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2.-- WESTMEATH     (Modern Nobility only for this county)
    Ancient Meath constituted the chief parts of  the English Pale, and was divided into the counties of East Meath and Westmeath  in the reign of Henry the Eighth; but its extent was diminished, as East Meath in early times contained parts of Dublin and Kildare, and Westmeath contained parts of Longford and King's County.

   Dillons: Originally descended from the Hy-Niall in Meath. One descendant went to France in the seventh century and became Duke of  Aquitaine. One of his descendants came to Ireland with King John and was granted land in Westmeath and Annaly. This family became earls in Roscommon, viscounts in Mayo, barons of Clonbrock, and barons of Kilkenny West. Several were counts and generals in the French and Austrian Service.
   Dalton and Delamere: Lords of Westmeath and Annaly.
   Rochford: Earls of Belidere.
   DeGinkell: Earls of Athlone.

ANGHAILE or "Annaly," which was formed out of the ancient territory of Teffia, comprised the whole of the county Longford, and was the principality of O'Farrell. His chief residence was the town of  "Longford," anciently called Longphort-Ui-Fhearghail or the Fortress of O'Farrell. This territory was divided into Upper and Lower Annaly: the former comprising that part of Longford south of Granard, and a part of the county Westmeath, was possessed by O'Farrell O'Buidhe (or O'Farrell the Yellow); the latter, or that portion north of Granard, was posseased by O'Farrell Ban (or O'Farrell the Fair). The O'Farrells were dispossessed of this territory by the Tuites and the Delameres, who came over with Hugh de Lacy in the twelfth century.



BESIDES the O'Farrells, princes of Annaly, the following were among the ancient clans in the county Longford: 2. O'Cuinn or O'Quinn, who had his castle at Rathcline. There was also a powerful family of the O'Quinns in the county Clare (see "Thomond"), distinct from this family in Annaly. 3. MacGilligan. 4. Muintir (or people of) Megiollgain (Magillan or Magellan) were located in the territory of Muintir Eoluis, in the northern portion of the county Longford; and their chief was O'Quinn, 5. O'Mulfinny or MulFeeney, whose district was called Corcard. 6. MacCormack. 7. MacCorgabhan. 8. O'Daly. 9. O'Slaman or O'Slevin. 10. O'Skolly or O'Skelly. The O'Farrells maintained their sovereignty till the reign of Elizabeth; when Annaly was formed into the county Longford, by the lord deputy Sir Henry Sidney.

THE following accounts of the ancient chiefs of the territories now forming the counties of Dublin and Kildare, together with some of the princes and chiefs of Meath (of whom a full account has not been given in the Chapter on "Meath", have been collected from the Topographies of O'Dugan, O'Heerin, the Annals of the Four Masters, O'Brien, O'Halloran, MacGeoghegan, Ware, O'Flaherty, Charles O'Connor, Seward, and various other sources. As already mentioned, O'Connor, princes of Offaley; O'Moore, princes of Leix; O'Dempsey, lords of Clanmaliere, all possessed parts of Kildare. The O'Tooles, princes of Imaile, in Wicklow, also possessed some of the southern parts of Kildare; and the O'Tooles, together with the O'Byrnes, extended their power over the southern parts of Dublin, comprising the districts in the Dublin mountains--1. MacFogarty, lords of South Bregia, are mentioned by the Four Masters in the tenth century. 3. O'Clardha or O'Carey, chiefs of Cairbre O'Ciardha, now the barony of "Carbery" in the county Kildare. 3. O'Murcain or O'Murcan. 4. O'Bracain or O'Bracken, chiefs of Moy Liffey. The O'Murcans and O'Brackens appear to have possessed the districts along the Liffey, near Dublin. 5. O'Gealbhroin, chiefs of Clar Liffé, or the Plain of the Liffey, a territory on the borders of Dublin and Kildare. 6. O'Fiachra, chiefs of Hy-Ineachruis at Almhuin [Allen]; and O'Haodha or O'Hea, chiefs of Hy-Deadhaidh: territories comprised in the county Kildare. 7. O'Muirthe or O'Murtha, chiefs of Cineal Flaitheamhuin (or Clan Fleming); and O'Fintighearan, chiefs of Hy-Mealla: territories also situated in the county Kildare, it would appear in the baronies of East and West Ophaley or Offaley. 8. O'Cullin or O'Cullen, chiefs of Coille Culluin (or the Woods of Cullen), now the barony of "Kilcullen" in the county Kildare. 9. O'Colgan, MacDonnell, O'Dempsey, and O'Dunn, were all chiefs of note in Kildare. 10. O'Dubthaigh or O'Duffy, one of the Leinster clans of the race of the Monarch Cahir Mór; and of the same descent as MacMorough, kings of Leinster, and O'Toole and O'Byrne, chiefs of Wicklow. Originally located in Kildare and Carlow, and afterwards in Dublin and Meath, the O'Duffys migrated in modern times to Louth, Monaghan, Cavan, Galway, and Roscommon. 11. O'Fagan or MacFagan are considered by some to be of English descent. D'Alton, in his "History of the County Dublin," mentions some of this family who, in the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries were high sheriffs, in Meath and Dublin. In former times the Fagans of Feltrim, near Dublin, and other parts of that county, were highly respectable, and held extensive possessions. 12. O'Murphy, chiefs in Wexford, were also numerous in the counties of Dublin and Meath. 13. O'Mullen, numerous in Meath, Dublin, and Kildare. 14. MacGiolla-mocholmog or Gilcolm, and O'Dunchada or O'Donoghoe, are mentioned by O'Dugan as lords of Fingal, near Dublin: and, as mentioned in the chapter on "Hy-Kinsellagh," there was another MacGiollamocholmog, lord of a territory on the borders of Wicklow. 15. O'Muircheartaigh, O'Moriarty, or O'Murtagh, chiefs of the tribe of O'Maine; and O'Modarn, chiefs of Cineal Eochain, are mentioned by O'Dugan as chiefs of the Britons or Welsh; and appear to have been located near Dublin. 16. MacMuireagain, lords of East Liffey, in the tenth  century.


* Dublin: The grant of the Kingdom of Meath by King Henry the Second to Hugh de Lacy, A.D 1172, included that part of Bregia, containing those parts of the present county Dublin, north of the river Liffey. This grant, King John confirmed to Walter de Lacy, lord of Meath, the son of Hugh; and gave him, besides, his fees in Fingal, to hold to him and his heirs forever.
    Parts of the territories of Moy Liffey and Bregia, with a portion of Cualan (or Wicklow), were formed into the county Dublin, A.D. 1210, in the reign of King John. In the sixteenth century, according to D'Alton's "History of Dublin," the county Dublin extended from Balrothery to Arklow -- thus comprising a great part of the present county Wicklow.

# Kildare: In the reign of King John, parts of the territories of Moy Liffey, Offaley, Leix, and Cualan, were formed into the county Kildare; but it was only a "liberty" dependent on the Jurisdiction of the Sheriffs of Dublin, until A.D. 1296, in the reign of Edward the First, when Kildare was constituted a distinct county. It was called Coill-dara, or the "Wood of Oaks," as oak forests abounded there in ancient times; or, according to others, Cill-dara or the "Church of the Oaks," as it is said that the first church founded at the present town of Kildare was built amidst oak trees.



UNDER this head will be given the history and topography of the ancient territories comprised in the present counties of Wexford, Wicklow, and Carlow, with their chiefs and clans, and the possessions of each in ancient and modern times. The territory of "Hy-Cinsealach" [Hy-Kinsela] derived its name from Enna Cinsealach, King of Leinster in the time of St. Patrick; and comprised at one time the present counties of Wexford and Carlow, with some adjoining parts of Wicklow, Kilkenny, and Queen's County.
    O'Dugan, the learned historian of the O'Kellys, princes of Hy-Maine, gives a full account of all the chiefs and clans of Leath Cuin (i.e. Conn of the Hundred Battles' half of Ireland or the kingdoms of Meath, Ulster, and Connaught--see No. 83, page 67), and collected part of the topography of Leinster; but O'Heerin, another learned historian, who died A.D. 1420, wrote a continuation of O'Dugan's Topography, commencing thus; Tuilleadh Feasa air Eirinn Oigh, or "An Addition of Knowledge on Sacred Erin;" in which he gives an account of all the chiefs and clans of Leath Mogha (i.e. Mogha's half of Ireland, or the kingdoms of Leinster and Munster), and the territories they possessed in the twelfth century.


* Leinster: The ancient kingdom of Leinster comprised the present counties of Wexford, Wicklow, Carlow, and Queen's County, the greater part of Kildare, of King's County, Kilkenny, and that part of Dublin south of the river Liffey. Parts of Kilkenny bordering on Tipperary, and the southern parts of the King's County, belonged to ancient Munster; and some of the northern part of the King's County belonged to the province of Meath. The above named territories continued to be the limits of Leinster down to the reign of Queen Elizabeth; but in after times the old kingdom of Meath was added to Leinster, and also the county Louth, which was a part of the ancient kingdom of Ulster.
    Leinster in early times was called Gaillian or Coigeadh Gaillian, from its being possessed by the tribe of Firvolgians called Fir-Gaillian, signifying spear-men; but it afterwards got the name of Laighean [Laen] from the following circumstance: A few centuries before the Christian era, an Irish prince, named Labhra Loingseach or Laura of the Ships (Latinized Lauradius Navalls), having been banished to Gaul, became comander of the forces to the king of that country: and afterwards led an army of Gauls to Ireland for the recovery of the crown. He landed at a place more lately called Lough Garman (now Wexford Bay), and proceeded to Dinnrigh, an ancient fortress of the kings of Leinster, which was situated near the river Barrow, between Carlow and Leighlin, and there put to death the Monarch Cobthach Caolbhreagh (No. 60, page 355), son of the Monarch Hugony the Great; and became himself the Ardrigh of Ireland. The name "Garman" was afterwards applied to the whole of the territory now forming the county Wexford; and the people called "Garmana," because this Gaulish colony who settled there came from those parts of Germany adjoining Gaul. The Gaulish troops brought over by Laura were armed with green broad-headed spears, called Laighin, which were introduced amongst all the forces of the province: hence it got the name of Coigeadh [cooga] Laighean or "the province of the spears;" and from Laighean or Laen came the name Laen- Tir, which has been anglicised "Leinster" or the Territory of the Spears.
    When the Firvolgians invaded Ireland, some of them landed in large force in Connaught, at Erris, in Mayo; and were called Firdomnians or Damnonians. Another body of them landed under one of their commanders named Slainge, the son of Dela, at a place called after him Inbhear Slainge [Inver Slaney], now the Bay of Wexford, from which the river "Slaney" takes its name. These Firvolgians were called Fir-Gaillian or spear-men as already mentioned; and possessed the counties of Wexford, Wicklow, and Carlow, under the name of "Galenii" or "Galenians." This territory was in after years called Hy- Cinsealach, which derived its name from Enna Cinsealach, King of Leinster at the advent of St. Patrick to Ireland; and comprised the present counties of Wexford and Carlow, with some adjoining parts of Wicklow, Kilkenny, and Queen's County.
    The territories now forming the counties of Dublin and Klldare are connected with some of the earliest events in Irish history: Partholan or Bartholinus, the Scythian, who planted the first colony in Ireland, had his residencie at Binn Eadair, now the Hill of Howth. At this place Bartholinus was cut off by a plague, together with his entire colony; all of whom were buried, according to some authors, at Moy-nEalta or the Plain of Birds, afterwards called Clontarf; but according to O'Brien these people were buried at a place called Tamlachta Muntir Partholain (signifying the burial cairns of the people of Bartholinus), which is now the Hill of Tallaght, near Dublin. Crimthann Niadh-Nar, Monarch of Ireland when Christ was born (see No. 75, page 356). had his chief residence and fortress, called Dun Crimthann or Crimthann's Fort, on the Hill of Howth; and so had Conary the great, the 97th Monarch of Ireland. Crimthann Niadh-Nar was a famous warrior, celebrated for his military expeditions to Gaul and Britain; and brought to Ireland from foreign countries many valuable spoils,; amongst other things a gilded war-chariot, two hounds coupled together with a silver chain, and valued at three hundred cows; according to the Glossary of King Cormac MacCullenan of Cashel, this was the first introduction of greyhounds into Ireland. The ancient Irish kings and chieftains (like their Celtic or Scythian ancestors), as well as those of Gaul and Britain, fought in war-chariots, in the same manner as did Maud (elsewhere mentioned), the famous heroine and Queen of Connaught; and as did the British Queen Boadicea, etc. Numerous memorials of the most remote ages still exist in the counties of Dublin and Kildare, as in all other parts of Ireland; of which full accounts may be found in D'Alton's History of the County, and of the Archbishops of Dublin; Ware's and Grose's Antiquities; Vallancey's Collectanea, etc.
                                                                                                                                              --  CONNELLAN



THE following accounts of the chiefs and clans of Wexford, Wicklow, and Carlow, and part of Dublin, and the territories possessed by each, have been collected from the Topographies of O'Heerin, O'Dugan, O'Brien, O'Halloran, and other sources. It appears that O'Dugan collected part of the topography of Leinster; but it was chiefly compiled by O'Heerin, who says:

"Leath Mogha, the portion of Heber the Fair,
The two southern territories of Erin!
Thus the plain of Leinster is mine;
And each brave man to the Bay of Limerick."

1. O'Tuathail or O'Toole, chiefs of Hy-Murray, an extensive territory comprising the greater part of the baronies of Talbotstown and Shilelagh in the county Wicklow, and extending as far as Almain, now the Hill of Allen, in the county Kildare; thus containing a great portion of the baronies of Naas, Kilcullen, Kilkea and Moone, and Connell, in that county. The O'Tooles were princes of Imaile; of the same race as the MacMurroughs; and like them eligible to be kings of the province of Leinster. The celebrated St. Lawrence O'Toole was of this family. 2. O'Brain, O'Broin, or O'Byrne, were chiefs of Hy-Briuin Cualan (which comprised the greater part of the barony of Ballinacor, called "O'Byrne's Country"), and also the Ranelagh: hence the O'Byrnes were styled lords of Ranelagh. 3. O'Ceallaigh or O'Kelly, and O'Taidhg, chiefs of Hy-Maile [Imaile] and of Hy-Teigh. This ancient family of O'Teigh have anglicised the name "Tighe;" and the O'Kellys here mentioned were of the same race as the MacMurroghs, OTooles, O'Byrnes, etc. The territory of Hy-Teigh was also called Crioch Cualan or "Cualan's Country," which comprised the baronies of Rathdown, Newcastle, and Arklow. 4. MacGiollamocholmog, chiefs of Cualan. 6. O'Cosgraidh or O'Cosgrave, and O'Fiachraidh, other chiefs in Cualan. 6. O'Gaithin, and O'Dunlaing or Dowling (some of this family have anglicised the name "Laing"), chiefs of Siol Elaigh and the Lagan; this territory of Siol Elaigh is now the barony of "Shilelagh," in the south of the county Wicklow. 7. O'Murchada or O'Murphy, chiefs of Crioch O'Felme or Hy-Feidhlme [Hy-Felimy], and of the same race as the MacMurroughs, kings of Leinster. Hy-Felimy extended along the sea coast, and was commonly called the "Murrowes;" and comprised the baronies of Ballagheen in the county Wexford. 8. O'Gairbidh or O'Garvey, other chiefs in Hy-Felimy. 9. O'Cosgraidh or O'Cosgrave, chiefs of Beantraidhe, now the barony of "Bantry," county Wexford. 10. O'Duibhgin, probably O'Dugan, chiefs in Shelbourne, a barony in Wexford. 11. O'Lorcain or O'Larkin, chiefs of Fothart, the territory of the Foharta, now the barony of "Forth," in the county Wexford; the O'Larkins had their fortress at Carn, now the headland called Carnsore Point. 12. O'h-Airtghoile (O'h-Airtghaol: Irish, "the kindred of O'Hart"), anglicised "Hartly" and "Hartilly," chiefs of Crioch-na-gCenel (the country of the clans) or Criochnageneal, a territory "O'Larkin's Country," above mentioned. 13. O'Riaghain or O'Ryan, lord of Hy-Drona, a territory which comprised the present baronies of "Idrone," in the county Carlow. The O'Ryans were styled princes of Hy-Drona and were the stock of the O'Ryans who had extensive possessions in Tipperay. 14. O'Nuallain, O'Nolan, or O'Nowlan, chiefs of Fotharta Feadha, now the barony of "Forth," in the county Carlow. 15. O'Kinsellagh, O'Cahill, O'Doyle, O'Bulger, and MacCoskley, were powerful clans and had large possessions in the counties of Wexford and Carlow. O'Brien or MacBrien, and O'Moore, were also respectable families in Wexford. O'Doran held the high office of hereditary Brehons of Leinster; and, being the judges of that province, had extensive possessions under its ancient kings. Donald Caombanach [Cavanagh], a son of King Dermod Mac-Murrough, succeeded partly to the inheritance of the kingdom of Leinster; and from him some of his descendants took the name of Kavanagh or Cavanagh, or MacMurrough-Kavanagh.



THE counties of Waterford and Wexford were intimately connected with the Anglo-Norman invasion under Strongbow and his followers: Dermod MacMurrough, King of Leinster, after giving his daughter Eva in marriage to Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke (commonly called Strongbow), at Waterford, A.D. 1171, also conferred on him the title of "Heir Presumptive to the Kingdom of Leinster." After Dermod'a death Strongbow succeeded to the sovereignty of Leinster, in right of his wife Eva, by whom he had an only daughter Isabel, who became heiress of Leinster; and was married to William Marshall, earl of Pembroke; who, in right of his wife, enjoyed the sovereignty of Leinster. Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, had by his marriage with Isabel five sons and five daughters; all the sons, namely, William, Richard, Gilbert, Walter, and Anselm, became in succession earls of Pembroke, and lords or princes of Leinster; but all having died without issue, the male line became extinct; the five daughters were all intermarried into noble families in England, and the different counties of Leinster were divided amongst them and their posterity (see "Hammer's Chronicle;" and Baron Finglas's "Breviate of Ireland," in Harris's "Hibernica"). =============================================================

2.-- OSSORY,* OFFALEY, LEIX, or, Kilkenny, King's, and Queen's Counties

THE following accounts of the Irish chiefs and clans of Ossory, Offaley, and Leix, have been collected from the Topographies of O'Heeran, O'Dugan, O'Brien, O'Halloran, and others: 1. Mac Giolla Padruig # or MacGillpatrick, anglicised "Fitzpatrick," princes of Ossory. From the reign of Henry the Eighth down to that of George the Second, the Fitzpatricks were created barons of Castletown, barons of Gowran, and earls of Upper Ossory. 2. O'Cearbhaill or O'Carroll, and O'Donchadha or O'Donoghoe, chiefs of the barony of Gowran and Sliogh Liag, which is probably the barony of "Shillelogher," both in Kilkenny. These O'Carrolls, it is thought, were a branch of the O'Carrolls, princes of Ely; and the O'Donoghoes, a branch of the O'Donoghoes, princes of Cashel. 3. O'Conchobhar or O'Connor, princes of Hy-Failge or Offaley, had a fortress at the green mound of Cruachan or Croghan, a beautiful hill situated in the parish of Croghan, within a few miles of Philipstown, on the borders of the King's County and Westmeath. The O'Connors, princes of Offaley, usually denominated "O'Connors Failey," took their name from Conchobhar, prince of Hy-Failge, who is mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters, at A.D. 1014; and had their chief fortress at Dangan (now called Philipstown, in the King's County), and several castles in other parts of that county and in Kildare. They maintained their independence and large possessions down to the reign of Elizabeth, after which their estates were confiscated. 4. O'Mordha or O'Moore, princes of Laoighis or Leix, were marshals and treasurers of Leinster; and had their chief fortress at Dunamase, a few miles from Maryboro, erected on a rock situated on a hill; a place of almost impregnable strength, of which some massive ruins still remain. Like other independent princes, as the O'Reillys of Brefney, the O'Tooles of Wicklow, etc., the O'Moores coined their own money; and it is stated in Sir Charles Coote's "Survey of the Queen's County," that some of the silver coins of the O'Moores were in his time extant. 5. O'Diomosaigh or O'Dempsey, lords of Clan Maoilughra or "Clanmaliere," were a branch of the race of Cahir Mór, and of the same descent as the O'Connors Failey; and were sometimes styled princes and lords of Clanmaliere and Offaley. The O'Dempseys had their chief castle at Geashill in the King's County, and, among many others in that county, had one in the barony of Offaley in Kildare, and one at Ballybrittas, in the barony of Portnehinch, in the Queen's County. 6. O'Duinn, O'Dunn, or O'Dunne, chiefs of Hy-Riagain [O'Regan], now the barony of Tinehinch in the Queen's County. Some of the O'Dunns have changed the name to Doyne. 7. O'Riagain or O'Regan were, it appears, the ancient chiefs of Hy-Riagain, and who gave its name to that territory; which is still retained in the name of the parish of  "Oregon" or Rosenallis, in the barony of Tinehinch. Of the ancient clan of the O'Regans was Maurice Regan, secretary to Dermod MacMorrough, king of Leinster; and who wrote an account of the Anglo-Norman invasion under Strongbow and his followers, which is published in Harris's "Hibernica." 8. O'Brogharain (anglicised Broghan, and Brougham) are given by O'Dugan as chiefs of the same territory as O'Dunn and O'Dempsey. 9. O'Haongusa or O'Hennesy, chiefs of Clar Colgan; and O'Haimirgin, chiefs of Tuath Geisille: the districts of these two chiefs appear from O'Dugan to have been situated about Geashill and Croghan, in the baronies of Geashill and Philipstown, in the King's County. Another O'Hennessy is mentioned by O'Dugan as chief of Galinga Beag [Beg], now the parish of Gallen, in the barony of Garrycastle. 10. O'Maolchein (anglicised Whitehead), chiefs of Tuath Damhuighe, signifying the Land of the Oxen, or of the two plains: a district which appears to have adjoined, that of O'Hennesy. 11. O'Maolmuaidh or O'Molloy, princes of Fear Ceall or the territory comprised in the present baronies of Eglish or "Fearcall," Ballycowan, and Ballyboy, in the King's County; and formed originally a part of the ancient kingdom of Meath. The O'Molloys were of the southern Hy-Niall race or Clan Colman. 12. The O'Carrolls, princes of Ely O'Carroll, possessed, as already mentioned, the barony of Lower Ormond in Tipperary, and those of Clonlisk and Ballybritt in the King's County; and had their chief castle at Birr or Parsonstown. 13. MacCochlain or Coghlan, princes of Dealbhna Earthra [Delvin Ahra], or the present barony of Garrycastle in the King's County; and O'Maollughach, chiefs of the Brogha, a district which appears to have adjoined MacCoghlan's territory, and was probably part of the barony of Garrycastle, in the King's County, and of Clonlonan in Westmeath. The MacCoghlans were of the race of the Dalcassians, same as the O'Briens, kings of Munster. 14. O'Sionnaigh or Fox, a lord of Teffia or Westmeath. O'Dugan in his Topography gives O'Catharnaigh as head prince of Teffia: hence the name Sionnaigh has been rendered "Catharnaigh" [Kearney]. The chief branch of this family took the name of Sionnach O'Catharnaigh, and, the word "sionnach" signifying a fox, the family name became "Fox;" and the head chief was generally designated An Sionnach or The Fox. They were of the race of the southern Hy-Niall; and their territory was called Muintir Tadhgain, which contained parts of the baronies of Rathconrath and Clonlonan in Westmeath, with part of the barony of Kilcourcy in the King's County. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth the Foxes got the title of lords of Kilcourcy. 15. MacAmhalgaidh (MacAuley, Magauley, or MacGawley), chiefs of Calraidhe-an-Chala or Calry of the Ports: a territory which comprised the present parish of Ballyloughloe, in the barony of Clonlonan in Westmeath. The "ports" here alluded to were those of the Shannon, to which this parish extends. 16. O'Gormain (anglicised MacGorman, O'Gorman, and Gorman), chiefs of Crioch mBairce, now the barony of Slievemargue in the Queen's County. The O'Gormans were of the race of Daire Barach, son of Cahir Mór, Monarch of Ireland in the second century; and some of them settled in the county Clare, where they had large possessions. 17. O'Dulbh or O'Duff, chiefs of Hy-Criomthan: a district about Dun Masc or "Dunamase," which comprised the greater part of the two baronies of Maryboro in the Queen's County. 18. MacFlodhbhuidhe, MacAodhbhuidhe [mac-ee-boy], or "MacEvoy," chiefs of Tuath-Fiodhbhuidhe: a district or territory which appears to have been situated in the barony of Stradbally, in the Queen's County. The MacEvoys were of the Clan Colla of Ulster; and also possessed a territory in Teffia, called Ui Mac Uais (signifying the descendants of Kiug Colla Uais), now the barony of "Moygoish" in the county Westmeath. Some of this family have anglicised the name "MacVeigh" and "MacVeagh." 19. O'Ceallaigh or O'Kelly, chiefs of Magh Druchtain and of Gailine: territories situated in the baronies of Stradbally and Ballyadams, in the Queen's County, along the river Barrow. 20. O'Caollaidhe or Keely, chief of Crioch O'Muighe, situated along the Barrow, now probably the parish of "Tullowmoy," in the barony of Ballyadams, Queen's County. 21. O'Leathlabhair (O'Lawlor, or Lalor) took their name from "Lethlobhar," No. 104 on the "Lawlor" of Monaghan pedigree, who was their ancestor. The Lawlors are therefore of the Clan Colla; and in ancient times had extensive possessions in Leix, chiefly in the barony of Stradbally, Queen's County. 22. O'Dubhlaine (or Delany, Delaune, Delane), chiefs of Tuath-an-Toraidh; and a clan of note in the barony of Upper Ossory, Queen's County, and also in Kilkenny. 23. O'Braonain or O'Brenan, chiefs of Hy-Duach or Idoagh, now the barony of Fassadining, in Kilkenny. 24. MacBraoin (Bruen or Breen), and O'Broith (O'Brit or O'Berth), chiefs of Magh-Seadna. 25. O'Caibhdeanaich, chiefs of Magh Arbh [Moy Arve] and Clar Coill. The plain of Moy Arve comprised the present barony of Cranagh, in Kilkenny. 26. O'Gloiairn or MacGloiairn, anglicised MacLairn or MacLaren, chiefs of Cullain: the name of which territory is still retained in that of the parish of "Cullan," barony of Kells, county Kilkenny. 27. O'Calloaidhe or Keely, chiefs of Hy-Bearchon [Ibercon], an ancient barony (according to Seward) now joined to that of Ida in the county Kilkenny; and the name is partially preserved in that of the parish of  "Rosbercon," in the barony of Ida. 28. O'Bruadair (O'Broderick or O'Broder), chiefs of Hy-n-Eirc, now the barony of "Iverk," in the county Kilkenny. 29. O'Shee of Kilkenny were some of the O'Seaghdhas, chiefs in Munster. 30. O'Ryan and O'Felan were ancient families of note in Kilkenny, as well as in Carlow, Tipperary, and Waterford.  31. Tighe of Kilkenny were of the ancient Irish clan of the O'Teiges, who were chiefs of note in Wicklow and Wexford. 32. Flood of Kilkenny are of Irish descent, though supposed to be of English origin; as many of the ancient clans of the Maoltuiles and of the MacThellighs (MacTullys or Tullys) changed the name to "Flood"--thus translating the name from the Irish "Tuile," which signifies a flood. 33. MacCoscry or Cosgrave, ancient clans in Wicklow and Queen's County, changed their name to "Lestrange" or "L'Estrange." On the map of Ortelius, the O'Mooneys are placed in the Queen's County; and the O'Dowlings and O'Niochals or Nicholls are mentioned by some writers as clans in the Queen's County. O'Beehan or Behan were a clan in the King's and Queen's Counties.


* Ossory, Offaley, and Leix: An account of the ancient history and inhabitants of what constituted ancient Leinster has been given in the Chapter on "Hy Kinselagh;" in this chapter is given the history and topography of the territories comprised in Kilkenny, King's and Queen's Counties, with their chiefs and clans, and the possessions of each in ancient and modern times.
    Ossory comprised almost the whole of the present county of Kilkenny, with a small part of the south of Tipperary, and also that portion of the Queen's County now called the barony of Upper Ossory; and the name of this ancient principality, which was also called the "Kingdom of Ossory," is still retained in that of the diocese of Ossory. Ancient Ossory, according to some accounts, extended through the whole country between the rivers Nore and Suir; being bounded on the north and east by the Nore, and on the west and south by the Suir; and was sometimes subject to the kings of Leinster, but mostly to the kings of Munster. It is stated by O'Halloran, MacGeoghagan, and others, that Conaire Mór or Conary the Great, who was Monarch ot Ireland at the commencement of the Christian era (of the race of the Clan-na-Deaga of Munster, a branch of the Heremonians of Ulster), having made war on the people of Leinster, to punish them for having killed his father, Edersceol, Monarch of Ireland, imposed on them a tribute called Eric-ui-Edersceoil or the Fine of Edersceol; to be paid annually every first day of November, and consisting of three hundred cows, three hundred steeds, three hundred gold-handled swords, and three hundred purple cloaks. This tribute was sometimes paid to the Monarchs of Ireland, and sometimes to the kings of Munster; and its levying led to many fierce battles for a long period. Conary the Great separated Ossory from Leinster; and, having added it to Munster, gave it to a prince of his own race, named Aongus, and freed it from all dues to the King of Munster, except the honour of composing their body guards: hence, Aongus was called Amhas Righ, signifying the King's guard; and from this circumstance, according to O'Halloran, the territory got the name ot "Amhas-Righ," afterwards changed to Osraiqhe, and anglicised "Ossory."
    Offaley or Ophaley, in Irish, "Hy-Failge," derived its name from Ross Failge or Ross of the Rings, King of Leinster, son of Cahir Mor, Monarch of Ireland in the second century. The territory of Hy-Failge possessed by the posterity of Ross Failge, comprised almost the whole of the present King's County, with some adjoining parts of Kildare and Queen's County; and afterwards, under the O'Connors (who were the head family of the descendants of Ross Failge, and styled princes of Offaley), this territory appears to have comprised the present baronies of Warrenstown and Coolestown, and the greater part of Philipstown, and part of Geashill, all in the King's County, with the barony of Tinehinch, in the Queen's County, and those of East and West "Offaley," in Kildare; in which the ancient name of this principality is still retained.

Leix: -- In the latter end of the first century, the people of Munster made war on Cucorb, King of Leinster, and conquered that province as far as the hill of Maistean, now Mullaghmast, in the county Kildare; but Cucorb having appointed as commander-in-chief of his forces, Lugaid Laighis) a famous warrior, who was grandson to the renowned hero Conall Cearnach or Conall the Victorious, chief of the Red Branch Knights of Ulster, both armies fought two terrific battles, about A.D. 90: one at Athrodan, now Athy, in Kildare, and the other at Cainthine on Magh Riada, now the plain or heath of Maryborough, in the Queen's County; in which the men of Leinster were victorious, having routed the Munster troops from the hill of Maistean across the river Bearbha (now the "Barrow"), and pursued the remnant of their forces as far as Slieve Dala mountain or Ballach Mór, in Ossory, near Borris in Ossory, on the borders of Tipperary and Queen's County. Being thus reinstated in his Kingdom of Leinster, chiefly through the valour of Lugaid Laighis, Cucorb conferred on him a territory, which he named Laoighise or the "Seven districts of Laighis:" a name anglicised "Leise" or "Leix," and still retained in the name "Abbeyleix." This territory was possessed by Lugaid Laighis and his posterity, who were styled princes of Leix; and his descendants, on the introduction of sirnames, took the name O'Mordha or O'Morra (anglicised "O'Moore"), and for many centuries held their rank as princes of Leix. The territory of Leix, under the O'Moores, comprised the present baronies of Maryboro, Cullinagh, Ballyadams, Stradbally, and part of Portnehinch, In the Queen's County; together with Athy, and the adjoining country in Kildare, now the baronies of Narraph and Rheban. The other parts of the Queen's County, as already shown, formed parts of other principalities; the barony of Upper Ossory belonged to Ossory; Tinehinch to Offaley; part of Portnehinch to O'Dempsey of Clan Maliere; and the barony of Slievemargy was part of Hy-Kinselagh.
    The territories of Ossory, Offaley, and Leix, are connected with many of the earliest events recorded in Irish history: according to our ancient annalists a great battle was fought between the Nemedians and Fomorians at Sliabh Bladhma, now the "Slievebloom" mountains, on the borders of the King's and Queen's Counties. Heremon and Heber Fionn, sons of Milesius, having contended for the sovereignty of Ireland, fought a great battle at Geisiol, now "Geashill," in the King's County; in which the forces of Heber were defeated, and he himself slain; by which Heremon became the first sole Milesian Monarch of Ireland. Heremon had his chief residence and fortress at Airgiodros, near the river Feoir, now the "Nore"; and this royal residence was also called Rath Beathach, and is now known as "Rathbeagh," near Freshford, in the county Kilkenny. Heremon died at Rathbeagh, and was buried in a sepulchral mound which still remains. It appears that other kings of Ireland in eariy times also resided there; for it is recorded that Ruraighe Mór, who was the 86th Monarch of Ireland, died at Airgiodros. Conmaol or Connalius (No. 38. page 63), son of Heber Fionn, was the first Monarch of Ireland of the race of Heber; he fought many great battles for the crown with the race of Heremon, particulariy a great battle at Geashill, where Palpa, a son of Heremon, was slain.
    Kilkenny was, out of the greater part of Ossory, formed into a county, in the reign of King John; and so called from its chief town; the name of which, in Irish Cill Chainnigh (signifying the Church of Canice or Kenny), was derived from Cainneach, a celebrated saint who founded the first church there in the latter end ot the sixth century.
    King's and Queen's Counties:-- The greater part ot the principality of Leix, with parts of Ossory and Offaley, were formed into the Queen's County; and the greater part of the principality of Hy-Falgia or Offaley, with parts of Ely O'Carroll and of the ancient Kingdom of Meath, was formed into the King's County-- both in the sixteenth century, A.D. 1557, by the Earl of Sussex, lord deputy in the reign of Philip and Mary, after whom they were called the King's and Queen's Counties; and hence the chief town of the King's County got the name of "Philipstown," and that of the Queen's County "Maryboro."

# Giolla Padruig: Some of the descendants Of this Giolla Padruig (or Padraig) have anglicised their name Stapleton.
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