The idea of Celtic Christianity as a distinct institution of the larger Christian Church survived until the early twelfth century (Joyce 81). The new urban centers established by the Vikings began to look to the continent for the example of urban society and government. Ireland was divided into the dioceses of Cashel and Armagh in 1110 after seven hundred years of a monastic church (Joyce 82-83). A meeting of church authority at Kells in 1152 led to more reforms, so that the bishop now had authority over the parish and monastery. Cashel and Armagh were now also subject to the bishop of Rome.
Saint Lawrence O’ Toole of Glenadough introduced the Augustinians. Saint Lawrence became the first archbishop of Dublin in 1162. His leadership led to Dublin becoming a part of Ireland, rather than just a Viking settlement (Joyce 85). The Augustinians were a monastic order with a flexible approach to monastic and pastoral duties. They participated in a large variety of pastoral activities in parishes, hospitals, and in schools. Although the order died out in the late medieval period, the Augustinians contributed a great deal to Irish society. They established one hundred and thirty religious houses in Ireland during the period of church reform in the early twelfth century (The Medieval Monasteries 1). Ogham stones and sundials were coming back into use. A distinctly “Irish Romanesque” style began to emerge in architecture (Joyce 85). Schools of poetry came about in the mid eleventh century (Joyce 87).
Last updated on 28th November 2000.