GEOLOGY/PROPHECY: (Allah knows best)
In Koran is prophesied battle that took place exactly were it was said to happen, in lowest place on surface of earth. Palestinian area really has lower plains that is most lowest place in the land from sea-level, near Jerusalem. That is where Byzantium and Persia fought, as Koran predicted:
30:2-4 "The Romans have been defeated- in the lowest (/nearest, "adnal-ardh") land, but they, (even) after their (this) defeat, will soon be victorious- within a few years, with Allah is the command in the past and in the future: on that day shall the believers rejoice."
"Adna" means both words, lowest and and nearest. And this is what happened, after loss of Jerusalem and battle on "lowest land" (614-15 AD) and giving of this prophecy (615-16 AD), it took seven years (622 AD) until Romans had victory at Issus, and two years more (624) until Heraclius carried his victorious campaign to the heart of Persia (and Quraish pagans in Mecca were beaten off at Badr), and this is generally accepted as a "few years" (that does not mean any tight amount of years, although it has been interpreted as 7-9 years after following time-schedule of Romans victories). Heraclius were lazy and into luxurious way of living until almost destroyed his empire, but then he suddenly rose like only to make prophecy of Koran to come true, just to sink back to be nothing after defeating Persians. After Romans lost totally before prophecy, no human could not have predict this kind of turn, and Muslims were openly mockered by Arabian pagans from this prophecy. And how Mohammed could have known that this area (even close to Arabia) is lowest point on land (not under water)?
55:17 "(He is) Lord of the two Easts and Lord of the two Wests:"
This is one very strong proof that author of Koran knew that earth is round. In equator both day and night is 12 hours, and when sun is rising in other side of the globe, it is setting on the other side. There is two sun rising in a 24 hours, for both sides of the globe their own, as there is two sun settings on earth inside 24 hours (imagine sun rising on Europe , and then later on Hawaii when it is dark on Europe, it is still inside 24 hours of date-line in pacific). Also almost half of the earth is covered by Pacific Ocean, so other half is dominated by land mass (as it was stretched or bend into more crescent-like form over earth from more "flattened" single continent), so from view of Hawaii (centre of ocean) west is on eastern coast of China and east is on coast of western America, and so from around Mecca (centre of land concentration) it is other way around, west is on coast of western America and east is on coast of China.
Ibn Tamiyah 1328 AC said that it is opinion of Muslim scholars that earth and all "celestial bodies" are round, because in 21:33 (for example) word "falak" is means spinning wheel, also used as describing young girls breasts. He wrote that people on other side of the earth are not below us (upside-down), as we are not below them, because "celestial bodies" are surrounding central point (markaz), and so north is not upper than south. In Muslim maps north was down and south was up.
57:17 ?Know ye (all) that Allah giveth life to the earth after its death! Already have We shown the Signs plainly to you, that ye may learn wisdom.?
Here might be only description about earth reviving after long time without water (rains), but it could also describe how earth has gone through mass-genocides of species, when almost all life was terminated. Earth was also ?dead? after it had cooled down from lava and fire-ball it was (in constant movement).
FLOOD OF NOAH:
According to Koran flood of Noah only involved people of (prophet) Noah, whole world is not said to have sunk (as in the Bible). Strongest candidate for "people of Noah" might be developed nation found from bottom of Black Sea, which people did not have time to escape when masses of water from Mediterranean Sea flow into it after straits of Bosbor (in place of modern Istanbul) collapsed thousands of years ago. Another good candidate is "lost Atlantis", that has been with high probability (descriptions of "Atlantis" match) located from southern Spain, as it sunk into sea on the coast. Another possibility is plains of Mesopotamia in Iraq, as ground is flushed to sea from very many times larger area than rivers there. Map from near sea-level area looks like there was much erosion hundreds of kilometers from rivers:
3:33 mentions Noah as important messenger among others like in 4:163 and in 6:84. 7:64 (and 21:77+25:37+37:82+53:52) mentions that (only) those who rejected message of Noah (people he was sent to) were drowned, no other except Noah is mentioned to have had "sign" then.
Inheritors of Noah in 7:69 (and in 37:77 "offspring") are only part of people on earth, ancestors of people of Israel. 10:73 people from ark that "inherit the earth" (37:79 "salutation to Noah among the nations") really got it as religions of Abraham (relative of Noah) cover over 50% of worlds population.
11:40 (and in 23:27 "valley overflows"+54:12) "water came forth from the valley" (Shakir translation) could describe how Bosbor-straits broke, also some heavy rain (54:11) and fountains (Yusufali translation) from ground might have gushed forth at same time, "(take) of each kind two, male and female" does not really mention all species of animals or plants in world, it does not mention animals/plants at all, only humans (his family and those who followed Noah), 26:119 mentions only filled ark ("with all creatures" is interpretation of Yusufali), can be it with humans and food and some animals.
11:43 Noah?s son mentioned going to mountains, but he never got that far as waves "came between them", no mention of flood covering mountains. 11:44 earth "swallowing" water and sky "withdrawing" can not be very much water in any sense.
11:48 confirmed that "there will be" (= they will be introduced to) other people that were not in Ark. 17:2-3 confirmed that descendants of Ark are people of Israel, through son of Abraham.
In 29:14 "(Noah) tarried among them a thousand years less fifty" can mean that Noah was with his people for 950 years, or that he was with them last 50 years from millennium, or even that he was with them for time of "thousand years" from view of prophet with Allah, so according to Koran (22:47) ?one day" in Allah?s sight (as Noah was prophet and belongs with Allah), it can be only reason why this "less fifty" is said and not 950 years mentioned straight, so almost one day (if 50 means 5%, 95% from day,
if "fifty" means 50% then half day) trying to preach them (as according to Koran there is only few descriptions about his sayings, 29:18 "duty of the messenger is only to preach publicly", maybe after that day he began to build ark).
In 69:11 interpretiating "you" into mankind is only from Yusufali translation, it could be Noah, or more likely his offspring and so "you" could be addressed to prophet Mohammed who was also offspring of Abraham (so "you" in 69:12 is also maybe addressed to prophet Mohammed only). In 71:25 Allah spoke about certain people of Noah mentioned in aya's 1, 7 and in 23 with their gods.
Notice, in 11:46 Allah told for His prophet that he is "acting like ignorant" despite counseling of Him, so was Prophet Noah sinless? In 71:26 Noah requested that no single one of unbelievers would be left on earth, but Allah gave no answer to that.
18:8 "Verily what is on earth we shall make but as dust and dry soil (without growth or herbage)."
This final drought will be reality at least when sun makes this planet too hot for anything to survive, but scientists also say that if oceans warm too much, methane on bottom of oceans will rise to atmosphere, causing greenhouse-effect that will eventually in time make earth hot like sauna.
99:1-2 "When the earth is shaken to her (utmost) convulsion, and the earth throws up her burdens (from within),"
This also demonstrates that earth is not flat, and it describes maybe earth either crashing with other planet (moon?) or being swallowed by the sun and teared apart by huge gravity, both in distant future, or perhaps it told us use of such terrible weapon that earth will literally burst its inside into space (into orbit, if gravity is not lost).