Index Dutch Bronze Age
Index first farmers in the Netherlands
The Gaulish Verbal System
The Verbal structure of Gaulish is still somewhat of a shadowy area. While we are normally able to recognize verbs in the inscriptions, in quite a few instances it is hard to properly dissect the verb and determine its meaning. For comparison, some Celtiberian [CIB] and Lepontic forms have also been given here.
Examples of Verbal-Forms From Inscriptions
[UEDIU - MI "I pray"]
["you have taken"]
["It is done"]
[DE-UERT-OMU "we turn out of"]
["you all shall be"]
Gallo-Greek inscription: ...DOIIA. The text can be dated
between 170-91 B.C.E.
"Dubnoreix". Dubnoreix (or "Dumnoreix") was a leader of the Hedui (Bibracte,
near Dijon) in the 1st century B.C.E.
Sacrifice, 2nd / 1st century B.C.E.: bilangual stone ("schiste"), Vercelli, Italy (more)
Word order in Common Celtic seems to have been more fluid than what we find in the modern Celtic languages, as is evidenced in the following examples.
uta oscues boustomue coruinomue macasiamue ailamue ambitiseti
(Enclitic) + (Subject) + Nom. sg.(Objects with enclitic suff.) + 3rd Sg. (Verb)
GENETA IMI DAGA VIMPI
LICNOS CONTEXTOS IEURU ANUALONNACU CANECO-SEDLON
nom. sg. Masc. (Subj.) + 3rd Past (Verb) + dat. sg. (Ind. Obj.) + acc. sg. (Obj.)
"Licnos Contextos dedicated for Anualonacos (a) golden throne"
TARANU DEDE BRATOU DEKANTEM
"For Taranus; dedicated, in thanks, a Tithe"
NEDDAMON DELGU LINDA
(fronted) gen. Pl. neut. + 1st pres. (Verb) + neut. Pl. acc. (Object)
"I hold the drinks of the nearest"
DRUTIGNI KARNITU ARTUAS' COISIS DRUTIGNOS
"Albanos sought a lot of 300 vessels"
© 2000 by Christopher Gwinn
Note from the editor: