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Index Dutch Bronze Age
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The Gaulish Verbal System

The Verbal structure of Gaulish is still somewhat of a shadowy area. While we are normally able to recognize verbs in the inscriptions, in quite a few instances it is hard to properly dissect the verb and determine its meaning. For comparison, some Celtiberian [CIB] and Lepontic forms have also been given here.

Examples of Verbal-Forms From Inscriptions

1ST SG.

UEDIUMI [UEDIU - MI "I pray"]
PISSIUMI [PIS-SI-U-MI "I shall see"]
DESSUMIS [DEKS-U - MI-S]
DELGU [DELG-U "I hold"]
REGU [REG-U "I straighten"]
TIOINUORU
GUSSU [GUST-U "I choose"]
IMMI [ES-MI "I am"]
UELOR ["I wish"]
MARCOSIOR [MARCO-SI-OR "I should like to ride"]
LUGE ["I swear"]

2ND SG

GABAS ["you have taken"]
PRINAS ["you have purchased"]
ESI [ES-SI "you are"]
GABI ["take!"]
LUBI ["enjoy!"]
PETI
DA ["give!"]
CARA ["love!"]
EXU ["out!"]

3RD SG

DEDOR ["It is done"]
RATET ["blesses"]
AUOT ["made"]
AXAT [AG-S-AT "it shall go"]
BUED' [BU-E-S-T "shall be"]
BUETID [BU-ET-ID "it is"]
READDAS [RO-AD-DA-S-T "offered"]
IEURU ["dedicated"]
SENIT
SESIT
NEAT
SISTAT
AMBIDISETI (CIB)
CUATI (CIB)
AUSETI (CIB)
LUNGETU
LONCATE
ESTI [ES-TI "is"]
LEGASIT [*LEG-A-S-T-IT "laid it"]
LOGITOE
SIOXTI [*SI-SAG-TI "sought"]
BISSIET
DEUORBUETID [ DE-UOR-BUE-T-ID "conquers"]
KARNITU ["heaped"]
DEDE ["gave"]
SONITI
APPISETU [*AD-PIS-ET-U] "sees"
UERSONITI (CIB)
AS'ECATI (CIB)
ROBISETU (CIB)
BIIETUTU
NEBINTOR
NITIXSINTOR [NI-TIG-SI-NT-OR]
DEDU (LEP) - ["done"]

1ST PL

DIUERTOMU [DE-UERT-OMU "we turn out of"]
BRIGIOMU
OCIOMU
COMEIMU (CIB) [COM-EI-MU "we go together"]

2ND PL

BIIETE ["you all shall be"]
IBETIS ["drink, you"]

3RD PL

SENANT
PETIDSIONT [*PET-IT-SI-ONT]
TIGONTIAS [TIG-ONT + IAS (relative pronoun)]
SISONT (CIB)
SAGITIONTIAS
DUGIONTIO
TONCSIONTIO
BIONTUTU
(I)AXTANT
DILIGENTIR
ELASUNONT (CIB)
IORUS
KARNITUS
LUBITUS
RUSIMUS (CIB)
DATUS (CIB)
DINBITUS (CIB)
OISATUS (CIB)
US'ABITUS (CIB)
DOENTI (CIB)

 

 

Gallo-Greek inscription: ...DOIIA. The text can be dated between 170-91 B.C.E.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coin "Dubnoreix". Dubnoreix (or "Dumnoreix") was a leader of the Hedui (Bibracte, near Dijon) in the 1st century B.C.E.
"Dubno"/"dumno" means "world" so his name meant "King of the world"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sacrifice, 2nd / 1st century B.C.E.: bilangual stone ("schiste"), Vercelli, Italy (more)

GAULISH SENTENCES

Word order in Common Celtic seems to have been more fluid than what we find in the modern Celtic languages, as is evidenced in the following examples.

 

SOV:

[Celtiberian]

uta oscues boustomue coruinomue macasiamue ailamue ambitiseti

(Enclitic) + (Subject) + Nom. sg.(Objects with enclitic suff.) + 3rd Sg. (Verb)


SV:

ESKEGGOLATI ANIATEIOS IMMI
gen. Sg. + nom sg. (Subj.) + 1st sg. Pres. (Verb)
" I am Excingolatos' (inalienable property?) "

GENETA IMI DAGA VIMPI
nom. Sg. Fem. (Subj.) + 1st. Pres. (Verb) + fem. adj. + fem. Adj.
" I am a good and pretty girl"

SVO:

 

LICNOS CONTEXTOS IEURU ANUALONNACU CANECO-SEDLON

nom. sg. Masc. (Subj.) + 3rd Past (Verb) + dat. sg. (Ind. Obj.) + acc. sg. (Obj.)

"Licnos Contextos dedicated for Anualonacos (a) golden throne"

VO:

TARANU DEDE BRATOU DEKANTEM
dat. Sg. Masc (Ind.Obj.) + 3rd sg. Pret. (Verb) + dat. Sg. + accus. Sg. (Obj.)

"For Taranus; dedicated, in thanks, a Tithe"

NEDDAMON DELGU LINDA

(fronted) gen. Pl. neut. + 1st pres. (Verb) + neut. Pl. acc. (Object)

"I hold the drinks of the nearest"

 

VS:

TOMEDECLAI OBALDA NATINA
Past. 3rd Sg. (Verb) + Nom. Fem. (Subject)
"Obalda the youngest daughter set me up"

VOS:

ATEGNATI DRUTIGNI KARNITU ARTUAS' COISIS DRUTIGNOS
(fronted) dat. (Ind.Obj.)+ Past. 3rd Sg. (Verb) + Acc. (Object) + Nom. Sg. (Subject)
"For Ategnatos son of Drutios, Coisis son of Drutios established the burial mound""

VSO:
SIOXTI ALBANOS PANNA EXTRA TUDD CCC
3rd Sg. Past. (Verb) + Nom. Sg. (Subject) + acc. Pl.(Object)

"Albanos sought a lot of 300 vessels"

© 2000 by Christopher Gwinn

 


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