RODERICK O'CONNOR, the last Milesian Monarch of Ireland, after having reigned twenty years, abdicated the throne, A.D. 1186, and, after a religious seclusion of thirteen years in the monastery of Cong, in the county Mayo, died, A.D. 1198, in the 82nd year of his age; and was buried in Clonmacnoise, in the same sepulchre with his father, Torlogh O'Connor, the 181st Monarch of Ireland. In the chronological poem on the Christian Kings of Ireland, written in the twelfth century, is the following stanza:
"Ocht m-Bliadhna agus deich Ruadri an Ri,
Mac Toirdhealbhaidh an t-Ard Ri,
Flaith na n-Eirend: gan fhell,
Ri deighneach deig Eirenn."
"Eighteen years the Monarch Roderick,
Son of Torlogh, supreme sovereign,
Ireland's undisputed ruler,
Was fair Erin's latest king."
According to the Four Masters, Roderick O'Connor, reigned as Monarch
for twenty years: from A.D. 1166
to A.D. 1186.
"Under thee lies the fair king of the men of Fail,
Dathi, son of Fiachra, man of fame:
O! Cruacha (Cruaghan), thou hast this concealed
From the Galls and the Gaels."
The "Gaels" here mean the Irish themselves; and the
"Galls" mean all foreigners, as the Danes, the Britons, etc. In the first
line of the quotation Ireland is called Fail, as Inis Fail (signifying
Insula Fatalis or the Island of Destiny): a name given to Ireland by the
Tua-de-Danans, from a remarkable stone called the Lia Fail (signifying
Lapis Fatalis, Saxum Fatale) or Stone of Destiny, which they brought with
them into Ireland. This Lia Fail is believed to be the stone or pillar
on which Jacob rested; and sitting on which the ancient kings, both of
the De Danan and Milesian race in Ireland, were crowned at Tara. This stone
was sent to Scotland in the sixth century by the Monarch Murcheartach Mór
Mac-Earca, for the coronation purpose of his brother Fergus Mor MacEarca,
the founder of the Scottish Monarchy in Scotland; and was used for many
centuries at the coronation of the Scottish kings, and kept at the Abbey
of Scone. When King Edward the First invaded Scotland, he brought with
him that Lia Fail to England, and placed it under the coronation chair
in Westminster Abbey, where it still remains; though it has been erroneously
stated in some modern publications, that the large pillar stone which stands
on the mound or rath at Tara is the Stone of Destiny: an assertion at variance
with the statements of O'Flaherty, the O'Connors, and all other learned
antiquarians. Three of the De Danan queens, who gave their names to Ireland,
namely, Eire (from which the name "Eirin" or "Erin" is derived), Fodhla,
and Banba, together with their husbands, Mac Coill, Mac Cecht, and Mac
Greine, the three Tua-de-Danan Kings slain at the time of the Milesian
conquest of Ireland, were buried at Cruachan in Connaught. Among the Milesian
kings and queens interred there, were Hugony the Great, Monarch of Ireland
No. 59, p. 354); his daughter, the princess Muirease; and his son, Cobthach
Caolbhreagh; Bresnar Lothar (No. 73, p. 356); Maud (the famous queen of
Connaught), Deirbhre, and Clothra -- all sisters of Bresnar Lothar, and
daughters of Eochy Feidlioch; Conn of the Hundred Battles and the other
sons of Felim Rachtmar) the 108th Monarch of Ireland; and other kings,
descendants of Conn of the Hundred Battles, with tbe exception of his son
Art, the 112th Monarch (who directed that he should be buried at Trevet
in Meath), and of Art's son Cormac, the famous Monarch of Ireland in the
3rd century, who was buried at Ros-na-Riogh (now Rosnaree or Rosnari),
near Slane in the county Meath. According to the "Book of Ballymote," this
King Cormac, who had some knowledge of Christianity, gave orders that he,
too, should not be buried at Brugh Boine (which was the cemetery of most
of the pagan kings of Meath), but at Ros-na-Riogh; and that his face should
be towards the rising sun! Brugh Boine (which signifies the "town or fortress
of the Boyne") was a great cemetery of the pagan kings of Ireland, and,
according to some antiquaries, was situated near Trim; but, according to
others, more probably at the place now called Stackallen; between Navan
and Slane in Meath. In various parts of the ancient kingdom of Meath, in
the counties of Meath, Westmeath, and Dublin, are many sepulchral mounds
(usually called "moats"), of a circular form, and having the appearance
of hillocks: these are the sepulchres of kings, queens, and warriors of
the pagan times. There are several of these mounds of great size, particularly
on the banks of the Boyne, between Drogheda and Slane; and one of them,
at Newgrange, is of immense extent, covering an area of two acres; is about
eighty feet in height; and was surrounded by a circle of huge stones standing
upright, many of which still remain. The interior of this mound is formed
of a vast heap of stones of various sizes; and a passage, vaulted over
with great flags, leads to the interior, where there is a large chamber
or dome, and in it have been found sepulchral urns, and remains of human
bones. Cairns or huge heaps of stones, many of which still remain on hills
and mountains in various parts of Ireland, were also in pagan times erected
as sepulchres over kings and chiefs.
In the Books of Armagh and Ballymote, and other ancient records, are given some curious accounts of the customs used in the interment of the ancient kings and chiefs; Laoghaire (or Leary), Monarch of Ireland in the fifth century, was buried in the rampart or rath called Rath Leary, at Tara, with his military weapons and armour on him; his face turned southwards, bidding defiance) as it were, to his enemies the men of Leinster. And Owen Beul, a king of Connaught in the sixth century, who was mortally wounded at the battle of Sligeach (or Sligo), fought with the people of Ulster, gave directions that he should be buried with his red javelin in his hand, and his face towards Ulster, as in defiance of his enemies; but the Ulstermen came with a strong force and raised the body of the king, and buried it near Lough Gill, with the face downwards, that it might not be the cause of making them fly betore the Conacians. Near Lough Gill in Sligo are two great cairns still remaining, at which place was probably an ancient cemetery of some of the kings of Connaught; and another large one, near Cong, In the county Mayo. There are still some remains of Reilig-na-Riogh at Cruaghan or Croaghan in the county Roscommon, consisting of a circular area of aboat two hundred feet in diameter, surrounded with some remains of an ancient stone ditch; and in the interior are heaps of rude stones piled upon each other, as stated in "Weld's Survey of Roscommon." Dun Aengus or the Fortress of Aengus, erected on the largest of the Arran Islands, off the coast of Galway, and situated on a tremendous cliff overhanging the sea, consists of a stone work of immense strength of Cyclopean architecture, composed of large stones without mortar or cement. It is of a circular form, and capable of containing within its area two hundred cows. According to O'Flaherty, it was erected by Aengus or Conchobhar, two of the Firvolgian kings of Connaught, before the Christian era; and was also called the Dun of Concovar or Connor.
After the introduction of Christianity, the Irish kings and chiefs were buried in the abbeys, churches, and cathedrals: the Monarch Brian Boru, killed at the battle of Clontarf, was, it is said, buried in the cathedral of Armagh; the kings of Connaught, in the abbeys of Clonmacnoise, Cong, Knockmoy, Roscommon, etc.
It is stated by O'Flaherty, that six of the sons of Brian, king of Connaught, the ancestor of the Hy-Briuin, were converted and baptized by St. Patrick, together with many of the people, on the plain of Moyseola in Roscommon; and that the saint erected a church, called Domhnach Mór or the "great church," on the banks of Lough Sealga, now Lough Hacket; and that on three pillar stones which, for purpose of pagan worship, had been raised there in the ages of idolatry, he had the name of Christ inscribed in three languages: on one of them, "Jesus;" on another, "Soter;" and on the third, "Salvator." Ono, a grandson of Brian, king of Connaught, made a present to St. Patrick of his palace, called Imleach Ona, where the saint founded the episcopal see of Oilfinn or "Elphin," which obtained its name from a spring well the saint had sunk there, and on the margin of which was erected a large stone: thus from "Oil," which means a stone or rock, and "finn," which signifies fair or clear, the name Oilfinn or Elphin was derived, and which meant the rock of the limpid water. O'Flaherty states that this stone continued there till his own time, A.D. 1675.
A king of Connaught in the latter end of the seventh century, named Muireadhach Muilleathan, who died A.D. 700, and a descendant of the above named Brian, son of Eochy Moyvone, was the ancestor of the Siol Muireadhaigh; which became the chief branch of the Hy-Briune race, and possessed the greater part of Connaught, but were chiefly located in the territory now forming the county Roscommon: hence the term "Siol Murray" was applied to that territory. The O'Connors who became kings of Connaught were the head chiefs of Siol Murray; and took their name from Conchobhar or Connor, who was a king of Connaught in the tenth century. The grandson of this Conchobhar, Tadhg an Eich Geal or Teige of the White Steed, who was king of Connaught in the beginning of the eleventh century, and who died A.D. 1030, was the first who took the sirname of "O'Connor." In the tenth century, as mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters, two or three of the O'Rourkes are styled kings of Connaught; but, with these exceptions, the ancestors of the O'Connors of the race of Hy-Briune and Siol Murray, and the O'Connors themselves, held the sovereignty of Connaught from the fifth to the fifteenth century; and two of them became Monarchs of Ireland, in the twelfth century, namely, Torlogh O'Connor, called Toirdhealbhach Mór or Torlogh the Great, who is called by the annalists the "Augustus of Western Europe;" and his son, Roderick O'Connor, who was the last Milesian Monarch of Ireland. This Torlogh O'Connor died at Dunmore, in Galway, A.D. 1156, in the 68th year of his age, and was buried at Clonmacnoise. And Roderick O'Connor, after having reigned eighteen years, abdicated the throne, A.D. 1184, in consequence of the Anglo-Norman invasion; and, after a religious seclusion of thirteen years in Cong Abbey, in the county Mayo, died A.D. 1198, in the 82nd year of his age and was buried in Clonmacnoise in the same sepulchre with his father. In the "Memoirs" of Charles O'Connor of Belenagar, it is said, that in the latter end of the fourteenth century the two head chiefs of the O'Connors, namely, Torlogh Roe and Torlogh Don, having contended for the lordship of Siol Murray, agreed to divide the territory between them. The families descended from Torlogh Don called themselves the O'Connors "Don" or the Brown O'Connors; while the descendants of Torlogh Roe called themselves the O'Connors "Roe" or the Red O'Connors. Another branch of the O'Connors got great possessions in the county Sligo, and were styled the O'Connors "Sligo." --CONNELLAN.
THE following chiefs and clans and the territories they possessed in the twelfth century, in the present counties of Sligo and Mayo, have been collected from O'Dugan and other authorities: --1. O'Maolcluiche or Mulclohy (cloch: Irish, "a stone"), chief of Cairbre, now the barony of Carbery, in the county Sligo. This name has been anglicised "Stone" and "Stoney." 2. MacDiarmada or MacDermott, chief of Tir Oliolla, now the barony of Tirerill, in the county Sligo. The MacDermotts were also princes of Moylurg, in the county Roscommon, in South Connaught. They afterwards became princes of Coolavin, as successors to the O'Garas, lords of Coolavin; and to the present day, as the only family of the Milesian Clans who have preserved their ancient titles, retain the title of "Prince of Coolavin." (See the "MacDermott" pedigree.) 3. MacDonchaidh or MacDonogh, a branch of the MacDermotts, afterwards chiefs of Tirerill and of Corran, now the barony of "Corran" in Sligo. O'Donchathaigh is given by O'Dugan as a chief in Corran; this name has been anglicised O'Donogh. 4. O'Dubhalen or O'Devlin, another chief in Corran. 5. O'Headhra or O'Hara, chief of Luighne, now the barony of "Lieney" in the county Sligo; but Lieney anciently comprised part of the baronies of Costello and Gallen in Mayo. The O'Haras were descended from Olioll Olum, King of Munster in the third century. In the reigns of Queen Anne and George the First, the O'Haras were created "Barons of Tirawley and Kilmain," in the county Mayo. 6. O'Gadhra or O'Gara, given by O'Dugan as chief of Lieney, but in aftertimes Lord of Cuil-O'bh-fionn, now the barony of "Coolavin," was of the same stock as the O'Haras and O'Briens, kings of Thomond. 7. O'Ciernachain or Kernighan and O'Huathmharain (O'Horan or O'Haran), other chiefs in Lieney. 8. O'Muiredhaigh or O'Murray, chief of Ceara, now the barony of "Carra," in the county Mayo; and also chief of the Lagan, a district in the northern part of the barony of Tirawley, in Mayo. 9. O'Tighearnaigh or O'Tierney, a chief in Carra. 10. O'Gormog (modernized O'Gorman), another chief in Carra. 11. O'Maille or O'Malley, chief of Umhall, which O'Dugan states was divided into two territories. This territory, whose name is sometimes mentioned as Umalia and Hy-Malia, comprised the present baronies of Murrisk and "Burrishoole," in the county Mayo. The O'Malleys are of the same descent as the O'Connors, Kings of Connaught; and seem to have been great mariners. Of them O'Dugan says:--
Of this family was the celebrated heroine Graine-Ni-Mhaille
[Grana Wale] or Grace O'Malley, widow of O'Flaherty, wife of Rickard an
Iarain Bourke, and daughter of the chief "O'Malley" (see the "Bourkes,"
Lords Viscounts Mayo, pedigree); who, in the reign of Elizabeth, commanded
her fleet in person, performed many remarkable exploits against the English.
12. O'Talcharaln, chief of Conmaicne Cuile, now the barony of Kilmain,
co. Mayo. The following chiefs and clans, not given in O'Dugan, have been
collected from other sources:--1. O'Caithniadh (or O'Catney), chief of
Iorras, now the barony of "Erris," in Mayo. 2. O'Ceallachain or O'Callaghan,
chiefs in Erris; this family was not of the O'Callaghans of Munster. 3.
O'Caomhain (see the "Cowan" pedigree), a senior branch of the O'Dowd family,
and chiefs of some districts on the borders of Sligo and Mayo, in the baronies
of Tireragh, Corran, and Costello. 4. O'Gaibhtheachain or O'Gaughan; and
O'Maoilfhiona or O'Molina, chiefs of Calraighe Moy Heleog -- a district
comprising the parish of "Crossmolina," in the barony of Tyrawley, and
county Mayo. 5. O'Gairmiallaigh or O'Garvaly, and O'Dorchaidhe or O'Dorchy,
chiefs of Partraigh or Partry; an ancient territory at the Partry Mountains
in Mayo, the situation of which the present parish of "Party" determines
(see the "Darcy" pedigree). 6. O'Lachtnain or Loughnan (by some of the
family anglicised "Loftus"), chiefs of the territory called "The Two Bacs,"
now the parish of Backs, situated between Lough Conn and the river Moy,
in Mayo. 7. O'Maolfoghmair, anglicised "Milford" and O'Maolbrennain, anglicised
"Mulrennin," chiefs of Hy-Eachach Muaidhe, a district extending along the
western bank of the river "Moy," between Ballina and Killala. 8. O'Mongan
or O'Mangan, chiefs of Breach Magh -- a district in the parish of Kilmore
Moy, on the eastern bank of the Moy, in the co. Sligo. 9. O'Conniallain
or O'Connellan, chief of Bun-ui-Conniallan, now "Bonny-connellan" -- a
district in the barony of Gallen, county Mayo; and also of Cloon-connellan,
in the barony of Kilmain. 10. O'Ceirin or O'Kearns, chiefs of Ciarraighe
Loch-na-Nairneadha territory in the barony of Costello, county Mayo, comprising
the parishes of Aghamore, Bekan, and Knock.
The other clans in Mayo and Sligo were: O'Bannen, O'Brogan, Mac Conbain, O'Bean (ban: Irish, white), some of whom have anglicised the name "White" and "Whyte;"; O'Beolan or O'Boland; O'Beirne, some of whom have anglicised their name "Barnes;" O'Flatelly, O'Crean, O'Carey, O'Conachtain or O'Conaty of Cabrach or Cabra in Tireragh; O'Flanelly, O'Coolaghan, O'Burns, O'Hughes; O'Huada or Heady, O'Fuada or Fodey (fuadach: Irish, an elopement), and O'Tapa or Tappy (tapadh: Irish, haste) -- these three last sirnames have been anglicised "Swift;" O'Loingsy or O'Lynch; O'Maolmoicheirghe (mock: Irish, early), anglicised "Early" and "Eardly;" O'Mulrooney or Rooney, O'Moran, O'Muldoon, O'Meehan, O'Caffrey or Caffrey, O'Finnegan, O'Morrisey, O'Morris or O'Morrison; MacGeraghty, anglicised "Garrett;" O'Spillane, O'Donnell, and MacSweeney.
2.-- ROSCOMMON AND GALWAY:
THE following chiefs and clans in Roscommon and Galway, and the territories possessed by them in the twelfth century, have been collected from O'Dugan's Topography and other sources:--1. MacDiarmada, or MacDermott, princes of Moylurg, Tir-Oilill, Tir-Tuathail, Arteach, and Clan Cuain. Moylurg comprised the plains of Boyle, in the county Roscommon; Tir-Oilill, now the barony of "Tirerill" in Sligo; Arteach, a district in Roscommon near Lough Gara, on the borders of Sligo and Mayo; Clan Cuain was a district in the barony of Carra, near Castlebar, comprising the present parishes of Islandeady, Turlough, and Breaffy. The MacDermotts were hereditary marshals of Connaught, the duties attached to which were to raise and regulate the military forces, and to prepare them for battle, as commanders-in-chief; also to preside at the inauguration of the O'Connors as kings of Connaught, and to proclaim their election. The MacDermotts derive their descent from Teige of the White Steed, king of Connaught in the eleventh century; and are a branch of the O'Connors. This Teige had a son named Maolruanaidh, the progenitor of the MacDermotts: hence their tribe name was Clan Maolruanaidh or Clan Mulrooney. Diarmaid (dia: Irish, "a god," and "armaid," of "arms," and signifying a great warrior), grandson of Mulrooney, who died, A.D. 1165, was the head of the clan; and from him they took the name of "MacDermott." The MacDermotts had their chief fortress at the Rock of Lough Key, on an island in Lough Key, near Boyle; and are the only Milesian family who have preserved their title of Prince, namely, "Hereditary Prince of Coolavin" a title by which the MacDermott is to this day recognised in the county Sligo. The principal families of the MacDermotts in Connaught are -- The MacDermott of Coolavin, and MacDermott Roe of Alderford in the county Roscommon. The following were, according to O'Dugan, the ancient chiefs of Moylurg before the time of the MacDermotts:
"The ancient chiefs of Moylurg of abundance:
MacEoach (or MacKeogh); MacMaoin (or MacMaine), the great.
And MacRiabhaidh (or Magreevy) the efficient forces."
2. O'Ceallaigh or O'Kelly. This name is derived from Ceallach, a
celebrated chief of the ninth century, who is the ancestor of the O'Kellys,
princes of Hy-Maine. These O'Kellys are a branch of the Clan Colla of Orgiall
in Ulster, and of the same descent as the MacMahons, lords of Monaghan;
Maguires, lords of Fermanagh; O'Hanlons, lords of Orior in Armagh, etc.
In the fourth century. Main Mór or Main the Great, chief of the
Clan Colla, conquered a colony of the Firbolgs in Connaught; and the territory
so conquered, which was possessed by his posterity, was after him called
Hy-Maine (signifying the territory possessed by the descendants of Main),
which has been Latinized "Hy-Mania" and "I-Mania." This extensive territory
comprised, according to O'Flaherty and others, a great part of South Connaught
in the present county Galway, and was afterwards extended beyond the river
Suck to the Shannon, in the south of Roscommon. It included the baronies
of Ballymoe, Tiaquin, Killian, and Kilcollan, with part of Clonmacnoon,
in Galway; and the barony of Athlone in Roscommon. The O'Kellys were styled
princes of Hy-Maine, and their territory was called "O'Kelly's Country."
According to the "Dissertations" of Charles O'Connor, the O'Kellys held the office of high treasurers of Connaught, and the MacDermotts that of marshals. Tadhg or Teige O'Kelly, one of the commanders of the Connaught contingent of Brian Boru's army at the battle of Clontarf, was of this ancient family. The O'Kellys had castles at Aughrim, Garbally, Gallagh, Monivea, Moylough, Mullaghmore, and Aghrane (now Castlekelly), in the county Galway; and at Athlone, Athleague, Corbeg, Galy, and Skrine, in the county Roscommon. The chiefs of the O'Kellys, according to some accounts, were inaugurated at Clontuskert, about five miles from Eyrecourt in the county Galway, and held their rank as princes of Hy-Maine down to the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 3. MacOireachtaigh or MacGeraghty, of the same stock as the O'Connors of Connaught. In the Annals of the Four Masters, at A.D. 1278, MacOiraghty is mentioned as head chief of Siol Murray, a term applied to the central parts of the county Roscommon; and, in the sixteenth century, when deprived of their territories, some of the clan Geraghty settled in Mayo and Sligo, and gave their name to the island of Innis Murray, off the coast of Sligo, on account of their former title as head chiefs of Siol Murray, as in the Annals above mentioned. 4. O'Fionnachta or O'Finaghty, chiefs of Clan Conmaigh, and of Clan Murchada, districts in the two half baronies of Ballymoe in the counties of Galway and Roscommon, in O'Kelly's principality of Hy-Maine. The O'Finaghtys here mentioned were of the Clan Colla; and two distinct chiefs of them are given by O'Dugan: one of them, Finaghty of "Clan Murrogh of the Champions;" and the other, Finaghty of the "Clan Conway." O'Finaghty (modernized "Finnerty"), chiefs of Clan Conway, had their castle at Dunamon, near the river Suck, in the county Roscommon. It is stated in some old authorities, that the O'Finaghtys had the privilege of drinking the first cup at every royal feast. 5. O'Fallamhain or O'Fallon were chiefs of Clan Uadach, a district in the barony of Athlone, in the county Roscommon, comprising the parishes of Cam and Dysart, and had a castle at Miltown. The O'Fallons were originally chiefs in Westmeath, near Athlone. 6. O'Birn or O'Beirne, chiefs of Muintir O'Mannachain, a territory along the Shannon in the parish of Ballintobber, in Roscommon, extending nearly to Elphin. 7. O'Mannachain or O'Monaghan, was also chief on the same territory as O'Beirne. These O'Beirnes are of a distinct race from the O'Byrnes of Wicklow. 8. O'Hainlidhe, O'Hanley, or Henley, chiefs of Cineal Dobhtha, a large district in the barony of Ballintobber, along the Shannon. It formed part of the Three Tuatha or the Three Districts. 9. MacBranain or MacBrennan, sometimes anglicised O'Brennan; and O'Mailmichil, anglicised "Mitchell." The O'Brennans and Mitchells were chiefs of Corca Achlann, a large district adjoining Cineal-Dobtha, in the barony of Roscommon. This district formed part of the "Tuatha" in which was situated the Slieve Baun Mountain. 10. O'Flannagain or Flanagan, chiefs of Clan Cathail, a territory in the barony of Roscommon, north of Elphin. O'Maolmordha, O'Morra, or O'Moore, O'Carthaidh or O'Carthy, and O'Mughroin or O'Moran, were also subordinate chiefs of Clan Cathail (Cathal and Serlus; Irish, Charles: Span. Carlos), or Clan Charles. 11. O'Maolbrennain, anglicised "Mulrenan," chiefs of Clan Conchobhair or Clan Connor, a district near Cruachan or Croaghan, in the barony and county of Roscommon. 12. O'Cathalain, chief of Clan Fogartaigh [Fogarty]; and O'Maonaigh or O'Mooney, chiefs of Clan Murthuile. Clan Fogarty and Clan Murthuile were districts in Ballintubber, county Roscommon. 13. O'Conceannain or O'Concannon, chiefs of Hy-Diarmada, a district on the borders of Roscommon and Galway, in the baronies of Athlone and Ballymoe. 14. MacMurchada, MacMurrough or Murphy, chiefs of Tomaltaigh in Roscommon, of which MacOiraghta was head chief. 15. O'Floinn or O'Flynn, chiefs of Siol Maolruain, a large district in the barony of Ballintubber, county Roscommon; in which lay Slieve Ui Fhloinn or O'Flynn's Mountain, which comprised the parishes of Kilkeeran and Kiltullagh, and part of the parish of Ballynakill, in the barony of Ballymoe, county Galway. O'Maolmuaidh or O'Mulmay, was a subordinate chief over Clan Taidhg or Clan Teige in the same district. 16. O'Rothlain (O'Rowland, O'Roland, and O'Rollin), chiefs of Coill Fothaidh, a district on the borders of Roscommon and Mayo. 17. O'Sgaithgil or Scahil, chiefs of Corca Mogha, a district which comprised the parish of Kilkeeran, in the barony of Killian, county Galway. O'Broin, angliciaed "Burns," was chief of Lough Gealgosa, a district adjoining Corca Mogha. 18. O'Talcharain (Taleran or Taleyrand), chiefs of Conmaicne Cuile, a district in the barony of Clare, county Galway. 19. O'Cadhla, O'Cawley, or Kealy, chiefs of Conmaicne Mara (or Connemara), now the barony of Ballynahinch, in the county Galway. 20. MacConroi, anglicised "King," chiefs of Gno Mór; and O'Haidhnidh or O'Heany, chiefs of Gno Beag, districts which lay along the western banks of Lough Corrib, in the barony of Moycullen, and county of Galway, in the direction of Galway Bay. 21. MacAodha or MacHugh, chiefs of Clan Cosgraidh, a district on the eastern side of Lough Corrib. 22. O'Flaithbheartaigh or O'Flaherty, chiefs of Muintir Murchadha, now the barony of Clare, county Galway. In the thirteenth century the O'Flahertys were expelled from this territory by the English; and, having settled on the other side of Lough Corrib, they got extensive possessions there in the barony of Moycullen, and were styled lords of Iar Conacht or West Connaught. They also had the chief naval command about Lough Corrib, on some of the islands of which they had castles. 23. O'Heidhin or O'Heyne, anglicised "Hynes," was styled Prince of South Hy-Fiachra, a district co-extensive with the diocese of Kilmacduagh; and comprised the barony of Kiltartan, and parts of the baronies of Dunkellin and Loughrea, in the county Galway. 24. O'Seachnasaigh, Cineal-Aodha O'Shaugnessey, O'Shannesy, chiefs of Cineal- Aodha (or Cineal-Hugh), a district in the barony of Kiltartan, county Galway. Cineal-Hugh was sometimes called Cineal-Hugh of Echty, a mountainous district on the borders of Galway and Clare. O'Cathail or O'Cahil was also a chief of Cineal-Hugh. 25. MacGiolla Ceallaigh or MacGilkelly, anglicised "Kilkelly," chiefs in South Fiachra. 26. O'Cleirigh or O'Clery, anglicised "Clarke," chiefs in Hy-Fiachra Aidhne, same as MacGilkelly. This family took the name "Cleirigh" from Cleireach, one of their celebrated chiefs in the tenth century; and a branch of them having settled in Donegal, became bards and historians to the O'Donnells, princes of Tirconnell, and were the authors of the Annals of the Four Masters, etc. Other branches of the O'Clerys settled in Brefney O'Reilly or the county Cavan. 27. O'Dulbhgiolla or O'Diffely, chiefs of Cineal-Cinngamhna [Cean Gamhna]; MacFiachra, chiefs of Oga Peathra; O'Cathain or O'Cahan, chiefs of Cineal-Sedna; and O'Maghna, chiefs of Ceanridhe, all chiefs in Aidhne or South Hy-Fiachra: all these chiefs were descended from Guaire Aidhne, a king of Connaught in the seventh century. 28. O'Madagain or O'Madadhain, anglicised "Madden," chief of Siol Anmchadha or Silancha; a name derived from "Anmchadh," a descendant of Colla-da-Chrioch. This territory comprised the present barony of Longford in the county Galway, and the parish of Lusmagh, on the Leinster side of the river Shannon, in the King's County. The O'Maddens are a branch of the Clan Colla, and of the same descent as the O'Kellys, princes of Hy-Maine; and took their name from Madudan Mór, one of their ancient chiefs. 29. O'Hullachain or O'Hoolaghan, sometimes anglicised "O'Coolaghan" and MacCoolaghan, chiefs of Siol Anmchadha. 30. O'Maolalaidh or O'Mullally, anglicised "Lally." 31. O'Neachtain or O'Naghten, anglicised "Norton." The O'Naghtens and O'Mullallys are given by O'Dugan as the two chiefs of Maonmuighe or Maenmoy: an extensive plain comprising a great part of the present baronies of Loughrea and Leitrim in the county Galway. The O'Naughtens and O'Mullallys are branches of the Clan Colla. When disposessed of their territories, the O'Mullallys settled at Tullach-na-Dala near Tuam, where they had a castle: and the head of the family having afterwards removed to France, a descendant of his became celebrated as an orator and a statesman, at the time of the French Revolution, and was known as "Count Lally Tolendal:" taking his title from the ancient territory in Ireland, Tullach-na-Dala, above mentioned. Several of the O'Lallys were celebrated commanders in the Irish Brigade in France; and one of them was created "Marquis de Lally Tollendal," and a peer of France, by Napoleon the First. 32. O'Connaill or O'Connell, chiefs of the territory from the river Grian, on the borders of Clare, to the plain of Maenmoy: comprising parts of the barony of Leitrim in Galway, and of Tullagh in Clare. These O'Connells and the MacEgans were marshals of the forces to the O'Kellys, princes of Hy-Maine; and of the same descent as the O'Kellys, namely that of the Clan Colla. 33. MacEideadhain or MacAodhagain (anglicised "MacEgan") were chiefs of Clan Diarmada, district in the barony of Leitrim, county Galway; and had a castle at Dun Doighre, now "Duniry." The MacEgans were Brehons in Connaught, and also in Ormond; and many of them eminent literary men. 34. MacGiolla Fionnagain or O'Finnegan, sometimes rendered "Finncaine;" and O'Cionaoith or O'Kenny, chiefs of Clan Iaitheamhaim or Flaitheamhain [or Fleming], called also Muintir Cionaith, a district in the barony of Moycarnon, county Roscommon. Of the O'Finnegan family was Mathias Finucane, one of the Judges of the Common Pleas in Ireland, who died A.D. 1814. 35. O'Domhnallain or O'Donnelan, chiefs of Clan Breasail, a district in the barony of Leitrim, and county Galway. 36. O'Donchadha or O'Donoghoe, chiefs of Clan Cormaic, a district in Maenmoy in Galway, already defined. 37. O'Duibhghind, chiefs of the Twelve Ballys or Townlands of Duibhghind, a district near Loughrea, in the county Galway. 38. O'Docomlain, chiefs of Eidhnigh; and O'Gabhrain or O'Gauran, chiefs of Dal Druithne, districts about Loughrea. 39. O'Maolbrighde or O'Mulbride, chiefs of Magh Finn and of Bredagh, a district in the barony of Athlone, county Roscommon, east of the river Suck. 40. O'Mainnin, O'Mannin, O'Mannion, or O'Manning, chiefs of Sodhan: a large territory in the barony of Tiaquin, made into six divisions, called "The Six Sodhans." The O'Mannins or O'Mannings had their chief residence at the castle of Clogher, barony of Tiaquin, county Galway, and afterwards, at Menlough, in the parish of Killascobe in the same barony. The other chiefs given by O'Dugan on the "Six Sodhans" were Mac-an-Bhaird, MacWard or Ward; O'Sgurra or Scurry; O'Lennain or Lennon; O'Casain or Cashin; O'Gialla or O'Giallain, rendered Gilly, and Geallan; and O'Maigin or Magin. 41. O'Cathail, or Cahill, O'Mughroin or Moran, O'Maolruanaidh, Mulrooney, or Rooney, the three chiefs of Crumthan or Cruffan, a district comprising the barony of Killian, and part of Ballymoe in the county Galway. 42. O'Laodog or O'Laodhaigh, anglicised "O'Leahy," chiefs of Caladh, a district in the barony of Kilconnell, county Galway.
The following chiefs and clans not given by O'Dugan are collected from other sources:-- 43. O'Daly (who were a branch of the O'Donnells, princes of Tirconnell) had large possessions in the counties of Galway and Roscommon. The O'Dalys, it appears, settled in Connaught as early as the twelfth century. 44. O'Coindealbhain, O'Conniallain, O'Connollain, O'Connellan, princes of Hy-Leary in the tenth and eleventh centuries; but branches of this family in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, settled in the counties of Roscomnon, Galway, and Mayo. Pedigrees of this ancient clan are given in the "Books" of Leacan and Ballymote; and also in the "Genealogical Book" of the O'Clerys. 45. O'Halloran, chiefs of Clan Fargal, a large district on the east side of the river of Galway, near Lough Corrib. 46. O'Callanan and O'Canavan, whom O'Dugan mentions as hereditary physicians in Galway. 47. O'Dubhthaigh or O'Duffy, families of note in Galway and Roscommon. 48. O'Brien, a branch of the O'Briens of Thomond in the county Clare, and lords of the lsles of Arran, off the coast of Galway. 49. MacCnaimhin or MacNevin, according to the "Book of Leacan," chiefs of a district called Crannog MacCnaimhin or Crannagh MacNevin, in the parish of Tynagh, barony of Leitrim, and county of Galway. This name "MacCnaimhin" [cnaimh: Irish, a bone), has been anglicised "Bone" and "Bonas." 50. MacEochaidh, MacKeogh, or Keogh (a branch of the O'Kellys, princes of Hy-Maine), chiefs of Omhanach, now "Onagh," in the parish of Taghmaconnell, in the barony of Athlone, county Roscommon. 51. MacGiolladuibh or MacGillduff, anglicised "Kilduff," chiefs of Caladh, along with the O'Leahys, in the barony of Kilconnell, county Galway. 52. O'Lorcan or O'Larkin; O'Gebenaigh or Gevenny, Gebney, and Gibney; O'Aireachtain, anglicised "Harrington;" O'Fahy, O'Fay or O'Foy; O'Laidins or Laydon, and O'Horan or Horan, all clans in Hy-Maine, in the county Galway. 53. O'Cobthaigh or O'Coffey, a branch of the O'Kellys, princes of Hy-Maine; and chiefs of a large district in the barony of Clonmacnoon, county Galway. 54. MacManus; Keon, MacKeon, or MacEwen; O'Common or Cummins, and O'Ronan or Ronayne, clans in the county Roscommon.
BANNERS, WARRIORS, WEAPONS, BATTLE-CRIES