Site hosted by Angelfire.com: Build your free website today!
Vitamins, Supplements

Senior and Older Adult Health Issues

Health Issues Garden Ideas 120
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 




.

Insurance





 
You are in Health Issues Library . Topics include:
Pharmacy   I   Blood Testing Information   I   Blood Tests   I   Natural Supplements   I   Vitamins   I   Minerals   I   Eye Products   I   Fiber Products   I   Hormones

 



Skin Aging






SKIN AGING


by Professor Carmen Fusco

Skin does not seem like the most exciting part of the body, but it's actually a dynamic, complex organ. So much hormone activity occurs in skin that it has been called another endocrine gland. Skin has its own immune system and specialized enzymes that no other part of the body has. According to research, skin cannot function without hormones.

DHEA, Melatonin, and Skin

The sleep hormone (melatonin) and the anti-stress hormone (DHEA) are both found in human skin. Both are converted to other entities with important jobs to do. DHEA is converted into estrogen and androgen-type metabolites found only in skin. Melatonin is synthesized in skin. In low concentrations it can stimulate cell growth. This type of on-site, organ-specific production of hormones is called intracrine biosynthesis. Intracrine biosynthesis allows different organs to manufacture the substances they need without flooding the entire body with growth factors.

Estrogen's skin-enhancing effects are well-known. It provokes collagen and a moisture factor known as hyaluronic acid. Aging decreases both estrogen and collagen. Enzymes that convert DHEA to estrogen also decline. Not surprisingly, women who take synthetic estrogen have scientifically proven thicker skin. Women who take both estrogen and testosterone have really thick skin-48% thicker than women who don't take either hormone. DHEA is converted to both estrogen and testosterone, providing the benefits of both hormones.

While the exact roles of DHEA and melatonin in human skin are still under scrutiny, researchers have identified several mechanisms through which these hormones protect against aging, maintain the health of skin, and affect how sunlight reacts with skin cells. All three are connected. For example, sunlight and aging suppress immunity, immunity affects health, and melatonin and DHEA affect them all.

Skin is such a specialized organ that it has its own immune system. It has been proposed that faulty skin immunity affects the entire immune system. Sunlight can penetrate deep into skin and alter immunity directly, or it can cause changes in dermis and epidermis that provoke immune changes. Sunlight affects hormones. It decreases melatonin, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine and increases cortisol, serotonin, GABA, and dopamine.

Studies show that both DHEA and melatonin are absorbed by skin when applied topically. A study from CHUL Research Center (in Canada) shows that the activity of DHEA applied topically is 85-90% greater than when taken orally (at least in rodents). No special carriers are needed to get DHEA and melatonin into skin. A properly formulated topical preparation of melatonin and DHEA will contain just enough hormone to benefit skin without providing enough to escape into circulation. It makes sense to apply the hormones directly to the skin if skin protection is the goal, since ingested hormones may end up everywhere but the skin.

DHEA Saves Skin

DHEA has beneficial effects beyond its conversion to skin-friendly hormones. DHEA itself has powerful skin protective effects. A study published in the Journal of Surgical Research demonstrates the extraordinary ability of topically-applied DHEA to protect skin's delicate blood vessels. Researchers found that if DHEA was applied after a serious burn, the blood vessels underlying the burned area are protected. Protecting the blood vessels saves the skin. Skin and blood vessels that would otherwise die and peel off can be saved by DHEA. No one knows for sure how DHEA saves skin this way, but its anti-inflammatory action no doubt has something to do with it. DHEA prevents destructive white blood cells and their biochemical cousins from gearing up. In particular, DHEA affects a blood vessel killer known as "tumor necrosis factor." At the same time it's inhibiting the destructive process, it appears to be prolonging the healing process: DHEA causes edema (swelling) to last longer. This apparently helps save tissue.

Antioxidant Action

DHEA has action against everyday insults as well. By maintaining skin immunity, DHEA preserves the ability of skin to react to cancer-causing, skin-destroying pollutants in air, food, and water. DHEA also has antioxidant action against peroxyl and superoxide free radicals.

Superoxide defense may have a lot to do with DHEA's ability to prevent skin cancer and papillomas (benign tumors). According to a mouse study, topically applied DHEA keeps oxidant-loving enzymes at bay. Chemicals with carcinogenic potential depend on oxidases for transformation. DHEA's antioxidant action stops them. DHEA has another important defense: it keeps chemical carcinogens from binding to DNA. According to some very interesting rodent studies conducted at Fels Research Institute and Temple University, cancers simply can't get started if enough DHEA is present. If this research holds up in humans, topically applied DHEA is an exciting prospect for skin cancer. Another interesting finding is that cancer-causing chemicals are more likely to cause carcinogenesis at certain times of the day, indicating that certain hormones which are only active at certain times of the day give cancer protection. But this research is in its infancy.

Melatonin Protects

Melatonin is another antioxidant that protects against UV radiation. A group at the University of Zurich has shown that topical melatonin gives excellent protection against sunburn if applied before sun exposure. Melatonin also appears to have a role in repairing burned skin. In a study published in Brain Research Bulletin, melatonin levels rose 6 hours after burn injury, then fell to normal.

In small amounts, melatonin causes skin cells to proliferate. (In large amounts, it stops proliferation). People with psoriasis and atopic eczema do not have normal melatonin secretion. Instead of peaks, they have valleys. With psoriasis, melatonin peaks in the day when it shouldn't, and patients have little at night. It's surprising that a hormone connected to sleep has a lot to do with skin health, but maybe not to those researchers who consider it another endocrine gland.

Other Factors in Skin Aging

There are many causes for the accumulated cellular damage in the skin that we call aging. Among these are the oxidative processes and related free radical damage that result from UV sunlight, smog, toxins, cigarette smoke, X-rays, drugs, and other stressors.

Young skins are also exposed to these potentially damaging changes, but when we are young, there is sufficient cellular energy (ATP) for DNA repair and cell renewal. Enzymes that provide antioxidant activity such as SOD and catalase are readily available. As we age, there is increased wear and tear, while at the same time the energy for cell repair and renewal is diminished, and the antioxidant enzymes are less available.

How to Improve Cell Energy and Antioxidant Activity

Foods rich in nucleic acids (RNA) such as sardines, salmon, tuna, shell fish, lentils, and beans help improve cell energy through a "salvage pathway" (see Life Extension Magazine, Aug. 1997, 5-8).

Foods rich in antioxidants and other phytochemicals such as fruits, vegetables, and green tea help protect against oxidative damage and free radical attack of all body cells including the skin.

The oral intake of supplements, particularly the antioxidants, vitamins E and C and the mineral selenium, and vitamin A, the "skin vitamin,"--together with supplements of RNA and B vitamins (for coenzymes) and the minerals zinc, copper, and manganese, provide even more intensive protection against damaging free radicals. The increased cellular energy helps the skin repair, renew, and revitalize itself.

Keeping the Skin Well Oiled

Aging causes a progressive decline in our ability to internally synthesize the essential fatty acids (EFAs) required by the skin to maintain a youthful, moist appearance. The most important oils to supplement are the omega-3s that can make the skin smoother, softer, and look more radiant. When skin is properly nourished, it shows less of the effects of aging. The oral ingestion of fish, flax, or perilla oil provides abundant quantities of the omega-3 fatty acids that are so beneficial to the health and appearance of the skin.

Additional Measures for Keeping the Skin Young

Avoidance of more than modest exposure to the sun's ultraviolet light is critically important to protect the skin against the oxidizing effects of solar radiation. Ultraviolet rays are categorized by wavelengths: UVA, UVB, and UVC.

The ozone layer filters out the UVC and much of UVB rays, but the ozone layer is not what it used to be, and it seems to have little or no effect on UVA rays which make up 90% or more of the sun's radiation that reaches the earth. Indeed it is exposure to UVA that causes most of the photoaging damage: the premature wrinkles, loss of elasticity, hyperpigmentation, and dry and leathery dull texture.

UVB, which is most intense between the hours of 10:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m., can cause sunburns and basal-cell cancers of the skin as well as increase the risk of melanomas. Yet sunscreens, which are geared to filter out UVB, seem to have no effect on the incidence of melanoma, and according to some studies may even increase its risk. Whether the increased risk is from the greater exposure to the sun by people who use sunscreen is not yet known. Of interest are studies showing that people who are continuously exposed to the sun, such as farmers and fisherman, seem to be at less at risk for melanoma than a vacationer, especially a fair-skinned sunbather who exposes their skin to intense sun for a few days or a week.

To Prevent Skin Aging and Cancer

It seams reasonable to avoid midday sun when possible, and avoid tanning salons. Use protective clothing, hats, and umbrellas during prolonged sun exposure. Apply and reapply sunscreen or use preparations that contain micronized zinc oxide or titanium oxide for more complete protection.

Published research (Med. Pregl.) indicates that both children and adults are still spending considerable time in the sun during peak UV exposure periods. A survey conducted on 51 physician volunteers of various specialties showed that 33% spent over 2 peak UV hours outdoors every day and another 33.33% are regularly sun exposed for at least 5 hours. Only 39% of the survey group regularly used sunscreen and those that did used an inadequate amount for full body protection. A majority of the respondents did not believe that sunscreens protected against skin cancer, but they did believe that sunscreens could slow the aging process. Common reasons for not using sunscreen were the amount of time involved in application and the relative high cost. The researchers concluded that participants lacked well-formed sun protection habits and that there continues to be a poor understanding of the need for sun protection despite worldwide campaigns warning of the dangers.

SolarMax 17 is a sun protection formula containing antioxidant vitamins and sun protection factor (SPF) 17. Vitamins A, C, E, contained in SolarMax 17, protect skin cells from free radical damage caused by UV light exposure. The formula is moisture-proof, sweat-resistant, and can be worn under makeup.

The new Rejuvenex Body Lotion contains some titanium oxide, but more importantly it was formulated with precise amounts of glycolic acid, vitamin C, and melatonin which, according to recent studies, protect against photoaging of the skin epidermis.

Rejuvenex with Advanced Vitamin C contains minimal sunscreen protection (SPF-12), but ingredients such as vitamin C complex, vitamin E, ceraphyl GA-D, vitamin A, and RNA do more to prevent and repair DNA damage than even the strongest sunscreen.

The Dream Cream, also known as RejuveNight, contains all the anti-aging ingredients (including DHEA and melatonin) to help the skin repair, renew, and revitalize itself. Although it was intended as an intensive night recovery cream, it can be used any time. The precise DHEA amounts and melatonin, together with associated factors, work specifically in the epidermis of the skin, not transdermally. There is no sunscreen in the Dream Cream, so if using it during the day in the sunlight, the user should wear makeup that contains zinc oxide or a sunscreen (and most of them do), or use a sunscreen.

Summary

  • 1. RNA-rich foods such as sardines, salmon, tuna, shell fish, lentils, and beans help improve cell energy through a "salvage pathway."
  • 2. Antioxidant- and phytochemical-rich foods such as fruits, vegetables, and green tea help protect against oxidative damage and free radical attack of all body cells including the skin.
  • 3. Antioxidant vitamins E and C, the "skin vitamin," A, B vitamins and their coenzymes, and the minerals selenium, zinc, copper, and manganese provide protection against damaging free radicals and help to repair, renew, and revitalize skin.
  • 4. Take 6000-7000 mg a day of perilla or flax oils or 3000-4000 mg of fish oil highly concentrated with EPA and DHEA. Please note that fish oil produces gastro-intestinal upset in some people, whereas perilla and flax oils are usually well tolerated.
  • 5.Rejuvenex Body Lotion, containing titanium oxide, glycolic acid, vitamin C, and melatonin, protects against photoaging of the epidermis.
  • 6.Rejuvenex with Advanced Vitamin C contains SPF-12 and vitamin C complex, vitamin E, ceraphyl GA-D, vitamin A, and RNA. These ingredients are more effective than the strongest sunscreen in prevention and repair of DNA damage.
  • 7. The Dream Cream contains anti-aging ingredients (such as DHEA and melatonin) and can be used as a day or night cream. The ingredients in Dream Cream work specifically in the epidermis of the skin, not transdermally.
  • 8. SolarMax 17 is a sun protection formula containing antioxidant vitamins and sun protection factor (SPF) 17. The spray bottle makes it easy to apply to all body parts.
  • 9. If skin is dry and flaky, consider a thyroid profile to determine if the thyroid gland is producing an adequate amount of hormone.
  • 10. Use protective clothing, hats, and umbrellas during prolonged sun exposure.
  • 11. Apply and reapply sunscreen or use preparations that contain micronized zinc oxide or titanium oxide for more complete protection.


Life Extension
   



life extension

Stop Aging Now!: The Ultimate Plan for Staying Young & Reversing the Aging Process

Stop Aging Now!: The Ultimate Plan for Staying Young & Reversing the Aging Process


Join our mailing list!
Enter your email address below,
then click the 'Join List' button:
Powered by ListBot

.

Search

Get your own free Search Engine



 

Pharmacy  |  LEF Home

New Shop  |  Brenda's Beauty  |  Hepatitis Info

1999-2001 Slimmer You and Fountain of Youth.
Senior and Older Adult Health Issues
has applied for listing in the Good Health Directory
 
Coenzyme Q10 ||| Soy Extract ||| Diabetes ||| Parkinson's Disease ||| Health Issues ||| Alzheimer's ||| Ginkgo Biloba ||| Ginkgo Extract ||| Melatonin ||| Green Tea ||| Skin Aging ||| Longevity Therapies |||