Topic: 3: ASTRONOMY 2
51:47 "With power did We construct the heaven. Verily, we are able to extend the vastness of space thereof."
Here is spoken about "heaven" in single form, obviously from our own universe. As we know, our universe is expanding still. According to Koran Allah will also roll up heaven in the end of all (21:104, 69:16, can mean collapsing, or expanding to emptiness and to black holes, and Allah says there that He will "repeat creation" as He "began the first creation"). Maybe mankind has time up until then.
79:30-31 "And the earth, moreover, hath He formed in round shape (/egg shape, "dahaha", round LIKE the ostrich's egg with flat sand around covering the egg from predators). He draweth out there from its water ("ma-aha") and its pasture."
79:31 Says (remember that in some translations interpretation of words is totally different, as arabics give opportunity for it, and so people living in times of ?flat-earth? did not forsake Koran because of this part in it) either that water was draweth from earth creating pasturage for animals (that use pasturage) like dinosaurs (as it does from under surface, after rains/near oceans or rivers for example), or that land (=pasturage) was draweth from water along with water. Later would be case if earth was very "flat" after meteor bombings and forming of oceans (from water in meteors), and so covered by oceans before land started to rise through usual "easing up" after high compressing pressure (from meteors/molten planet/water) and formation of continental plates (colliding together, lifting ground). Sea level has also been 600 meters higher 450 million years ago, and water has came from pieces of earth (pasturage), meteors/comets.
Result from continental plates, only continent of Pangaea and it stretching to pieces, as dry paint stretches in balloon getting bigger, is mentioned on next places (remember that Suras in Koran are not in order as given, Sura 96 was given first), forming of mountains is mentioned in each after these:
80:26 "And We split the earth in fragments (/cleaving it asunder/clefts),"
This told us that earth has been once as one continent, but has been divided with continental plates as in many parts. It is connected into next part:
13:3 "...spread out the earth (/expand the earth, "madda al-ard")..."
15:19 "...the earth we have spread out (like a carpet, "maddadnaha"= "We expanded" or "We spread out"-"madda", which means "to stretch" or to "to expand" or "to spread out".)..."
20:53 "...like a carpet spread out (="mahda" literally means a flat road, or a road that is easy to walk on. It is similar to our highways today. They are easy to drive on.)..."
88:17-20 "....stretched the earth ("sutihat", stretched)..."
Here is demonstrated motion of the earth in space:
77:25 "Have We not made the earth a fast moving object ("kifaata", like bird/horse whose traveler can not control it) with den of storage?"
55:10 "And the earth, is a running object ("wada'aha", like running camel or man) for the creatures"
78:6-7 "Have We not made the earth as a cradle ("mihaada", as cradle in motion) and the mountains like pegs?"
101:4 "It is a day where on mankind will be like moths ("farash") scattered about."
2:22 "Who has made the earth flying ("farsh", like flying insect / also couch), ..."
Earth is like running object/ cradle/ a flying insect which is proving motion of the earth.
80:26 above is connected into next part:
27:88 "And you see the mountains, you think them to be solid, and they shall pass away as the passing away of the cloud-- the handiwork of Allah Who has made every thing thoroughly; surely He is Aware of what you do."
Here is told many things: how mountains move with continental plates ("passing away", and actually clouds do not move but by movement of the earth as clouds are pushed by wind forward, which is affected by rotation of the earth creating winds, so mountains move because inner core of the earth is molten, which is also depended on rotation of the earth), and how mountains will eventually vanish from our sight (to ground level) by erosion as clouds will pass ("pass away") beyond horizon. We have mountains because our planet is not old enough, in billion years it will seem very different. Very interesting in this part is this:
15:19 "And the earth We have spread out (like a carpet); set thereon mountains firm and immovable; and produced therein all kinds of things in due balance."
Although "immovable" is interpretation of translator, this part can be understood in such way. If someone think that this is just writings of ordinary man, why would this man put so much contradiction between these two parts (anyway no "contradiction" if 27:88 is understood only as telling only about erosion or about movement of earth under clouds/mountains, as it is actually Earth moving, not those, and causing for example winds, but man from 7th century were not able to know that and would have meant movement of clouds), as he surely were able to keep other contradictions away? Answer is simple, mountains does not move but earth under them is moving, confirming 27:88. It can also hint for movement of the Earth in space, mountains moving along with it.
78:19 "And the heavens shall be opened as if there were doors,"
In the end universe will be full of black holes. This can also hint for wormholes.
70:8 "On the day when the heaven shall be as molten copper"
This could describe situation near (any habituated) planet when star near it is dying, perhaps in expansion period. Also global warming can lead Earth being hot like Sauna, with methane from seas in atmosphere, into fate of Venus that has yellow/orange sky from view of person looking from surface.
31:10 "He has created the heavens without any pillars that you can see..."
Koran gives a hint (or says NO to it all) that heaven could have "pillars" (which you can not see if there is not any). Science has noticed that space is full of gravitation-disorders, kind of small dots which form wide network of gravitation-behavior what may keep our universe from collapsing. And if some object goes in space certain distance to one direction, then goes same distance to another direction, mass of object stays the same when going to different directions. That is because this object has its own gravity-point, where from pressure to all directions is same. Without this property whole university would collapse. Koran mentions quality of universe:
50:6 "Do they not look at the sky above them? How We have adorned it, and there are no flaws in it? "
Small looking things keep our universe not collapsing or turning to total chaos, small change in Earth orbit would freeze or fry us. Usually in other star-systems big gas-planets have moved closer to sun, and have swallowed small rock-planets. We have got as close to borders of our universe as we can, but beyond certain limits we are not able to see simply because there are not (yet born) anything that could send us any information. Only youngest stars cover sky in its limits, rest in our knowledge is guessing (expanding, birth of stars). We can only imagine what is near or beyond border, can it be crossed?
67:3-5 "He Who created the seven heavens one above another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the creation of The Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw? Again turn thy vision a second time:(thy) vision will come back to thee dull (/tired) and discomfited, in a state worn out. And We have (from of old) adorned the lowest (/nearest) heaven with lamps, and We have made such (lamps) (as) missiles to drive away satans, and have prepared for them the chastisement of the blazing fire."
"One above another" could mean both closely and distant from each others. Vision coming "back" could mean theory that if universe is roundly shaped, light would come back to place where it left (like our eyes) faded ("worn out"). Could "nearest heaven" mean our whole universe or just our own "Milky Way"-galaxy, that can be seen as a belt at night? Could "lowest" mean furthest border in our universe? Rest we will maybe understand more clearly later (ins Allah), there is lots of options what "jinns" mean in Koran exactly, but we can not know even if "thin" area would be area of "forces of evil", as stronger good "central powers" (allied creations) drive them further away from older center in expanding space, to areas of new-born stars (lambs) which make navigation difficult, moving with instability (with out certain permanent, for any but God to know, course or orbit) very fast across space like "missiles"?
Biggest miracle here is that Allah uses word "lamp" to describe (for our eyes) small (further) stars, but in other places calls those stars for example "constellation" (25:61) and simply "stars", but with them also in same place says our own sun as a "lamp". So Allah made clear that stars are also same kind of "lamps" like our own sun, only further away.
69:17 ?And the angels will be on its (heavens) sides, and eight will, that Day, bear the Throne of thy Lord above them.?
This might be meaning that our universe or other heavens (universes/levels/dimensions) above it might have eight corners, as square or as rectangle, or even as a saddle (as scientific research now suggest)
57:25 "We sent down iron, in which is great might, as well as many benefits for mankind, that Allah may test who it is that will help..."
Rocks containing iron bombarded ("sent down") our planet, that gave its final form. Iron has come instrument of war, but also important for development after industrialization, as one benefit for mankind.
6:65 "Say: 'He has power to send tornment on you from above or from under your feet, or to cover you with confusion in party strife, and make you to taste the violence of one another.` See how variously We explain the signs in diverse ways; that they may understand."
This part reminds mostly from meteors, hurricanes and floods (above), plus earthquakes and volcano eruptions (below). Also wars are too common. Bedouin from semi nomadic-desert population knew those (with not much wars by strict tribe-hierarchy, definitely there are no hurricanes/floods/earthquakes/tsunamis/volcanoes in Arabian desert)?
Humankind brought (after their death) to judgment are described (in hadith of prophet,puh) to have sun "close" to them, describing sounds same as predictions about our sun as a "red giant" (before it swallows the Earth), but it is impossible to know if it happens in this planet, world (/dimension) /time as we humans understand them. For gravity affects time, but it does not affect Allah. And judgment of mankind might not be end of ?Judgment Day? for other species in space, until universe disappears.
25:61 "Blessed be He Who has placed in the heaven big stars (constellations/star mansions/star groups), and placed therein a great lamp and a moon reflecting (/giving) light."
When Bible talks about sun and moon as two different light giving object of sky, Koran does difference between them using different descriptions: Light (?nur?), when talking about moon, and torch (siraj), when talking about sun. First one is dead rock that reflects shine of light, second one is formation of heaven, with lots of fuel to burn (like in a torch) in a constant state of burning giving both heat and light (like a torch). Word "star" (najm) is completed by other word, that describes star as burning and moon (reflecting light) when its (stars) light forces its way through shadows of night: this word is "thaqib". Moon is not said to produce light, only reflecting it. Same way Islam can only reflect small proportion of shine from light of Allah, not all in any case.
In Koran "kawbab" seems to mean definitely planets, that are formations of heaven which reflect light and does not produce light like stars. Now we know how structure of heaven is balanced by ordered orbit of stars and stability in (changes of) gravity, which are connected to their mass and speed of own movement.
But isn?t this just what Koran describes when mentioning this basics for this balance of heaven in 21:33 with words, that were understand not before our time:
21:33 "It is He Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon: all (celestial bodies) swim along, each in its rounded course (/each in an orbit floating)."
55:5 "The sun and the moon run on their fixed courses (exactly) calculated with measured out stages for each (for reckoning).
As we now know, sun goes around centre of our galaxy. Koran uses (for example 36:40) words "swim" and "floating", that sounds familiar with theory of space and time, how gravity affects in it by making a "hole" size of mass of celestial object (f.ex. sun), and how this "hole" in space-time field makes other bodies orbiting it to stay on their courses (bigger mass=bigger hole= more further away others have to be on "lower steps", so that too deep downhill in gravity will not swallow it, if too close). When in Europe they "knew" that sun is orbiting earth, this description could have been accepted even through their "science" (37:5 mentions "points of sun?s risings", 365, one for each day).
36:38 "And the sun runs unto a resting place (/runs on its fixed course for a term appointed), for him: that is the decree of (Him), the Exalted in might, the All-Knowing."
81:1-2 "When the sun (with its spacious light) is folded up (/sun is wound round and its light is lost and overthrown); when the stars fall, losing their lustre;"
82:1-2 "When the sky is cleft asunder; when the stars are scattered;"
Koran says that sun travels place appointed to it in time appointed, and also mentions "wrapping up" (like scroll of papyrus) of everything (f.ex. 82:1-2) in the end of all (sun is wrapped before?), could these describe (sun) going to black hole? Theory is that universe either collapses, or it will get wider until it becomes empty, full of black holes swallowing everything. Prophet Mohammed said in hadith that "the sun and moon will be folded up (or joined together or deprived of their lights) on the Day of Resurrection".
39:5 "He makes the Night overlap the Day, and the Day overlap the Night"
Koran uses same verb to describe changes of day and night as is used in Arabic for rolling turban around head, when sheets goes over and over around. This should make impression about round earth, because our heads are also. Ibn Tamiyah said 1328 AC all "celestial bodies" are round, because in 21:33 (for example) word "falak" is means spinning wheel (floating in orbit), also used as describing young girls round breasts.
7:54 "..He draweth the night as veil over the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession.."
Change of night and day, and those being on opposite sides of the earth, gives impression about being "hidden" and "seeking" of others continually. Darkness of night really looks like veil covered when looking from space.
3:94 "Had Allah wished to take to Himself a son, He could have chosen whom He pleased out of those whom He doth create: but Glory be to Him! (He is above such things.) He is Allah, the One, the Irresistible."
Most interesting thing in Astronomy is: Are there other intelligent life-forms in space. It is BIG space, is it waste of space? This part of Koran seems to give certain answer to it, here Allah directly ask that why should he take son from humans, because there are much more developed and intelligent life-forms (whom He is more pleased than to us) that He has created, if He wanted (to conceive) a son? What could Bedouin mean with that 1400 year ago? Camel ? Dog ? Apes thousands kilometers away?