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Index Dutch Bronze Age
Index first farmers in the Netherlands

To be

The search for the Gaulish verb (part3: Results )
By J. Mascitelli, January 2001

To be - the Gaulish verb (part1)
To be - the Gaulish verb (part2)
The Gaulish Verbal System

As a summary I've tabulated the tenses here:
 

Gaulish Verb "To Be" 
verbal noun = es-, esse = to be, being
 
   
Present Tense 
Narrative Voice 
 
Singular.  Plural.
1. imi, immi = I am 
2. esi = thou art, you are 
3. est, estsi, estis = he, she, or it is 
rel. est = he, she, or it is 
1. immus = we are 
2. este = you (all) are 
3. sent = they are 
   
Perfect Voice   
Singular. Plural. 
1. roimi = I am 
2. roesi = thou art, you are 
3. roest = he, she, or it is 
rel. roest = he, she, or it is
1. roimmus = we are 
2. roeste = you (all) are 
3. rosent = they are 
   
Passive Voice   
Singular. Plural.
1. imior = I am 
2. esior = thou art, you are 
3. estor = he, she, or it is 
rel. estor = he, she, or it is
1. immuor = we are 
2. esteor = you (all) are 
3. sentor = they are
   
Subjunctive Voice   
Singular. Plural. 
1. imiutu(s) = if I am 
2. esiutu(s) = if thou art, if you are 
3. estutu(s) = if he, she, or it is 
rel. estutu(s) = if he, she, or it is
1. immutu(s) = if we are 
2. esteutu(s) = if you (all) are 
3. sentutu(s) = if they are 
   
Negative Voice  
Singular. Plural.
1. nimi = I am not 
2. nesi = thou art not, you are not 
3. nest = he, she, or it is not 
rel. nest = he, she, or it is not
1. nimmus = we are not 
2. neste = you (all) are not 
3. nesent = they are not 
   
Interrogative Voice  
Singular. Plural.
1. imine? = I am? 
2. esine? = thou art?, you are?
3. estne? = he, she, or it is? 
rel. estne? = he, she, or it is?
1. immusne? = we are? 
2. estene? = you (all) are? 
3. sentne? = they are?
   
Forms with "ca-"  
Singular. Plural.
1. caimi = until I am 
2. caesi = until thou art, until you are 
3. caest = until he, she, or it is 
rel. caest = until he, she, or it is
1. caimmus = until we are 
2. caeste = until you (all) are 
3. casent = until they are
   
Past Tense  
Narrative Voice  
Singular. Plural.
1. buimi = I was 
2. buesi = thou wert, you were 
3. bueti = he, she, or it was
1. buimu = we were 
2. buete = you (all) were 
3. buont = they were
   
 Perfect Voice  
Singular. Plural.
1. robuimi = I was 
2. robuesi = thou wert, you were 
3. robueti = he, she, or it was
1. robuimu = we were 
2. robuete = you (all) were 
3. robuont = they were 
   
Passive Voice  
Singular. Plural.
1. buimior = I was 
2. buesior = thou wert, you were 
3. buetior = he, she, or it was
1. buimuor = we were 
2. bueteor = you (all) were 
3. buontor = they were 
   
 

To be (part1)
To be (part2) 
The Gaulish Verbal System


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