

Note that most switches are NOT case sensitive.

Run SETUP /?:
it will show the available parameters.

UNDOCUMENTED SETUP SWITCHES:

/IP Bypasses detection of undocumented plug and play devices.

/IR Bypasses detection of system CMOS/BIOS and does not update Master Boot Record (MBR).It is very helpful in installing windows on the system on which LINUX is already installed

/IW Bypasses Microsoft EULA licensing screens/dialog boxes.

/NTLDR Bypasses existing Operating System detection.


WIN.COM is the Windows GUI (Graphical User Interface) command line executable,
located in C:\Windows (default)
Hidden Parameter :
Hidden parameter are not documented by Microsoft and is find by users threw experiments.

1.) win/W [Windows 95 and above ONLY]

win/W generates this message:

"Press any key to continue...
Pressing a key reboots the system back to Windows 95 (98)."

waiting for user input (key press), and then restarts the computer (warm reboot), restoring the original CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files in the root directory of the boot drive from CONFIG.WOS and AUTOEXEC.WOS (if any).

This is useful when the computer is restarted after interrupting a "single" mode MS-DOS session, because of this CONFIG.SYS line:
DOS=SINGLE
which does NOT allow Windows 95/98 GUI to load. This switch works ONLY if executed from the native/real/true MS-DOS mode OUTSIDE the Windows 95/98 GUI, NOT from WITHIN Windows in a DOS box/session.

2.)win/Z [Windows 95B OSR 2.1 and above ONLY]

win/Z automatically forces the ATX power supply to (soft-)power off the
computer ONLY on ATX motherboards, without prompting or waiting for input (key
press).
This switch works ONLY if executed from the native/real/true MS-DOS mode
OUTSIDE the Windows GUI, NOT from WITHIN Windows in a DOS prompt/box/session.


app sab say pehlay dos prompt per jaayen and then type
DEBUG
-(YEA WALLA NESHAN AJAY GAA)THEN......

TESTING PORTS ===computer kay ports check karanaa------                                              Go to Top

The following debug routine will check the ports of the computer to allow you to know if ports are being detected or not.

Type debug to get to the "-"

Type D40:0

You should get several lines however the first line is the only important line which should read the following:

0040:0000 F8 03 F8 02 E8 03 E8 02 - 78 03 78 02 BC 03

F8 03 F8 02 E8 03 E8 02 78 03 78 02 BC 03
COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 LPT1 LPT2 LPT3

The above graph shows you what the feed back means as far as port so if you se F8 03 this would be an indication that COM1 is being detected if you see 00 00 this is an indication that it is not being detect which could mean that hardware is bad or that it is disabled in CMOS.

Once you have finished looking at the information type Q and press enter to get out of Debug

DEBUG MAY ENTER KARAY

The following debug routine will clear CMOS, BIOS, Passwords, Settings, Viruses, and other items residing in the CMOS. During this process you may get returned characters which are an indication that the string has gone in, if you by chance get ERROR ensure that you have typed the line in correctly, if not retype. Ensure that you do not skip any lines, that it is ALL typed in correctly to help prevent problems. Before running this Debug routine also ensure that you have read the above disclaimer.

After typing debug you will get "-" which is were you can begin by typing A and pressing enter.

A
MOV AX,0
MOV AX,CX
OUT 70,AL
MOV AX,0
OUT 71,AL
INC CX
CMP CX,100
JB 103
INT 20
Note: Nothing is typed on this line
G By pressing G this will execute the above script, ensure you have read and agree to the above disclaimer.
Q

Then reboot and you will get a Setup Checksum Error. Go into setup, correct all the incorrect values, time, date...


The following debug routine is to check the date of your BIOS. All BIOS dates on PC compatible computers is stored at memory address FFFF5h. To display the date of your BIOS do the following:

At the C:\> type debug

- d FFFF:5 L 8

After typing the above command you should receive a string similar to:

FFFF:0000 30 34 2F-33 30 2F 39 38 4/30/98

The 4/30/98 would be the date of your computer BIOS

BOHAAT ASAN TARAKAA
The following debug routine will list the type of video card within your computer. This is an excellent way of determining the chipset on the card or the card within your computer without opening the computer.

At the C:\> type debug

-d c000:0040                                                                                                                             Go to Top

After typing the above command you should receive several lines of text similar to:

C000:0040 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 - 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ................
C000:0050 E9 63 7B 00 B4 10 49 27 - E9 FE 2B E9 F7 2B 50 4D .c{...I'..+..+PM
C000:0060 49 44 58 00 5B 00 00 00 - 00 A0 00 B0 00 B8 00 C0 IDX.[...........
C000:0070 00 5B 53 54 42 20 6E 56 - 49 44 49 41 20 54 4E 54 .[STB nVIDIA TNT
C000:0080 20 76 65 72 2E 20 31 2E - 31 30 20 0D 0A 00 1B 43 ver. 1.10 ....C
C000:0090 6F 70 79 72 69 67 68 74 - 28 43 29 31 39 39 38 20 opyright(C)1998
C000:00A0 53 54 42 20 53 79 73 74 - 65 6D 73 20 49 6E 63 0D STB Systems Inc.
C000:00B0 0A 00 22 6C 2C 0A 01 00 - C3 50 24 7F E8 60 36 58 .."1,....P$..'6X

As you can pick out in the above dump this gives you enough information to determine the make and the year made on the video card. On line 4 you can see the make of this video card which in this case is a N VIDIA TNT which would be the Riva TNT chipset. The next line you notice the version of the card and finally the line thereafter is the copyright or the year manufactured generally.

If you are unable to capture any information which sounds like the video card you can also type

-d c000:0090

The above line will give you a dump similar to the above example however may have additional
..................................................................................................................................................................
ÓBy Jahanzeb Khan  Nartopa (hazro)Attock



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