Topic: 5: HUMAN DEVELOPEMENT
EVOLUTION / HUMAN DEVELOPEMENT: (Allah knows best)
Besides text below, About evolution more shortly in these links too:
EVOLUTION / LIFE IN SPACE IN QUR'AN
BIG BANG AND CREATION OF HEAVENS AND EARTH IN QUR'AN
24:45 "Allah has created every animal from WATER..."
25:54 "It is He Who has created man (/mankind) from WATER..."
Science has found out with global DNA-tests (going with those "back in time") that all humans (from all over the world) have same mother and father they all originate from (in fact in tests only mother can be seen, but there had to be male too), "Adam and Eve", in Islam "Eve" is "Hawwa" that means "original/first mother". Human-like that preceded modern human are hinted in Koran (if in the future, why not before?), in fact it is said in 6:133 that we have been raised from "posterity of other people", were they related to us or not, were there leap of evolution or not, humans were created from "earth ground/clay" meaning cycle of nature that from all our cells have grown, previous species are also part of that, in fact it can not mean anything else, as 37:11 is speaking about all humans created from clay in general level, not just about Adam, and neither in some parts said creation of mankind from semen does not exclude (body of) Adam out, in fact it could be ONLY about (body of) Adam/"Eve", beginning of humans, if there will be human clones that are not from sperm, even though ?semen? could be cell also. Allah said He CREATED man from semen, in past form, body of Adam could have been created on Earth for spirit that were casted out from paradise.
And semen requires womb, by human or non-human, and so that single ?soul?/?person? (Quran) from who we all come from, could have been non-human, invidual "soul"/"person", not Adam/Hawwa, if they had at least one common parent from earlier human-like (and prophet, pbuh, mentioned creation from "male" and "female", that can also mean both ways):
6:133 "Thy Lord is self-sufficient, full of Mercy: if it were His will, He could destroy you, and in your place appoint whom He will as your successors, even as He raised you up from the posterity of other people."
17:99 "See they not that Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, is able to create the like of them. And He has decreed for them an appointed term, whereof there is no doubt. But the unjust refuse but disbelief."
14:19 "..If He so will, He can remove you and put (in your place) a new creation!
Really, those human-like had time appointed at them, none of them survived to this day (although apes did). Allah say in Koran (5:60) that He can create man to apes, so why not other way round, (eventhough according to evolution-theory man is not from apes but from common acestors)? Still after that man would have been created from soil (and from water in beginning of evolution), as were apes before us and those before them, eating and growing with what comes from soil of the earth (and material for soil came from water by another dead plants and animals, as evolution came from there), and by semen, ?nutfah?, that came from food (86:6-7, between ribs and backbone is stomach) and grow in womb. In fact this is only way how Adam came from all these three. Allah said that mankind has been created from single ?soul?/?person? (4:1/39:6), but that person could be not only Adam (Adam is not mentioned there), but earlier human-like relative from who?s sperm (BODY OF) Adam and/or Hawwa were created (?Eve? WAS NOT according to Quran created from ribs of Adam). There actually is femine-form in arabics, so who was first? Are we from offspring of Adam/Hawwa or (ALSO) from their ?father/mother?? Did they have one common parent from earlier human-like?
As you already know, Koran says that Allah created both all animals and mankind (/man) from water (24:45/25:54), and that is where evolution started according to theory. In other places is said that man is created from ground of the earth (23:12, and earth is where all we eat is coming from, that way also producing sperm for us and animals, and everything else in growth and what we are, in fact it can not mean anything else, as 37:11 is speaking about all humans created from clay in general level, not just about Adam, and Adam is not neither excluded from creation according to Koran by ?nutfah?, semen, too), so either there is contradiction or man was created from all (water, clay, semen). Well, many say that Allah "shaped" man from both water and clay with His "hands", but can we take it so literally (as many descriptions in Koran and hadiths we can not)? Would that not happen even if Allah started our evolution "shaping" from water through other animals to two-legged animals, then to earlier human beings, then to modern human through (genetically engineered and changed, leap of evolution) sperm of this earlier human species (Neanderthals?), into molt and shape of nowadays?
3:59 "The similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him: "Be". And he was.
If Jesus (and his seed/embryo) was created into womb of a woman by saying "Be", so in what womb of what human species was Adam created? It could be that this "from ground of the earth" meant that semen drop that grow from what someone got from food (Allah made him to eat by "Be", and so created, 86:6-7 said that semen is developed between backbone and ribs, from food in stomach), then grow as (body of) Adam (in fact it might be only Adam and beginning of humans, as clones might not be from sperm).
?Similitude? can only mean that, as Allah has created everything else also by word ?Be?, so only reason for mentioning it can only be evolution really, in fact 38:72 says that when Allah created Adam He ?breathed? His spirit into him (notice that according to 2:34 immediate command to bow down after that ?breathing? in 38:72 happened only after Adam was told name of things, so maybe his spirit was created before he came to earth in human body, explaining how according to Bible Jesus said he was before Abraham was on Earth) , which can be seen as one thing making difference between modern humans and earlier humans/animals, maybe it is mostly capability to believe in Allah that was given to first modern human coming from womb of earlier human (leap of evolution).
So this "dust", ground, is just recycled. When earth was created, so was that ground, and basics for that ground were created even earlier from stars that died. Those stars were created from (earlier stars and) beginning of universe after big bang, when atoms were created.
According to 21:30, heavens (with heavens?) and earth were together before big bang. "Everything living from water" described how on earth evolution (and so animals and plants, and so eventually dead material on top of rocky ground producing fertile soil, producing later also food and so food eating animals, sperm and eventually humans) had its BEGINNING in water. And so water had its beginning in "nothing" before.
Same pattern is also in description of creation of jinns before creation of humans, they are told to be created from "fire without smoke", and from (earlier) stars (that died) atoms were born, but that does not mean that (at least some) jinns could not be created from water or later than humans, it is just telling about larger SCALE of possibilities in creation, and common "start point" for all those different creations is this "fire without smoke" (and so as it is mentioned, and as humans were mentioned to be created from something that came after stars, from view of Allah creation of jinns happened before humans even though there would be earlier species in space), for all animals most latest common "starting point" for creation is from water, as all animals do not eat food from ground or reproduce by sperm. Common for all humans is at least creation of Adam/Hawwa from sperm.
No matter how you think Jesus was given birth, when Jesus were created into womb, he were definitely created in some mechanical stage of human development, nobody comes from nothing, Jesus was not spirit but man in flesh. So if it were virgin-birth, either God created that sperm into womb directly (from something that Mary ate?), or then Jesus was created already as an embryo/child into a womb, using same materials that exist in our food, and so in ground too.
Matt.22:45 ?If then David calls him 'Lord,' how can he (Jesus) be his son?"
Only possibility could be that spirit of Jesus were born before David, and so Jesus was in ?high rank? compared to David (Jesus is most mentioned prophet in Qur'an). Idea about Jesus being son of David, from descent of David, refutes idea about actual ?son of God?, as if Jesus had no human father, then he did not have genetically background in David that was from family of Joseph. So why would God be his genetic father then, if even David was not? So Jesus confirmed evolution (see my writing Human development, Evolution and there about Jesus saying he was before Abraham), and that he is ?son of God? as Jews understood it, but not son of Allah...
7:24 told that Allah said to Adam and Hawwa "go ye down!", that can be understood as expulsion from paradise to be born in human body from womb, or then unliteral description about state of expulsion from paradise-like place or state (after he was created to paradise on Earth from womb), but it can also have meant that Adam came from different planet, as a seed/embryo to womb (experiencing expulsion trough new birth in earth) or then as a grown man (understanding his existence).
I think this all fine but complete description about evolution is more easier to understand through description about "jinns" (aliens), who were created from FIRE FREE OF SMOKE, and what that might have meant (that their material came from stars that died), and how more general description it needed as scale for (amount of) them is larger, as even animals in Koran is only said to be created from water (not from ground or by semen from it as humans, as some animals are not).
35:1 "Praise be to Allah, Who created (out of nothing) the heavens and the earth, Who made the angels, messengers with wings,- two, or three, or four (pairs): He adds to Creation as He pleases: for Allah has power over all things."
Evolution is said to be continued, Allah can add into it what He wills.
37:11 "Just ask their opinion: are they the more difficult to create, or the (other) beings We have created? Them have We created out of a sticky clay!"
This ayat shows that we really are basically normal animals, we even share 98% of our genes with chimpanzees. So if simps were easy to create, so are we.
ABOUT CREATION OF ADAM FROM RIB, AND ABOUT CREATION FROM "SINGLE SOUL/PERSON" (my answers on sunniforum.com):
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should not hurt (trouble) his neighbor. And I advise you to take care of the women, for they are created from a rib?? Sahih al-Bukhari
First of all, ADAM IS NOT MENTIONED IN THIS HADITH !!! We can not say who?s ribs are we talking about here ! Couldn?t it be that this "creation from rib" is figure of speech, showing how similar both man and woman are in genetic-structure, or describing area (of/around stomach) where sperm had its origin from food eaten (86:6-7 "sperm from between ribs and backbone" = stomach)? Even our bones produce essential products for our body, never forget that. Second of all, mention about creation from ribs IS NOT IN QURAN, and so for it could be not even right hadith as said by prophet (pbuh) himself. There is even risk, that in some point story of creation from bible could have been mixed here, maybe some enemies of Islam could have (tried) even deliberately twist remembering of these hadiths, as Islam were new and powerful competitor for them.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: ?Human beings are the children of Adam and Adam was created from Earth. Allah says: ?O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female
Earth is again food we and our ancestors have eaten, forming our cells. "We have created you from a male and a female" could be referring into previous fact that (BODY OF) Adam/Hawwa (TO EARTH) were created from sperm (coming from food) of earlier "human-like" (NOT MODERN HUMAN!), as dna-tests show this kind of leap of evolution about 200 000 years ago. Notice that "male and female" are not mentioned to be (modern) humans. And notice that these could also mean offspring of Adam and Hawwa (for example if they had different "human-like" parents, or if body of Adam was not father of Hawwa, before spirit of Adam was given to that body from paradise).
?O mankind! Be careful of your duty to your Lord Who created you from a single soul and from it created its mate and from them twain hath spread abroad a multitude of men and women.?
[Surah al-Nisa?: 1]
So what if "al-Hujarat:13 - We have created you from a male and a female" meant offspring of Adam and hawwa, and :
"created you from a single soul"
What if this is that earlier human-like from who's sperm Adam/Hawwa were created, there is only mentioned "single soul/spirit/person", it is not mentioned that "single" were (modern) human/Adam.
"and from it created its mate"
(Body of) Adam and Hawwa had propably same father or mother (may be that another one were different) from these earlier human-like species, from who this creation is said to have happened (culmination point was either one, father or mother, sperm or womb, that both had common in creation eventhough other one might not have been).
"and from them twain hath spread abroad a multitude of men and women"
"Them" is then Adam and Hawwa who were created from that earlier human-like.
Other human developement/properties:
96:15-16 "Let him beware! If he desist not, We will drag him by front of the head ("naseyah"), a lying , sinful front of the head ("naseyah")!
This Sura (given first) told what we now know, that in front part of our brains we make almost all of our moralistic and religious decisions. "Naseyah" means front side of head, sometimes it has been translated as a forelock. This area is developed among last ones in our brains, after/in the end of our puberty (often much after 20 years), so it is easy to understand why according to Islam Allah does not punish those who die young. But Allah knows our weaknesses in case of punishment:
4:56 "Those who reject our signs, We shall soon cast into the fire: as often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for fresh skins, that they may taste the chastisement: for Allah is Exalted in power, wise."
Why here is nothing about burning flesh? Because almost all of our receptors of sense and feeling are in the skin, not in our muscles. Bedouin from 7th century could not have known this even by mutilating himself.
But next is even more convincing, what you can see only by microscope in laboratories:
23:12-14 "Man We did create from a quintessence (of clay); then We placed as (drop of) "NUTFAH" (sperm) in a place of rest, firmly fixed; then We made the sperm into a clot of "ALAQAH" (leech-like structure/something that is clinging like congealed blood), and then We changed the "ALAQAH" into a "MUDGHAH" (chewed-like substance/fetus lump), then We changed the "MUDGHAH" into "IDHAAM" (bones, skeleton), then We clothed the "IDHAAM" with "LAHM" (flesh, muscles), then We caused him to grow and come into being as another creation. So blessed be Allah, the BEST to create!"
"Alaqah" means in Arabic several things. One is "leech-like structure", what embryo resembles in age of few days/weeks. Another is "bend form of thing/attached", that we can notice after embryo is firmly fixed (well attached) in wall of mothers womb, when it is bend like a hook. Third is "congealed blood", and in that stage of "alaqah" cells of embryo begins to form blood-cells going in their vessels. Because blood is joined to its vessel, embryo resembles "congealed blood" (plus previous leech-like structure).
"Mudghah" means "chewed-like substance", and it describes totally appearance of embryo (like chewed gum, that it resembles when it can be seen only by microscope). As known, bones develops under this structure inside of flesh-mass and then (real/final) flesh is put top of it (flesh and bones forming structure). This is what means words "lahm" (unbroken flesh).
The above Ayah explicitly states that the bones are formed first and that this is followed by the formation of flesh or muscles which take their position around the bones (clothing the bones). In fact the primordia or precursors of both the bone and muscle (in the form of myotomes and selertomes) are present together with those of bones and other tissues and organs in a collective primitive structure are formed during the first 40 days and is found in the Mudghah. However, in this stage the primordia of muscle have not yet differentiated into definitive bones and muscles. As they do not have the shapes or forms of bones or muscles, the whole embryo at this stage does not have a human appearance.
During the seventh week- the skeleton begins to spread throughout the body and the bones take their familiar shapes. The embryo then starts to acquire the human appearance. At the end of the seventh week and during the eighth week the muscles take their positions around the bone forms, "definitive muscles of trunk, limbs and head are well represented and foetus is capable of some movement". (Dr.Omar Abdul Rehman)
Embryo goes to a stage, where parts of it is shaped to same size what they are later supposed to be, compared to adults size, and other parts are yet not final size. Maybe this is what is meaning of Sura 22:5, that goes:
22:5 "O mankind! If ye have a doubt about the resurrection, (consider) that We created you out of dust, then out of sperm, then out of a leech-like clot, then out of a morsel of flesh, PARTLY FORMED and PARTLY INFORMED, in order that We may manifest (Our power) to you; and We cause whom We will to rest in the wombs for an appointed term, then do We bring you out as babes, then (foster you) that ye may reach your age of full strength; and some of you are called to die, and some are sent back to the feeblest old age, so that they know nothing after having known (much). And (further) thou seest the earth barren and lifeless..."
15:26 "We created man from sounding clay, from mud molded into shape;"
As we know, we really are originated from dust/dirt of ground, from there grows everything that grows us (including our sperm), shape is in that food we eat or then it describes general forms of humanoid, hands/legs/head/body.
25:54 "It is He Who has created man (/mankind) from WATER: then has He established relationship of lineage and marriage: for thy Lord has power (over all things)."
Evolution started from water, this can only mean that because in other parts Adam is said to be created from mud/dust/dirt/clay of the (dry) earth, and from sperm, Mohammed would not have any reason to be so contradictive. Besides from our body 70% is water, which would be impossible to know or even guess for 7th century Bedouin.
Attachment of woman?s egg into a wall of womb is described perfectly in many places with a word "alaq", that is also name of this Sura given first:
96:2 "Created, out of a leech-like clot:"
"Clot" means also something that is clinging/hanging on. Sometimes used "like congealed blood" is used because of description of hanging on.
33:4 "God has not made for any man two hearts in his (one) body.." -Yusuf Ali
"Allah has not made for any man two hearts within him..- Shakir"
First of all, this was in past-time form. As should be obvious from the above translations, the above verse is actually saying that God has not ?made for? any human being two hearts in their body. There can be no doubt that a person cannot possibly survive with two hearts, even if he is born with them due to some abnormality. The words ?made for..? indicate that no human being is suited to having two hearts, and this is a fact that nobody at all can question or deny. The Quran says that no human being is ?made for having two hearts? not because this might not ever occur, but because a human being could not survive if it did (from which I have not at least ever heard of, one kind of miracle is that it is so rare also). With transplant of new heart there is still only one (active) heart, some could try transplant two hearts (with catastrophe?), although it may not have anything to do with these verses as Allah is not one to create new heart(s) (or has created another heart for some another human originally/ if heart is artificial human-creation, then it would not be created especially for certain human but a separate creation from that), although if He would let someone to place it against His advice.
Other parts in Koran not to take too literally, but as romantic descriptions more likely:
47:29 "....in whose hearts is a disease, ... "
50:37 "....any that has a heart and understanding ....
3:154 "They hide in their minds what they dare not reveal to thee,........ ; but (all this was) that God might test what is in your breasts and purge what is in your hearts. For God knoweth well the secrets of your hearts."
Descriptions about heart should not be taken too literally, as neither many other parts of Koran, because anyway here also is mentioned our minds (and even back then connected to brains) brain functions. Of course our heart have their own nerve impulse-network , as it does have its electromagnetic field, that influences our other cells, but real effect from our hearts to our brains come from blood that it pumps into our brains.
21:34 "We granted not to any man before thee permanent life (here): if then thou shouldst die, would they live permanently?"
So even if we could transfer our minds into electric data or into robot brains, even that will not last forever as universe will end some day. Also accidents and all kind of bad luck will probably be very possible in time of millions of years.
2:96 "Thou wilt indeed find them (wrong-doers), of all people, most greedy of life,-even more than the idolaters: Each one of them wishes He could be given a life of a thousand years: But the grant of such life will not save him from (due) punishment. For Allah sees well all that they do."
Here we are informed that some day we might be able to live for thousand or more years, and with genetic engineering and new medicines it might be possible. Words "grant of such" can mean that we are allowed to pursue longer life through genetic engineering, if common intrest of mankind demands for it (as in space travel). Although Koran advices us not to touch into creation of Allah (His religion), "there is no force in religion" ayat and rules like that one does not have to go for pilgrimage if that is not possible, or that Muslim can even renounce his faith in case of threat, give us permission if it is necessary (but after achieving goal possible damage should be repaired). But longer life will also increase possibility that one could know Islam better, and opportunities to accept it. In western world people live double from that some in Africa. Wonder why...
36:68 "If We grant long life to any, We cause him to be reversed in nature: Will they not then understand?"
Here is told probably about reversing and decreasing in mind / intellectuality when getting old, but it could also be warning about results of genetic engineering (and long age achieved by that), for example our religious activity is inside our brains, so can we be sure that it part(s) of our brains will not be damaged?
75:3-4 "Does man think that We cannot assemble his bones? Nay, We are able to put together in perfect order the very tips of his fingers."
This part of Koran revealed that each human have unique finger tips (finger prints).
12:103 "Yet no faith will the greater part of mankind have, however ardently thou dost desire it."
12:106 "And most of them believe not in Allah without associating (other as partners) with Him!"
Although Muslims are now 33% of Asian population and 50% from African population, and increasing, these ayats are probably speaking only to Mohammed ("thou dost desire") about people in his times. But as you can see, is it not wonder that religion with this much evidence, and truly only world-wide monotheism, is still not yet even biggest religion in the world (officially, religion seems to be more important for most of Muslims than to most people of Christians, which might reflect words of prophet Jesus about "rich man getting his share here in this world" or that "blessed be poor").
"He (the Holy Prophet) said: The reproductive substance of man is white and that of woman (i. e. ovum central portion) yellow, and when they have sexual intercourse and the male's substance (chromosomes and genes) prevails upon the female's substance (chromosomes and genes), it is the male child that is created by Allah's Decree, and when the substance of the female prevails upon the substance contributed by the male, a female child is formed by the Decree of Allah." (Translation of Sahih Muslim, The Book of Menstruation (Kitab Al-Haid), Book 003, Number 0614)"
Most of the time, an embryo growing in the womb fully develops into either a male or a female with all the appropriate body parts and, many scientists believe, a mindset programmed according to its gender. What determines its gender -- in most cases -- are its sex chromosomes: two X chromosomes (another for female from man) in the nucleus of its original egg cell and it will become a female; a Y and an X chromosome (another for male from man) and it will become a male.
32:8 "And made his progeny from a quintessence of despised (/lowly) fluid."
86:6-7 "He is created from a drop emitted- Proceeding from between the backbone and the ribs."
Now we know that sperm is originated from where urine is produced, between backbone and ribs. Many people even think that sperm or that area is despicably/lowly. And we cannot forget that also our sperm is produced from what we eat (from ground), nothing comes from nothingness in us, and so it is originated also from our stomach?s (between backbone and ribs). And a man's seed is the quintessence of his body. It is therefore said metaphorically to proceed from his loins, i.e., from his back between the hipbones and his ribs. His backbone is the source and symbol of his strength and personality. In his spinal cord and in the brain is the directive energy of the central nervous system, and this directs all action, organic and psychic. The spinal cord is continuous with the Medulla Oblongata in the brain. Spinal cord also has essential importance for male sexual capability.
16:4 "He has created man from a sperm-drop, and behold, this comes open disputer!"
18:37 "..Dost thou deny Him Who created thee out of dust, then out of sperm-drop, then fashioned thee into a man?"
This "dust" means either ground or those atoms in food from ground which from this sperm is formed.