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RODERICK O'CONNOR, the last Milesian Monarch of Ireland, after having reigned twenty years, abdicated the throne, A.D. 1186, and, after a religious seclusion of thirteen years in the monastery of Cong, in the county Mayo, died, A.D. 1198, in the 82nd year of his age; and was buried in Clonmacnoise, in the same sepulchre with his father, Torlogh O'Connor, the 181st Monarch of Ireland. In the chronological poem on the Christian Kings of Ireland, written in the twelfth century, is the following stanza:

"Ocht m-Bliadhna agus deich Ruadri an Ri,
Mac Toirdhealbhaidh an t-Ard Ri,
Flaith na n-Eirend: gan fhell,
Ri deighneach deig Eirenn."


"Eighteen years the Monarch Roderick,
Son of Torlogh, supreme sovereign,
Ireland's undisputed ruler,
Was fair Erin's latest king."

According to the Four Masters, Roderick O'Connor, reigned as Monarch for twenty years: from A.D. 1166
to A.D. 1186.

* Connaught: According to Keating and O'Flaherty, Connaught derived its name either from "Con," one of the chief Druids of the Tua-de-Danans, or from Conn Ceadcatha (Conn of the Hundred Battles), Monarch of Ireland, in the second century, and of the line of Heremon (see No. 80, page 358), whose posterity possessed the country: the word "iacht" or "iocht" signifying children or posterity, and hence "Coniacht," the ancient name of Connaught, means the territory possessed by the posterity of Conn.
    The ancient kingdom of Connaught comprised the present counties of Galway, Mayo, Sligo, Roscommon, and Leitrim, together with Clare, now in Munster, and Cavan, now a part of Ulster; and was divided into Tuaisceart Conacht or North Connaught, Deisceart Conacht or South Connaught, and Iar Conacht or West Connaught. North Connaught was also called Iachtar Conacht or Lower Connaught; as was South Connaught called Uachtar Conacht or Upper Connaught.
    North Connaught is connected with some of the earliest events in Irish history. According to our ancient annalists, it was in the time of Partholan or Bartholinus, who planted the first colony in Ireland, that the lakes called Lough Conn and Lough Mask in Mayo, and Lough Gara in Sligo, on the borders of Roscommon, suddenly burst forth; and in South Connaught, according to O'Flaherty, the lakes called Lough Cime (now Lough Hackett); Lough Riadh or Loughrea, and some other lakes in the county Galway, and also the river Suck between Roscommon and Galway, first began to flow in the time of Heremon, Monarch of Ireland, No. 37, page 351; and Lough Key in Moylurg, near Boyle in the county Roscommon, first sprang out in the reign of the Monarch Tiernmas, No. 41, page 352. On the arrival of the colony of the Firvolgians in Ireland, a division of them landed on the north-western coast of Connaught, in one of the bays, now called Blacksod or the Broadhaven. These Firvolgians were named Fir-Domhnan or Damnonians: and the country where they landed was called Iarras, or Iarras Domhnan, (from "iar," the west, and "ros," a promontory or peninsula, signifying the western promontory or peninsula of the Damnonians): a term exactly corresponding with the topographical features of the country; and to the present day the name has been retained in that of the half barony of "Erris," in the county Mayo.
    When the Tua-de-Danans, who conquered the Firvolgians, first invaded Ireland, they landed in Ulster, and proceeded thence to Slieve-an-Iarain (or the Iron Mountain), in Brefney, and thenceforward into the territory of Connaught. The Firvolgians having collected their forces to oppose their progress, a desperate battle was fought between them at a place called Magh Tuireadh or the Plain of the Tower, in which the Firvolgians were totally defeated -- ten thousand of them being slain, together with Eochad, son of Eirc their king, who was buried, on the seashore: a cairn of large stones being erected over him as a sepulchral monument, which remains to this day. This place is on the strand, near Ballysodare in the county of Sligo, and was called Traigh-an-Chairn or the Strand of the Cairn. After a few more battles, the De-Danans became possessors of Ireland, which they ruled until the arrival of the Milesians, who conquered them; and in their turn became masters of Ireland. The Firvolgians, having assisted the Milesians in the conquest of the Tua-de-Danans, were, in consequence, restored by the Milesians to a great part of their former possessions, particularly in Connaught; in which province they were ruled by their own kings of the Firvolgian race down to the third century, when the Monarch Cormac Mac Art, of the Heremon line, brought them under subjection, and annexed Connaught to his kingdom. The Firvolgians appear to have been an athletic race; and the "Clan-na-Morna" of Connaught, under their Firvolgian chief, Goll, son of Morna, are celebrated in the Ossianic poems and ancient annals as famous warriors in the third century. Many of the Firvolgian race are still to be found in Connaught, but blended by blood and intermarriages with the Milesians. The Tua-de-Danans were originally Scythians, who had settled some time in Greece, and afterwards migrated to Scandinavia or the countries now forming Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. From Scandinavia (the "Fomoria" of the ancient Irish) the De-Danans came to North Britain where they settled colonies, and thence passed into Ireland. It appears that the Danans were a highly civilized people, skilled in the arts and sciences; hence they were considered as magicians. O'Brien, in his learned work on the "Round Towers of Ireland," considers that these beautiful structures were built by the Tua-de-Danans, for purposes connected with pagan worship and astronomical observations: an opinion very probable when it is considered that they were highly skilled in architecture and other arts, from their long residence in Greece and intercourse with the Phoenicians. It is stated that Orbsen, a chief descended from the Danans and Fomorians, was a famous merchant, and carried on a commercial intercouse between Ireland and Britain; and that he was killed by Uillinn of the Red Brows, another De-Danan chief, in a battle called, from that circumtance, Magh Uillinn or the Plain of Uillinn, now the barony of "Moycullen," in the county Galway, In South Connaught, the territory which forms the present county Clare was taken from Connaught in the latter part of the third century, and added to part of Limerick, under the name of Tuadh-Mumhain or North Munster (a word anglicised "Thomond"); of which the O'Briens, of the Dalcassian race, became Kings.
    Cormac Mac Art, the celebrated Monarch of Ireland in the second century, was born in Corran at the place called Ath-Cormac or the Ford of Cormac, near Keis-Corran (now "Keash") in the county Sligo; and hence he was called "Cormac of Corran."
    The territory of North Connaught is connected in a remarkable manner with the mission of St. Patrick to Ireland: Mullagh Farry (in Irish, Forrach-mhac-nAmhailgaidh), now "Mullafarry," near Killala, in the barony of Tyrawley, and county Mayo, is the place where St. Patrick converted to Christianity the king or prince of that territory (Enda Crom) and his seven sons; and baptized twelve thousand persons in the water of a well called Tobar Enadharc. And Croagh Patrick mountain also in Mayo, was long celebrated for the miracles it is said the saint performed there. The See of Killala was founded by St. Patrick.
    At Carn Amhalgaidh or "Carnawley," supposed to be the hill of Mullaghcarn (where King Awley was buried), the chiefs of the O'Dowds were inaugurated as princes of Hy-Fiachra; while, according to their accounts they were inaugurated on the hill of Ardnaree, near Ballina. This principality of Northern Hy-Fiachra comprised the present counties of Mayo and Sligo, and a portion of Galway; while the territory of Hy-Fiachra, in the county Galway was called the Southern Hy-Fiachra or Hy-Fiachra Aidhne: so named after Eogan Aidhne, son of Dathi, the last pagan Monarch of Ireland, who was killed by lightning at the foot ot the Alps, A.D. 429. This territory of Hy-Fiachra Aidhne was co-extensive with the present diocese ot Kilmacduagh; and was possessed by the descendants ot Eoghan Aidhne, the principal of whom were -- O'Heyne or Hynes, O'Clery, and O'Shaughnessy. According to O'Dugan and MacFirbis, fourteen of the race of Hy-Fiachra were kings of Connaught: some of whom had their chief residence in Aidhne, in Galway; others at Ceara, now the barony of  "Carra" in Mayo; and some on the plain ot the Muaidhe or the (river) Moy, in Sligo. O'Dubhda or O'Dowd were head chiefs the northern Hy-Fiachra, and their territory comprised nearly the whole of the present county Sligo, with the greater part of Mayo. Many of the O'Dowds, even down to modern times, were remarkable for their great strength and stature. (See the "O'Dowd" pedigree.)
    Cruaghan or Croaghan, near Eiphin in the county Roscommon, became the capital of Connaught and the residence of its ancient kings; and the estates of Connaught held conventions there to make laws and inaugurate their kings. At Croaghan was the burial place ot the pagan kings ot Connaught, called Reilig na Riogh or The Cemetery of the kings; here Dathi, the last pagan Monarch of Ireland, was buried; and a large red pillar-stone erected over his grave remains to this day. A poem, giving an account of the kings and queens buried at Cruaghan, was composed by Torna Eigeas or Torna, the learned, chief bard to the Monarch Niall of the Nine Hostages, in the fourth century, of the commencement of which the following is a translation:

"Under thee lies the fair king of the men of Fail,
Dathi, son of Fiachra, man of fame:
O! Cruacha (Cruaghan), thou hast this concealed
From the Galls and the Gaels."

   The "Gaels" here mean the Irish themselves; and the "Galls" mean all foreigners, as the Danes, the Britons, etc. In the first line of the quotation Ireland is called Fail, as Inis Fail (signifying Insula Fatalis or the Island of Destiny): a name given to Ireland by the Tua-de-Danans, from a remarkable stone called the Lia Fail (signifying Lapis Fatalis, Saxum Fatale) or Stone of Destiny, which they brought with them into Ireland. This Lia Fail is believed to be the stone or pillar on which Jacob rested; and sitting on which the ancient kings, both of the De Danan and Milesian race in Ireland, were crowned at Tara. This stone was sent to Scotland in the sixth century by the Monarch Murcheartach Mór Mac-Earca, for the coronation purpose of his brother Fergus Mor MacEarca, the founder of the Scottish Monarchy in Scotland; and was used for many centuries at the coronation of the Scottish kings, and kept at the Abbey of Scone. When King Edward the First invaded Scotland, he brought with him that Lia Fail to England, and placed it under the coronation chair in Westminster Abbey, where it still remains; though it has been erroneously stated in some modern publications, that the large pillar stone which stands on the mound or rath at Tara is the Stone of Destiny: an assertion at variance with the statements of O'Flaherty, the O'Connors, and all other learned antiquarians. Three of the De Danan queens, who gave their names to Ireland, namely, Eire (from which the name "Eirin" or "Erin" is derived), Fodhla, and Banba, together with their husbands, Mac Coill, Mac Cecht, and Mac Greine, the three Tua-de-Danan Kings slain at the time of the Milesian conquest of Ireland, were buried at Cruachan in Connaught. Among the Milesian kings and queens interred there, were Hugony the Great, Monarch of Ireland No. 59, p. 354); his daughter, the princess Muirease; and his son, Cobthach Caolbhreagh; Bresnar Lothar (No. 73, p. 356); Maud (the famous queen of Connaught), Deirbhre, and Clothra -- all sisters of Bresnar Lothar, and daughters of Eochy Feidlioch; Conn of the Hundred Battles and the other sons of Felim Rachtmar) the 108th Monarch of Ireland; and other kings, descendants of Conn of the Hundred Battles, with tbe exception of his son Art, the 112th Monarch (who directed that he should be buried at Trevet in Meath), and of Art's son Cormac, the famous Monarch of Ireland in the 3rd century, who was buried at Ros-na-Riogh (now Rosnaree or Rosnari), near Slane in the county Meath. According to the "Book of Ballymote," this King Cormac, who had some knowledge of Christianity, gave orders that he, too, should not be buried at Brugh Boine (which was the cemetery of most of the pagan kings of Meath), but at Ros-na-Riogh; and that his face should be towards the rising sun! Brugh Boine (which signifies the "town or fortress of the Boyne") was a great cemetery of the pagan kings of Ireland, and, according to some antiquaries, was situated near Trim; but, according to others, more probably at the place now called Stackallen; between Navan and Slane in Meath. In various parts of the ancient kingdom of Meath, in the counties of Meath, Westmeath, and Dublin, are many sepulchral mounds (usually called "moats"), of a circular form, and having the appearance of hillocks: these are the sepulchres of kings, queens, and warriors of the pagan times. There are several of these mounds of great size, particularly on the banks of the Boyne, between Drogheda and Slane; and one of them, at Newgrange, is of immense extent, covering an area of two acres; is about eighty feet in height; and was surrounded by a circle of huge stones standing upright, many of which still remain. The interior of this mound is formed of a vast heap of stones of various sizes; and a passage, vaulted over with great flags, leads to the interior, where there is a large chamber or dome, and in it have been found sepulchral urns, and remains of human bones. Cairns or huge heaps of stones, many of which still remain on hills and mountains in various parts of Ireland, were also in pagan times erected as sepulchres over kings and chiefs.
    In the Books of Armagh and Ballymote, and other ancient records, are given some curious accounts of the customs used in the interment of the ancient kings and chiefs; Laoghaire (or Leary), Monarch of Ireland in the fifth century, was buried in the rampart or rath called Rath Leary, at Tara, with his military weapons and armour on him; his face turned southwards, bidding defiance) as it were, to his enemies the men of Leinster. And Owen Beul, a king of Connaught in the sixth century, who was mortally wounded at the battle of Sligeach (or Sligo), fought with the people of Ulster, gave directions that he should be buried with his red javelin in his hand, and his face towards Ulster, as in defiance of his enemies; but the Ulstermen came with a strong force and raised the body of the king, and buried it near Lough Gill, with the face downwards, that it might not be the cause of making them fly betore the Conacians. Near Lough Gill in Sligo are two great cairns still remaining, at which place was probably an ancient cemetery of some of the kings of Connaught; and another large one, near Cong, In the county Mayo. There are still some remains of Reilig-na-Riogh at Cruaghan or Croaghan in the county Roscommon, consisting of a circular area of aboat two hundred feet in diameter, surrounded with some remains of an ancient stone ditch; and in the interior are heaps of rude stones piled upon each other, as stated in "Weld's Survey of Roscommon." Dun Aengus or the Fortress of Aengus, erected on the largest of the Arran Islands, off the coast of Galway, and situated on a tremendous cliff overhanging the sea, consists of a stone work of immense strength of Cyclopean architecture, composed of large stones without mortar or cement. It is of a circular form, and capable of containing within its area two hundred cows. According to O'Flaherty, it was erected by Aengus or Conchobhar, two of the Firvolgian kings of Connaught, before the Christian era; and was also called the Dun of Concovar or Connor.
    After the introduction of Christianity, the Irish kings and chiefs were buried in the abbeys, churches, and cathedrals: the Monarch Brian Boru, killed at the battle of Clontarf, was, it is said, buried in the cathedral of Armagh; the kings of Connaught, in the abbeys of Clonmacnoise, Cong, Knockmoy, Roscommon, etc.
    It is stated by O'Flaherty, that six of the sons of Brian, king of Connaught, the ancestor of the Hy-Briuin, were converted and baptized by St. Patrick, together with many of the people, on the plain of Moyseola in Roscommon; and that the saint erected a church, called Domhnach Mór or the "great church," on the banks of Lough Sealga, now Lough Hacket; and that on three pillar stones which, for purpose of pagan worship, had been raised there in the ages of idolatry, he had the name of Christ inscribed in three languages: on one of them, "Jesus;" on another, "Soter;" and on the third, "Salvator." Ono, a grandson of Brian, king of Connaught, made a present to St. Patrick of his palace, called Imleach Ona, where the saint founded the episcopal see of Oilfinn or "Elphin," which obtained its name from a spring well the saint had sunk there, and on the margin of which was erected a large stone: thus from "Oil," which means a stone or rock, and "finn," which signifies fair or clear, the name Oilfinn or Elphin was derived, and which meant the rock of the limpid water. O'Flaherty states that this stone continued there till his own time, A.D. 1675.
    A king of Connaught in the latter end of the seventh century, named Muireadhach Muilleathan, who died A.D. 700, and a descendant of the above named Brian, son of Eochy Moyvone, was the ancestor of the Siol Muireadhaigh; which became the chief branch of the Hy-Briune race, and possessed the greater part of Connaught, but were chiefly located in the territory now forming the county Roscommon: hence the term "Siol Murray" was applied to that territory. The O'Connors who became kings of Connaught were the head chiefs of Siol Murray; and took their name from Conchobhar or Connor, who was a king of Connaught in the tenth century. The grandson of this Conchobhar, Tadhg an Eich Geal or Teige of the White Steed, who was king of Connaught in the beginning of the eleventh century, and who died A.D. 1030, was the first who took the sirname of "O'Connor." In the tenth century, as mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters, two or three of the O'Rourkes are styled kings of Connaught; but, with these exceptions, the ancestors of the O'Connors of the race of Hy-Briune and Siol Murray, and the O'Connors themselves, held the sovereignty of Connaught from the fifth to the fifteenth century; and two of them became Monarchs of Ireland, in the twelfth century, namely, Torlogh O'Connor, called Toirdhealbhach Mór or Torlogh the Great, who is called by the annalists the "Augustus of Western Europe;" and his son, Roderick O'Connor, who was the last Milesian Monarch of Ireland. This Torlogh O'Connor died at Dunmore, in Galway, A.D. 1156, in the 68th year of his age, and was buried at Clonmacnoise. And Roderick O'Connor, after having reigned eighteen years, abdicated the throne, A.D. 1184, in consequence of the Anglo-Norman invasion; and, after a religious seclusion of thirteen years in Cong Abbey, in the county Mayo, died A.D. 1198, in the 82nd year of his age and was buried in Clonmacnoise in the same sepulchre with his father. In the "Memoirs" of Charles O'Connor of Belenagar, it is said, that in the latter end of the fourteenth century the two head chiefs of the O'Connors, namely, Torlogh Roe and Torlogh Don, having contended for the lordship of Siol Murray, agreed to divide the territory between them. The families descended from Torlogh Don called themselves the O'Connors "Don" or the Brown O'Connors; while the descendants of Torlogh Roe called themselves the O'Connors "Roe" or the Red O'Connors. Another branch of the O'Connors got great possessions in the county Sligo, and were styled the O'Connors "Sligo."                                                                                                   --CONNELLAN.



THE following chiefs and clans and the territories they possessed in the twelfth century, in the present counties of Sligo and Mayo, have been collected from O'Dugan and other authorities: --1. O'Maolcluiche or Mulclohy (cloch: Irish, "a stone"), chief of Cairbre, now the barony of Carbery, in the county Sligo. This name has been anglicised "Stone" and "Stoney." 2. MacDiarmada or MacDermott, chief of Tir Oliolla, now the barony of Tirerill, in the county Sligo. The MacDermotts were also princes of Moylurg, in the county Roscommon, in South Connaught. They afterwards became princes of Coolavin, as successors to the O'Garas, lords of Coolavin; and to the present day, as the only family of the Milesian Clans who have preserved their ancient titles, retain the title of  "Prince of Coolavin." (See the "MacDermott" pedigree.) 3. MacDonchaidh or MacDonogh, a branch of the MacDermotts, afterwards chiefs of Tirerill and of Corran, now the barony of "Corran" in Sligo. O'Donchathaigh is given by O'Dugan as a chief in Corran; this name has been anglicised O'Donogh. 4. O'Dubhalen or O'Devlin, another chief in Corran. 5. O'Headhra or O'Hara, chief of Luighne, now the barony of  "Lieney" in the county Sligo; but Lieney anciently comprised part of the baronies of Costello and Gallen in Mayo. The O'Haras were descended from Olioll Olum, King of Munster in the third century. In the reigns of Queen Anne and George the First, the O'Haras were created "Barons of Tirawley and Kilmain," in the county Mayo. 6. O'Gadhra or O'Gara, given by O'Dugan as chief of Lieney, but in aftertimes Lord of Cuil-O'bh-fionn, now the barony of  "Coolavin," was of the same stock as the O'Haras and O'Briens, kings of Thomond. 7. O'Ciernachain or Kernighan and O'Huathmharain (O'Horan or O'Haran), other chiefs in Lieney. 8. O'Muiredhaigh or O'Murray, chief of Ceara, now the barony of "Carra," in the county Mayo; and also chief of the Lagan, a district in the northern part of the barony of Tirawley, in Mayo. 9. O'Tighearnaigh or O'Tierney, a chief in Carra. 10. O'Gormog (modernized O'Gorman), another chief in Carra. 11. O'Maille or O'Malley, chief of Umhall, which O'Dugan states was divided into two territories. This territory, whose name is sometimes mentioned as Umalia and Hy-Malia, comprised the present baronies of Murrisk and "Burrishoole," in the county Mayo. The O'Malleys are of the same descent as the O'Connors, Kings of Connaught; and seem to have been great mariners. Of them O'Dugan says:--

"A good man yet there never was,
Of the O'Malleys, who was not a mariner;
Of every weather ye are prophets;
A tribute of brotherly affection and of friendship."

    Of this family was the celebrated heroine Graine-Ni-Mhaille [Grana Wale] or Grace O'Malley, widow of O'Flaherty, wife of Rickard an Iarain Bourke, and daughter of the chief "O'Malley" (see the "Bourkes," Lords Viscounts Mayo, pedigree); who, in the reign of Elizabeth, commanded her fleet in person, performed many remarkable exploits against the English. 12. O'Talcharaln, chief of Conmaicne Cuile, now the barony of Kilmain, co. Mayo. The following chiefs and clans, not given in O'Dugan, have been collected from other sources:--1. O'Caithniadh (or O'Catney), chief of Iorras, now the barony of "Erris," in Mayo. 2. O'Ceallachain or O'Callaghan, chiefs in Erris; this family was not of the O'Callaghans of Munster. 3. O'Caomhain (see the "Cowan" pedigree), a senior branch of the O'Dowd family, and chiefs of some districts on the borders of Sligo and Mayo, in the baronies of Tireragh, Corran, and Costello. 4. O'Gaibhtheachain or O'Gaughan; and O'Maoilfhiona or O'Molina, chiefs of Calraighe Moy Heleog -- a district comprising the parish of "Crossmolina," in the barony of Tyrawley, and county Mayo. 5. O'Gairmiallaigh or O'Garvaly, and O'Dorchaidhe or O'Dorchy, chiefs of Partraigh or Partry; an ancient territory at the Partry Mountains in Mayo, the situation of which the present parish of "Party" determines (see the "Darcy" pedigree). 6. O'Lachtnain or Loughnan (by some of the family anglicised "Loftus"), chiefs of the territory called "The Two Bacs," now the parish of Backs, situated between Lough Conn and the river Moy, in Mayo. 7. O'Maolfoghmair, anglicised "Milford" and O'Maolbrennain, anglicised "Mulrennin," chiefs of Hy-Eachach Muaidhe, a district extending along the western bank of the river "Moy," between Ballina and Killala. 8. O'Mongan or O'Mangan, chiefs of Breach Magh -- a district in the parish of Kilmore Moy, on the eastern bank of the Moy, in the co. Sligo. 9. O'Conniallain or O'Connellan, chief of Bun-ui-Conniallan, now "Bonny-connellan" -- a district in the barony of Gallen, county Mayo; and also of Cloon-connellan, in the barony of Kilmain. 10. O'Ceirin or O'Kearns, chiefs of Ciarraighe Loch-na-Nairneadha territory in the barony of Costello, county Mayo, comprising the parishes of Aghamore, Bekan, and Knock.
    The other clans in Mayo and Sligo were: O'Bannen, O'Brogan, Mac Conbain, O'Bean (ban: Irish, white), some of whom have anglicised the name "White" and "Whyte;"; O'Beolan or O'Boland; O'Beirne, some of whom have anglicised their name "Barnes;" O'Flatelly, O'Crean, O'Carey, O'Conachtain or O'Conaty of Cabrach or Cabra in Tireragh; O'Flanelly, O'Coolaghan, O'Burns, O'Hughes; O'Huada or Heady, O'Fuada or Fodey (fuadach: Irish, an elopement), and O'Tapa or Tappy (tapadh: Irish, haste) -- these three last sirnames have been anglicised "Swift;" O'Loingsy or O'Lynch; O'Maolmoicheirghe (mock: Irish, early), anglicised "Early" and "Eardly;" O'Mulrooney or Rooney, O'Moran, O'Muldoon, O'Meehan, O'Caffrey or Caffrey, O'Finnegan, O'Morrisey, O'Morris or O'Morrison; MacGeraghty, anglicised "Garrett;" O'Spillane, O'Donnell, and MacSweeney.

THE following chiefs and clans in Roscommon and Galway, and the territories possessed by them in the twelfth century, have been collected from O'Dugan's Topography and other sources:--1. MacDiarmada, or MacDermott, princes of Moylurg, Tir-Oilill, Tir-Tuathail, Arteach, and Clan Cuain. Moylurg comprised the plains of Boyle, in the county Roscommon; Tir-Oilill, now the barony of "Tirerill" in Sligo; Arteach, a district in Roscommon near Lough Gara, on the borders of Sligo and Mayo; Clan Cuain was a district in the barony of Carra, near Castlebar, comprising the present parishes of Islandeady, Turlough, and Breaffy. The MacDermotts were hereditary marshals of Connaught, the duties attached to which were to raise and regulate the military forces, and to prepare them for battle, as commanders-in-chief; also to preside at the inauguration of the O'Connors as kings of Connaught, and to proclaim their election. The MacDermotts derive their descent from Teige of the White Steed, king of Connaught in the eleventh century; and are a branch of the O'Connors. This Teige had a son named Maolruanaidh, the progenitor of the MacDermotts: hence their tribe name was Clan Maolruanaidh or Clan Mulrooney. Diarmaid (dia: Irish, "a god," and "armaid," of "arms," and signifying a great warrior), grandson of Mulrooney, who died, A.D. 1165, was the head of the clan; and from him they took the name of "MacDermott." The MacDermotts had their chief fortress at the Rock of Lough Key, on an island in Lough Key, near Boyle; and are the only Milesian family who have preserved their title of Prince, namely, "Hereditary Prince of Coolavin" a title by which the MacDermott is to this day recognised in the county Sligo. The principal families of the MacDermotts in Connaught are -- The MacDermott of Coolavin, and MacDermott Roe of Alderford in the county Roscommon. The following were, according to O'Dugan, the ancient chiefs of Moylurg before the time of the MacDermotts:

"The ancient chiefs of Moylurg of abundance:
MacEoach (or MacKeogh); MacMaoin (or MacMaine), the great.
And MacRiabhaidh (or Magreevy) the efficient forces."

2. O'Ceallaigh or O'Kelly. This name is derived from Ceallach, a celebrated chief of the ninth century, who is the ancestor of the O'Kellys, princes of Hy-Maine. These O'Kellys are a branch of the Clan Colla of Orgiall in Ulster, and of the same descent as the MacMahons, lords of Monaghan; Maguires, lords of Fermanagh; O'Hanlons, lords of Orior in Armagh, etc. In the fourth century. Main Mór or Main the Great, chief of the Clan Colla, conquered a colony of the Firbolgs in Connaught; and the territory so conquered, which was possessed by his posterity, was after him called Hy-Maine (signifying the territory possessed by the descendants of Main), which has been Latinized "Hy-Mania" and "I-Mania." This extensive territory comprised, according to O'Flaherty and others, a great part of South Connaught in the present county Galway, and was afterwards extended beyond the river Suck to the Shannon, in the south of Roscommon. It included the baronies of Ballymoe, Tiaquin, Killian, and Kilcollan, with part of Clonmacnoon, in Galway; and the barony of Athlone in Roscommon. The O'Kellys were styled princes of Hy-Maine, and their territory was called "O'Kelly's Country."
    According to the "Dissertations" of Charles O'Connor, the O'Kellys held the office of high treasurers of Connaught, and the MacDermotts that of marshals. Tadhg or Teige O'Kelly, one of the commanders of the Connaught contingent of Brian Boru's army at the battle of Clontarf, was of this ancient family. The O'Kellys had castles at Aughrim, Garbally, Gallagh, Monivea, Moylough, Mullaghmore, and Aghrane (now Castlekelly), in the county Galway; and at Athlone, Athleague, Corbeg, Galy, and Skrine, in the county Roscommon. The chiefs of the O'Kellys, according to some accounts, were inaugurated at Clontuskert, about five miles from Eyrecourt in the county Galway, and held their rank as princes of Hy-Maine down to the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 3. MacOireachtaigh or MacGeraghty, of the same stock as the O'Connors of Connaught. In the Annals of the Four Masters, at A.D. 1278, MacOiraghty is mentioned as head chief of Siol Murray, a term applied to the central parts of the county Roscommon; and, in the sixteenth century, when deprived of their territories, some of the clan Geraghty settled in Mayo and Sligo, and gave their name to the island of Innis Murray, off the coast of Sligo, on account of their former title as head chiefs of Siol Murray, as in the Annals above mentioned. 4. O'Fionnachta or O'Finaghty, chiefs of Clan Conmaigh, and of Clan Murchada, districts in the two half baronies of Ballymoe in the counties of Galway and Roscommon, in O'Kelly's principality of Hy-Maine. The O'Finaghtys here mentioned were of the Clan Colla; and two distinct chiefs of them are given by O'Dugan: one of them, Finaghty of "Clan Murrogh of the Champions;" and the other, Finaghty of the "Clan Conway." O'Finaghty (modernized "Finnerty"), chiefs of Clan Conway, had their castle at Dunamon, near the river Suck, in the county Roscommon. It is stated in some old authorities, that the O'Finaghtys had the privilege of drinking the first cup at every royal feast. 5. O'Fallamhain or O'Fallon were chiefs of Clan Uadach, a district in the barony of Athlone, in the county Roscommon, comprising the parishes of Cam and Dysart, and had a castle at Miltown. The O'Fallons were originally chiefs in Westmeath, near Athlone. 6. O'Birn or O'Beirne, chiefs of Muintir O'Mannachain, a territory along the Shannon in the parish of Ballintobber, in Roscommon, extending nearly to Elphin. 7. O'Mannachain or O'Monaghan, was also chief on the same territory as O'Beirne. These O'Beirnes are of a distinct race from the O'Byrnes of Wicklow. 8. O'Hainlidhe, O'Hanley, or Henley, chiefs of Cineal Dobhtha, a large district in the barony of Ballintobber, along the Shannon. It formed part of the Three Tuatha or the Three Districts. 9. MacBranain or MacBrennan, sometimes anglicised O'Brennan; and O'Mailmichil, anglicised "Mitchell." The O'Brennans and Mitchells were chiefs of Corca Achlann, a large district adjoining Cineal-Dobtha, in the barony of Roscommon. This district formed part of the "Tuatha" in which was situated the Slieve Baun Mountain. 10. O'Flannagain or Flanagan, chiefs of Clan Cathail, a territory in the barony of Roscommon, north of Elphin. O'Maolmordha, O'Morra, or O'Moore, O'Carthaidh or O'Carthy, and O'Mughroin or O'Moran, were also subordinate chiefs of Clan Cathail (Cathal and Serlus; Irish, Charles: Span. Carlos), or Clan Charles. 11. O'Maolbrennain, anglicised "Mulrenan," chiefs of Clan Conchobhair or Clan Connor, a district near Cruachan or Croaghan, in the barony and county of Roscommon. 12. O'Cathalain, chief of Clan Fogartaigh [Fogarty]; and O'Maonaigh or O'Mooney, chiefs of Clan Murthuile. Clan Fogarty and Clan Murthuile were districts in Ballintubber, county Roscommon. 13. O'Conceannain or O'Concannon, chiefs of Hy-Diarmada, a district on the borders of Roscommon and Galway, in the baronies of Athlone and Ballymoe. 14. MacMurchada, MacMurrough or Murphy, chiefs of Tomaltaigh in Roscommon, of which MacOiraghta was head chief. 15. O'Floinn or O'Flynn, chiefs of Siol Maolruain, a large district in the barony of Ballintubber, county Roscommon; in which lay Slieve Ui Fhloinn or O'Flynn's Mountain, which comprised the parishes of Kilkeeran and Kiltullagh, and part of the parish of Ballynakill, in the barony of Ballymoe, county Galway. O'Maolmuaidh or O'Mulmay, was a subordinate chief over Clan Taidhg or Clan Teige in the same district. 16. O'Rothlain (O'Rowland, O'Roland, and O'Rollin), chiefs of Coill Fothaidh, a district on the borders of Roscommon and Mayo. 17. O'Sgaithgil or Scahil, chiefs of Corca Mogha, a district which comprised the parish of Kilkeeran, in the barony of Killian, county Galway. O'Broin, angliciaed "Burns," was chief of Lough Gealgosa, a district adjoining Corca Mogha. 18. O'Talcharain (Taleran or Taleyrand), chiefs of Conmaicne Cuile, a district in the barony of Clare, county Galway. 19. O'Cadhla, O'Cawley, or Kealy, chiefs of Conmaicne Mara (or Connemara), now the barony of Ballynahinch, in the county Galway. 20. MacConroi, anglicised "King," chiefs of Gno Mór; and O'Haidhnidh or O'Heany, chiefs of Gno Beag, districts which lay along the western banks of Lough Corrib, in the barony of Moycullen, and county of Galway, in the direction of Galway Bay. 21. MacAodha or MacHugh, chiefs of Clan Cosgraidh, a district on the eastern side of Lough Corrib. 22. O'Flaithbheartaigh or O'Flaherty, chiefs of Muintir Murchadha, now the barony of Clare, county Galway. In the thirteenth century the O'Flahertys were expelled from this territory by the English; and, having settled on the other side of Lough Corrib, they got extensive possessions there in the barony of Moycullen, and were styled lords of Iar Conacht or West Connaught. They also had the chief naval command about Lough Corrib, on some of the islands of which they had castles. 23. O'Heidhin or O'Heyne, anglicised "Hynes," was styled Prince of South Hy-Fiachra, a district co-extensive with the diocese of Kilmacduagh; and comprised the barony of Kiltartan, and parts of the baronies of Dunkellin and Loughrea, in the county Galway. 24. O'Seachnasaigh, Cineal-Aodha O'Shaugnessey, O'Shannesy, chiefs of Cineal- Aodha (or Cineal-Hugh), a district in the barony of Kiltartan, county Galway. Cineal-Hugh was sometimes called Cineal-Hugh of Echty, a mountainous district on the borders of Galway and Clare. O'Cathail or O'Cahil was also a chief of Cineal-Hugh. 25. MacGiolla Ceallaigh or MacGilkelly, anglicised "Kilkelly," chiefs in South Fiachra. 26. O'Cleirigh or O'Clery, anglicised "Clarke," chiefs in Hy-Fiachra Aidhne, same as MacGilkelly. This family took the name "Cleirigh" from Cleireach, one of their celebrated chiefs in the tenth century; and a branch of them having settled in Donegal, became bards and historians to the O'Donnells, princes of Tirconnell, and were the authors of the Annals of the Four Masters, etc. Other branches of the O'Clerys settled in Brefney O'Reilly or the county Cavan. 27. O'Dulbhgiolla or O'Diffely, chiefs of Cineal-Cinngamhna [Cean Gamhna]; MacFiachra, chiefs of Oga Peathra; O'Cathain or O'Cahan, chiefs of Cineal-Sedna; and O'Maghna, chiefs of Ceanridhe, all chiefs in Aidhne or South Hy-Fiachra: all these chiefs were descended from Guaire Aidhne, a king of Connaught in the seventh century. 28. O'Madagain or O'Madadhain, anglicised "Madden," chief of Siol Anmchadha or Silancha; a name derived from "Anmchadh," a descendant of Colla-da-Chrioch. This territory comprised the present barony of Longford in the county Galway, and the parish of Lusmagh, on the Leinster side of the river Shannon, in the King's County. The O'Maddens are a branch of the Clan Colla, and of the same descent as the O'Kellys, princes of Hy-Maine; and took their name from Madudan Mór, one of their ancient chiefs. 29. O'Hullachain or O'Hoolaghan, sometimes anglicised "O'Coolaghan" and MacCoolaghan, chiefs of Siol Anmchadha. 30. O'Maolalaidh or O'Mullally, anglicised "Lally." 31. O'Neachtain or O'Naghten, anglicised "Norton." The O'Naghtens and O'Mullallys are given by O'Dugan as the two chiefs of Maonmuighe or Maenmoy: an extensive plain comprising a great part of the present baronies of Loughrea and Leitrim in the county Galway. The O'Naughtens and O'Mullallys are branches of the Clan Colla. When disposessed of their territories, the O'Mullallys settled at Tullach-na-Dala near Tuam, where they had a castle: and the head of the family having afterwards removed to France, a descendant of his became celebrated as an orator and a statesman, at the time of the French Revolution, and was known as "Count Lally Tolendal:" taking his title from the ancient territory in Ireland, Tullach-na-Dala, above mentioned. Several of the O'Lallys were celebrated commanders in the Irish Brigade in France; and one of them was created "Marquis de Lally Tollendal," and a peer of France, by Napoleon the First. 32. O'Connaill or O'Connell, chiefs of the territory from the river Grian, on the borders of Clare, to the plain of Maenmoy: comprising parts of the barony of Leitrim in Galway, and of Tullagh in Clare. These O'Connells and the MacEgans were marshals of the forces to the O'Kellys, princes of Hy-Maine; and of the same descent as the O'Kellys, namely that of the Clan Colla. 33. MacEideadhain or MacAodhagain (anglicised "MacEgan") were chiefs of Clan Diarmada, district in the barony of Leitrim, county Galway; and had a castle at Dun Doighre, now "Duniry." The MacEgans were Brehons in Connaught, and also in Ormond; and many of them eminent literary men. 34. MacGiolla Fionnagain or O'Finnegan, sometimes rendered "Finncaine;" and O'Cionaoith or O'Kenny, chiefs of Clan Iaitheamhaim or Flaitheamhain [or Fleming], called also Muintir Cionaith, a district in the barony of Moycarnon, county Roscommon. Of the O'Finnegan family was Mathias Finucane, one of the Judges of the Common Pleas in Ireland, who died A.D. 1814. 35. O'Domhnallain or O'Donnelan, chiefs of Clan Breasail, a district in the barony of Leitrim, and county Galway. 36. O'Donchadha or O'Donoghoe, chiefs of Clan Cormaic, a district in Maenmoy in Galway, already defined. 37. O'Duibhghind, chiefs of the Twelve Ballys or Townlands of Duibhghind, a district near Loughrea, in the county Galway. 38. O'Docomlain, chiefs of Eidhnigh; and O'Gabhrain or O'Gauran, chiefs of Dal Druithne, districts about Loughrea. 39. O'Maolbrighde or O'Mulbride, chiefs of Magh Finn and of Bredagh, a district in the barony of Athlone, county Roscommon, east of the river Suck. 40. O'Mainnin, O'Mannin, O'Mannion, or O'Manning, chiefs of Sodhan: a large territory in the barony of Tiaquin, made into six divisions, called "The Six Sodhans." The O'Mannins or O'Mannings had their chief residence at the castle of Clogher, barony of Tiaquin, county Galway, and afterwards, at Menlough, in the parish of Killascobe in the same barony. The other chiefs given by O'Dugan on the "Six Sodhans" were Mac-an-Bhaird, MacWard or Ward; O'Sgurra or Scurry; O'Lennain or Lennon; O'Casain or Cashin; O'Gialla or O'Giallain, rendered Gilly, and Geallan; and O'Maigin or Magin. 41. O'Cathail, or Cahill, O'Mughroin or Moran, O'Maolruanaidh, Mulrooney, or Rooney, the three chiefs of Crumthan or Cruffan, a district comprising the barony of Killian, and part of Ballymoe in the county Galway. 42. O'Laodog or O'Laodhaigh, anglicised "O'Leahy," chiefs of Caladh, a district in the barony of Kilconnell, county Galway.
    The following chiefs and clans not given by O'Dugan are collected from other sources:-- 43. O'Daly (who were a branch of the O'Donnells, princes of Tirconnell) had large possessions in the counties of Galway and Roscommon. The O'Dalys, it appears, settled in Connaught as early as the twelfth century. 44. O'Coindealbhain, O'Conniallain, O'Connollain, O'Connellan, princes of Hy-Leary in the tenth and eleventh centuries; but branches of this family in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, settled in the counties of Roscomnon, Galway, and Mayo. Pedigrees of this ancient clan are given in the "Books" of Leacan and Ballymote; and also in the "Genealogical Book" of the O'Clerys. 45. O'Halloran, chiefs of Clan Fargal, a large district on the east side of the river of Galway, near Lough Corrib. 46. O'Callanan and O'Canavan, whom O'Dugan mentions as hereditary physicians in Galway. 47. O'Dubhthaigh or O'Duffy, families of note in Galway and Roscommon. 48. O'Brien, a branch of the O'Briens of Thomond in the county Clare, and lords of the lsles of Arran, off the coast of Galway. 49. MacCnaimhin or MacNevin, according to the "Book of Leacan," chiefs of a district called Crannog MacCnaimhin or Crannagh MacNevin, in the parish of Tynagh, barony of Leitrim, and county of Galway. This name "MacCnaimhin" [cnaimh: Irish, a bone), has been anglicised "Bone" and "Bonas." 50. MacEochaidh, MacKeogh, or Keogh (a branch of the O'Kellys, princes of Hy-Maine), chiefs of Omhanach, now "Onagh," in the parish of Taghmaconnell, in the barony of Athlone, county Roscommon. 51. MacGiolladuibh or MacGillduff, anglicised "Kilduff," chiefs of Caladh, along with the O'Leahys, in the barony of Kilconnell, county Galway. 52. O'Lorcan or O'Larkin; O'Gebenaigh or Gevenny, Gebney, and Gibney; O'Aireachtain, anglicised "Harrington;" O'Fahy, O'Fay or O'Foy; O'Laidins or Laydon, and O'Horan or Horan, all clans in Hy-Maine, in the county Galway. 53. O'Cobthaigh or O'Coffey, a branch of the O'Kellys, princes of Hy-Maine; and chiefs of a large district in the barony of Clonmacnoon, county Galway. 54. MacManus; Keon, MacKeon, or MacEwen; O'Common or Cummins, and O'Ronan or Ronayne, clans in the county Roscommon.


 The terms applied to military commanders were taoiseach, taoiseach-buidhne, flaith, cean-feadhna (or head of a force) cean-sloigh (or the leader of a host); and the terms laoch, curraidh, gaisgidh, orgaisgidheach, and urradh were applied to champions, chieftains, and heroes.  The chief terms for weapons were the following: - Claidheamh [clava], a sword; tuagh or tuagh-catha, a battle-axe; laighean, a spear; lann, a lance or javelin; craoiseagh, a lance, javelin or halberd; ga gath, or gai, a dart; saighead, an arrow or dart; bolgsaighead, a bag or pouch for arrows or a quiver; sgian or skian, a dagger or large knife (this weapon was carried by all the Irish soldiers, as well by the chiefs, and used in close combat); the ancient sling was called crann-tabhuil. The armour consisted of the luireach (Lat, lorica), a coat of mail, the shield, buckler, and target, were termed sciath; and the helmet, cathbharr (from "cath," a battle, and "barr," the head or top).  The banners of the ancient Irish were termed bratach;  and the standard, meirge;  the standard-bearer was called, meirgeach; and a banner-bearer, fear-brataighe.The bards attended battle-fields and raised the rosg-catha or war-song.  The Irish rushed into battle with fierce shouts of defiance, and loud battle-cries; their chief cry, according to Ware, was "Farrah, Farrah," which, according to some, means to fight valiantly, or like a man; and according to others, it is the same as the word "Fairé, Fairé," which signifies to watch, watch, or be on your guard; and the word "Hurrah" is supposed to have come from the same source. The war-cry "Abu" was used by the Irish, and was derived from the Irish word "Buaidh" [bo-ee], which signifies victory.  This word was anglicised "Aboo": hence, the various chieftains are said to have their war-cries, as O'Neill Aboo, O'Donnell Aboo, O'Brien Aboo; which means respectively, "victory to O'Neill," "victory to O'Donnell," "victory to O'Brien," etc.  The great Anglo-Irish families adopted similar war-cries: the Fitzgeralds had Crom Aboo, derived, it is said, from the castle of Crom in Limerick, one of the ancient fortresses of the Fitzgeralds; the Butlers of Ormond had Butler Aboo; the Burkes had Clanrickarde Aboo, and MacWilliam Aboo; and various other families had similar cries.  The Irish chiefs had each his own banner and battle-cry: the O'Neills had for their battle-cry Lamh dearg an-Uachtar or the Red Hand Uppermost (a red or bloody hand being their crest, and borne on their banners).   In later times The O'Neills assumed the heraldic emblem of the ancient Kings of Emania) which was, The Red Hand of Ulster; together with the battle-cry of Lamh-dearg Aboo or the Red Hand for Ever.  The battle-cry of the O'Briens of Thomond was Lamhlaidir a n-Uachtar or the Strong Hand Uppermost.The Irish forces were composed of kerns, gallowglasses and cavalry; the word "kearn" (in Irish "ceatharnach"), signifying a battler, being derived from "cath",  a battle;  and the word "galloglas" (in  Irish, "Gall-og-laoch,"  a foreign warrior, or) a foreign young champion.  The Scots had likewise, at an early period, their kerns and galloglasses; and in Shakespeare's Macbeth is mentioned -- "the merciless MacDonald from the Western Isles (or Hebrides), with his kerns and gallowglasses."  The kerns were the light foot of the Irish, armed with long spears or pikes, javelins, darts, skians or daggers, bows and arrows, and (in the early ages) also with slings.  These active soldiers made rapid and irregular onsets into the ranks of the enemy; not fighting in exact order, but rushing and attacking on all sides, then rapidly retreating and coming on again at an advantageous opportunity.  The javelins or short spears and darts of the kerns, were favourite weapons; the handles were generally of ash, to which was fitted a long sharp-pointed iron or steel head.  This javelin was tied to the arm or shoulder by a thong or cord of great length, so that they could hurl it at the enemy at several yards distance, and recover the weapon again.  These darts and javelins were whirled rapidly round the head, and, then cast with such force, that they penetrated the bodies of men, even through their armour; and killed their horses at a great distance.   In the account of  the expedition of King Richard the Second in Ireland, Froissart in his "Chronicle" says: "the Irish soldiers were so remarkably strong and active, that on foot they could overtake an English horseman at full speed, leap behind the rider and pull him off his horse."  The kerns were divided into bodies of spear-men, dart-men, slingers, and archers, and (in aftertimes) musketeers; the archers were very expert,and their bows were made chiefly of ash and yew. The galloglasses were the heavy infantry of the Irish, a sort of grenadiers; being select men of great strength and stature, armed with swords and battle-axes; and also generally wore armour, as helmets and breast-plates of iron, coats of mail composed of a network of small iron rings, and some armour made of strong leather; and their shields or bucklers were made of  wood, sometimes covered with skins of animals.  The Irish commanders wore armour, helmets, coats of mail, shields, etc.  The cavalry of  the Irish might be considered as mounted kerns, being chiefly a kind of light horse. The term "Marcach" was applied to a horseman or cavalry soldier; and "Marc-shluagh" signified a host, army, or troop of cavalry. "Ridire" signified a knight, and was the name applied to an English chief in armour. The predatory troops of the Irish are mentioned under the name of Creach-sluagh (from "creach," plunder, and "sluagh," a host); and their hired troops were called Buanaighe (from "Buan," bound); and these mercenaries are mentioned by English writers as Bonnoghs or Bonnoghts.

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