Rosh Hashanah 2013 Countdown Clock

There are:

                    Days      Hours Minutes Seconds
    left until Rosh Hashanah in 2013

When is Rosh Hashanah in 2013 ?

Rosh Hashanah in 2013 will take place either just after sunset or just after nightfall on Wednesday, September 4, 2013. The aforementioned point in time for when Rosh Hashanah in 2013 begins - either just after sunset or just after nightfall - depends on the authoritative rabbinical opinion one follows. The Rosh Hashanah 2013 dates are in the Hebrew/Jewish calendar year of 5774. There are also many who follow the authoritative rabbinical opinion which states that Rosh Hashanah begins at least 18 minutes before sunset, while others follow other authoritative rabbinical opinions which state that Rosh Hashanah begins anywhere between a half-hour and 15 minutes before sunset.

When does Rosh Hashanah in 2013 end?

Rosh Hashanah in 2013 will end at either sunset or nightfall on Thursday, September 5, 2013 for Jews who celebrate Rosh Hashanah for one day (some Reform Jews and some Reconstructionist Jews). They base their one-day observance of Rosh Hashanah on the Torah, in Vayikra/Leviticus 23:24 and Bamidbar/Numbers 29:1 which state that the first day of the seventh month (Rosh Hashanah is not mentioned by name) is to be a "Memorial with the Blowing of the Horn" (“Zikkaron Teruah” in Hebrew) and a "Day of Blowing the Horn" (“Yom Teruah” in Hebrew). Rosh Hashanah in 2013 will end when Shabbat begins at sunset on Friday, September 6, 2013 for Jews who celebrate Rosh Hashanah for two days (Orthodox Jews, Conservative Jews, and some Reform Jews and some Reconstructionist Jews). Depending on one’s custom which in turn depends on the authoritative rabbinical opinion one follows, Shabbat or the Sabbath may begin anywhere from 15 minutes to a half-hour before sunset. The most popular starting time is at 18 minutes before sunset. For those who celebrate Rosh Hashanah for two days, their claim for a two-day observance is based on a later addition of one day to Rosh Hashanah into Jewish law which occurred in the period just after the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 C.E. The reason given at the time was based on the ancient practice of determining a new month and hence its first day by observing and confirming the first crescent of the New Moon and the uncertainty surrounding which of two consecutive days that it could happen. Since Rosh Hashanah occurred on the first day of the seventh month, it was critical to determine the exact day on which to observe Rosh Hashanah so the solution was to add a second day of observance to Rosh Hashanah to ensure that the holiday would be celebrated at its correct time.

When does Rosh Hashanah in 2013 begin and end where we are located?

The Rosh Hashanah 2013 Countdown Clock displays the exact time when Rosh Hashanah begins in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where we are located. The Rosh Hashanah 2013 Countdown Clock follows the 18 minute-before-sunset rule, meaning Rosh Hashanah in 2013 will begin at 18 minutes before sunset on Wednesday, September 4, 2013. In Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Rosh Hashanah in 2013 will begin at exactly 7:10 P.M. (which is 18 minutes before sunset here, following the aforementioned authoritative rabbinical opinion to begin Rosh Hashanah at least 18 minutes before sunset) on Wednesday, September 4, 2013 and end either at sunset which is at 7:26 P.M. or nightfall which is at 8:03 P.M. (depending on the authoritative rabbinical opinion one follows) on Thursday, September 5, 2013 for Jews who celebrate Rosh Hashanah for one day. For Jews who celebrate Rosh Hashanah for two days, Rosh Hashanah in 2013 will end when Shabbat or the Sabbath begins at 18 minutes before sunset - 7:06 P.M. - on Friday, September 6, 2013. The exact time for when Rosh Hashanah begins and ends at any given location depends on one's geographic latitude, on where one is located, and on the authoritative rabbinical opinion one follows.


When did Rosh Hashanah begin last year?

Rosh Hashanah in 2012 began either just after sunset or just after nightfall on Sunday, September 16, 2012. As mentioned, many Jews follow the authoritative rabbinical opinion to begin the Rosh Hashanah holiday at least 18 minutes before sunset while others follow other authoritative rabbinical opinions and begin Rosh Hashanah anywhere from 15 minutes to a half-hour before sunset. As also mentioned, the exact time when Rosh Hashanah began in 2012 for any given location will vary depending on one's geographic latitude, on where one is located in the world, and on the authoritative rabbinical opinion one follows.

In Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where we are located, Rosh Hashanah in 2012 began at exactly 6:45 P.M. (which was 18 minutes before sunset here, following the aforementioned authoritative rabbinical opinion to begin Rosh Hashanah at least 18 minutes before sunset) on Sunday, September 16, 2012.

When did Rosh Hashanah end last year?

Rosh Hashanah in 2012 ended either at sunset or at nightfall on Monday, September 17, 2012 for Jews who celebrate Rosh Hashanah for one day (some Reform Jews and some Reconstructionist Jews). Rosh Hashanah in 2012 ended on Tuesday, September 18, 2012 for Jews who celebrate Rosh Hashanah for two days (Orthodox Jews, Conservative Jews, and some Reform Jews and some Reconstructionist Jews). As mentioned, the exact time when Rosh Hashanah ended in 2012 for any given location will vary depending on one's geographic latitude, on where one is located in the world, and on the authoritative rabbinical opinion one follows.

In Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Rosh Hashanah in 2012 ended at exactly 7:37 P.M. (which is nightfall time here) on Monday, September 17, 2012 for Jews who celebrate Rosh Hashanah for one day, or at 7:43 P.M. (a few minutes after nightfall as one custom is to extend the holiness of the holiday a few minutes beyond nightfall) on Tuesday, September 18, 2012 for Jews who celebrate Rosh Hashanah for two days.

When Is Rosh Hashanah In The Hebrew/Jewish Calendar?

Rosh Hashanah occurs on the 1st day of the Hebrew/Jewish month of Tishri (or Tishrei) for Jews who celebrate Rosh Hashanah for one day and on the 1st day and 2nd day of Tishri (or Tishrei) for Jews who celebrate Rosh Hashanah for two days. These dates for Rosh Hashanah are always fixed dates in the Hebrew/Jewish calendar. However, in the Gregorian calendar, the date or dates for Rosh Hashanah may occur either in September or October, depending on the year. This is because the Hebrew/Jewish calendar is a lunisolar calendar - meaning lunar and solar - which follows the cycles of the moon and sun while the Gregorian calendar is a purely solar calendar which means it only follows the cycle of the sun. This means that both calendars follow different calendrical systems, with the shorter Hebrew/Jewish calendar periodically adding a month every 3 years in its 19-year cycle calendrical system to "catch up" to the Gregorian calendar.

What Is The New Year Number In The Hebrew/Jewish Calendar For Rosh Hashanah in 2013?

On the 1st day of Tishri (or Tishrei) for Rosh Hashanah in 2013, the year number in the Hebrew/Jewish calendar changes from 5773 to 5774.

How Long Is The Rosh Hashanah Holiday?

Rosh Hashanah is a 2-day holiday for all Orthodox-Jewish and Conservative-Jewish people. Furthermore, the Kabbalists, or Jewish mystics, stress celebrating Rosh Hashanah as a two-day holiday for all Jews based on their interpretation of two passages in the biblical "Book of Job" ("Job" or "Jobe" is "Iyov" in Hebrew). These passages are found in Job 1:6 and in Job 2:1 and in the opinion of the Kabbalists, or Jewish mystics, each refer to a day for Rosh Hashanah, hence two days for Rosh Hashanah. Job 1:6 states: "Now there was a day when the sons of G-d came to present themselves before the L-rd" and a little further on in the text Job 2:1 states: "Again there was a day when the sons of G-d came to present themselves before the L-rd". The "Book of Zohar", the major textual work of the Kabbalists, states that the sons of G-d were also being observed by the Heavenly Court before the Almighty on each of these two days (Zohar, Pinehas, page 231a). To ensure that all Jews are united on Rosh Hashanah by celebrating Rosh Hashanah at the same time around the globe, the two days of Rosh Hashanah are considered together to be a "Yoma Arichta" or "Yoma Arichtah", a single "long day" in Aramaic of 48 hours. If Rosh Hashanah were celebrated for only 24 hours, then some Jews in one part of the world could be finished with celebrating Rosh Hashanah while other Jews in other parts of the world could still be celebrating it. A single "48-hour day" solves this problem, and emphasizes the importance that the rabbis stressed of celebrating Rosh Hashanah in a unified way among Jews worldwide. The Karaite Jews, who only follow the literal meaning of the Tanakh, or Hebrew Bible and reject rabbinic literature such as the Talmud, commemorate Rosh Hashanah as a one-day holiday since the second day of Rosh Hashanah is not literally mentioned in the Torah. There are some Reform-Jewish and Reconstructionist-Jewish communities who commemorate Rosh Hashanah as a two-day holiday while other Reform-Jewish and Reconstructionist-Jewish communities who celebrate Rosh Hashanah as a one-day holiday.

Why Is Rosh Hashanah A Two-Day Holiday?

Originally, Rosh Hashanah was not known as Rosh Hashanah. Rather, the name Rosh Hashanah was later on connected to the first day of the Hebrew/Jewish month of Tishri or Tishrei in Mishnaic times (about 10 B.C.E. until about 200 C.E. or 220 C.E., when the Mishnah of the Talmud was compiled and codified), based on the biblical commandment from the Book of Leviticus (Leviticus 23:23-25) where it says: "And in the seventh month, on the first of the month, you shall observe a cessation of work - a day of remembrance, of the sounding of the shofar". Thus, Rosh Hashanah was originally a one-day holiday and was known as "Yom Teruah" ("Day of Sounding the Shofar or Ram's Horn" in Hebrew) and "Zikaron Teruah" or "Zikkaron Teruah" ("Day of Remembering the Sounding of the Shofar or Ram's Horn" in Hebrew), based on the verses from Leviticus 23:23-25. Later on, near the end of the Second Temple period [First Temple period: From 922 B.C.E. until 587 B.C.E. or 586 B.C.E.; Second Temple period: From 516 B.C.E. or 515 B.C.E. until 70 C.E. (refer to the note near the bottom of this web page regarding dates)], Rosh Hashanah was extended to become a two-day holiday. This change occurred during the time of Rabban Yohanan ben Zakkai (circa 1 C.E. - 80 C.E.), an important Jewish Sage who made a major textual contribution to the Mishnah, which was the core text of Rabbinic Judaism. The text of the Mishnah and the text of the Gemara together make up the Talmud, the first great record of Rabbinic Judaism.

So why was Rosh Hashanah extended to become a two-day holiday? In Temple times, the day that indicated the beginning of an upcoming month - known as "Rosh Hodesh" in Hebrew, meaning "head of the month" - was based on observing the first sighting of the first crescent of the New Moon by two reliable and independent witnesses chosen by the Sanhedrin, a 71-member Jewish "Supreme Court" and legislative body that was composed of Jewish Sages which was based in Jerusalem. Once the beginning of the upcoming month was determined and confirmed, the dates for Jewish festivals and holidays for that month were determined by the members of the Sanhedrin. Originally, signal fires or smoke signals from a series of mountaintops beginning on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem, Israel and extending all the way to distant Babylon were then sent up to inform Jewish communities about the new moon for the upcoming month as well as the dates for festivals and holidays for the upcoming month, but this method was subject to abuse. When false signal fires or smoke signals were sent up by the Boethusians or Herodians, and the Sadducees, the members of the Sanhedrin replaced the signal fires or smoke signals with special messengers. These special messengers were then sent out by the members of the Sanhedrin to inform the Jewish people about the date for Rosh Hashanah, first in Jerusalem, and then in outlying Jewish communities beyond Jerusalem and Israel. Since it obviously took more time to reach the outlying Jewish communities, to ensure that Rosh Hashanah was commemorated by all Jewish communities on the correct date, the Sages of the Sanhedrin in the late Second Temple period (1 C.E. until 70 C.E.) decreed that Rosh Hashanah be extended to become a two-day holiday. However, the extension to two days for the Rosh Hashanah holiday also included Jews who lived in Israel and even in Jerusalem itself, since the importance of commemorating Rosh Hashanah was so great that the Sages of the Sanhedrin wanted to ensure that no Jewish person would miss celebrating Rosh Hashanah.

Another explanation of why Rosh Hashanah is for two days deals with when the special messengers arrived at the Sanhedrin to report the sighting of the new moon, which according to Talmudic tradition, was built into the north wall of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, half inside and half outside of the walled city of Jerusalem, so outside visitors could directly enter it, and next to the entrance to the Temple. Since a month in the Hebrew/Jewish lunar calendar consisted of either 29 days or 30 days, if the witnesses arrived at the Sanhedrin on the 30th day of the month to report their sighting of the new moon for the upcoming month, then that day became the 1st day of the upcoming month and the previous month was changed from being 30 days to 29 days. If no witnesses arrived at the Sanhedrin on the 30th day, then the previous month would automatically remain at 30 days in length and the upcoming month would begin on the 31st day. From this reasoning, since Rosh Hashanah occurs on the 1st day of the Hebrew month of Tishri (or Tishrei), when the 30th day of the previous Hebrew month, the month of Elul, arrived, since everyone was waiting for the witnesses to arrive to report the sighting of the new moon to know whether or not Elul had 29 days or 30 days, no one could tell whether or not the 30th day of Elul would wind up being the 1st day of Tishri (or Tishrei), meaning Rosh Hashanah (and hence 29 days for Elul), or the 30th day of Elul. This of course would cause other problems such as when to observe the daily prayers, perform sacrifices, etc. As a result, the Sages of the Sanhedrin decreed that all Jewish communities - even Jewish communities in Israel, including Jerusalem - commemorate Rosh Hashanah as a two-day holiday. But which two days in the Hebrew/Jewish calendar? These two days of Rosh Hashanah can be translated two ways: (1) the 30th day of Elul and the 1st day of Tishri (or Tishrei), or (2) the 1st day of Tishri or Tishrei and the 2nd day of Tishri or Tishrei, the latter of which are the days on which Rosh Hashanah is celebrated today. Based on this explanation, Rosh Hashanah, as opposed to all other Jewish holidays, is the only holiday that is celebrated for two days, both inside and outside Israel.

What Kind Of "New Year" Is Rosh Hashanah Described As?

In the Mishnah of the Talmud, the 1st day of Tishri (or Tishrei) is described as being the 1st day of the new year that is used for calculating calendar years as well as Sabbatical ("Shemitta" or "Shemittah" in Hebrew, the 7th year in a 49-year cycle) and Jubilee ("Yovel" in Hebrew, the year after the 49-year cycle I.E. the 50th year) years. Rosh Hashanah is also the new year for people, the new year for animals and the new year for legal contracts. Judaism has four "new years", each of which marks different legal "years", similar to when January 1st marks the "New Year" in the Gregorian calendar.

The holiday of Rosh Hashanah is among the more popular of Jewish holidays. Over time, this holiday has gained additional associations in addition to its original significance as being the traditional anniversary of the date of Creation in Judaism. Although Rosh Hashanah is a time for celebration, it is also a time for self-reflection about events in the year that has just passed as well as a time of hope in looking forward to the upcoming year that has just arrived.

Note that the dates stated on this web page are based on the Gregorian calendar. However, these dates are but one secular scholarly deduction; there are many other secular scholarly deductions as well as traditional Jewish chronological dates in addition to modern Hebrew/Jewish calendar dates regarding the timeline of events in Jewish history. To see a table of some important events in Jewish history discussed on this website and their various dates deduced from traditional Jewish sources, the modern Hebrew/Jewish calendar, and secular historical timelines, check out our Jewish History Timeline web page.

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