The following is an indepth timeline of Robert's Rebellion, kindly written and provided by Trade Surplus. There are footnotes throughout the work, which are included at the end. All quotes are from the U.S. paperback editions.
1) The Tourney at Harrenhal. Rhaegar and Lyanna fall in love. Eddard and Ashara Dayne fall in love (rumoured) . Jaime is appointed to the Kingsguard and Tywin resigns the Handship .,
2) Rhaegar and Lyanna take off together. Robert and the Starks see it as an abduction.
3) Brandon Stark, on his way to marry Catelyn, goes instead to KL with Elbert Arryn (Jon Arryn's heir) and others where he threatens Rhaegar . Rhaegar is not at KL . He is at the Tower of Joy with Lyanna (speculative, see note A).
4) Aerys takes Brandon and his companions prisoner and demands that their fathers come to their trials .
5) Except for Brandon's squire Ethan Glover, the sons and fathers are killed, including both Starks and Arryns . Rickard and Brandon Stark are killed in a particularly cruel and bizarre fashion. ,
6) Aerys sends for Eddard and Robert, at the time staying at the Eyrie. Jon Arryn refuses to send them and raises his banners in revolt . Starks, Arryns and Baratheons lead the revolt. This is the start of the Robellion.
7) Battles of Summerhall. Shortly after raising his banners, Robert wins three battles in one day and brings prisoners back to SE. Robert converts Lords Cafferen and Grandison from supporters of Targaryen to robels. ,
8) Lord Tyrell and most (all?) of the Reach remains loyal to Targaryen, as does Dorne, though Aerys suspects them and reminds them that he has Elia as hostage ,. Lannisters and Tullys are still uncommitted.
9) Things start to get hot for the Robels in the South. Robert attempts to take Ashford Castle as a bulwark against Highgarden but is defeated when the siege is relieved by Randyll Tarly and Mace Tyrell. Robert moves North (with his army?), leaving SE to Stannis. Loyalist forces under Mace Tyrell and Paxter Redwyne besiege SE , . (Events at Ashford speculative, see note B)
10) Jon Arryn agrees to marry Lysa Tully in return for Tully support in the Robellion ,. (Tully marriage timing speculative, see note C)
11) Battle of the Bells. While fleeing North to rejoin Eddard and Jon, Robert is trapped in Stoney Sept by Aerys' Hand, Lord Connington. Eddard and the allied Tullys attack Stoney Sept. Robert emerges from hiding to join battle. Denys Arryn killed in battle . Robels win a great victory. They then return North (speculative, see note D).,
12) Eddard marries Catelyn and Jon Arryn marries Lysa at the same time. Eddard and Jon return to war ,. (Tully marriage timing speculative, see note C)
13) Rhaegar returns to KL from the South and starts mustering an army. Barristan Selmy and Jon Darry rally Lord Connington's troops at Stoney Sept. At Aerys' command Lewyn Martell takes command of 10,000 Dornishmen marching up Kingsway.
14) North of the Trident are Starks, Arryns, Tullys and maybe Baratheons. South of the Trident are Rhaegar's newly mustered army, Lewyn Martell's Dornishmen and the troops Jon Darry rallied at Stoney Sept, 40,000 in all including 4,000 knights . Tyrells are still maintaining siege of SE. After close to a year of siege, Davos brings some fish and onions ,,,.
15) Battle of the Trident. The Robels defeat the loyalists in the key battle of the Robellion. Rhaegar is killed . Robert is wounded. Remnants of Targaryen army flee South to KL. Eddard pursues ,.
16) At Aerys' command, Ser Willem Darry takes the Queen and Viserys to DS.,
17) Lannisters get to KL before Eddard . Aerys lets them into the city and they betray him . Jaime slays the King after he orders his Hand, Lord Rossart of the pyromancers, to incinerate the city . Jaime also kills Rossart ,. Amory Lorch and Gregor Clegane kill Elia of Dorne, Princess Rhaenys and Prince Aegon ,,. Eddard arrives at KL.
18) Robert arrives at KL sometime later. Robert and Eddard fall out over killing of Rhaegar's children. Eddard goes South to fight last battles alone.
19) Eddard raises the siege of SE. Tyrells surrender to Eddard.
20) Eddard, Howland Reed and 5 others reach the Tower of Joy. They kill Ser Oswell Whent, Ser Gerold Hightower and Ser Arthur Dayne, all of the Kingsguard. Inside Eddard finds Lyanna dying in her bed of blood and promises her something.,
21) Eddard takes Ser Arthur's sword Dawn to Starfall . Ashara Dayne throws herself into the sea ,.
22) Daenerys' mother dies giving birth to her . Targaryen fleet is smashed in a storm. Stannis builds a fleet to assail DS. Ser Willem Darry flees DS with Viserys and Daenerys before they can be betrayed .
23) Eddard and Robert are reconciled over Lyanna's death . Eddard returns North, picking up Catelyn and his son Robb on the way. He also has Jon Snow with him.
Note A. Rhaegar and Lyanna at the Tower of Joy.
Rhaegar is not at KL when Brandon Stark comes calling. The next we hear of him is when he returns to KL from the South after the Battle of the Bells. Eddard finds Lyanna at the Tower of Joy. I speculate that Rhaegar was enjoying himself at the Tower from the time he abducted/eloped with Lyanna until the Battle of the Bells. I further speculate that Lyanna stayed there for the duration of the Robellion. When Rhaegar returned to KL, he left his three Kingsguard behind to guard his newborn or soon to be born child.
Note B. The Siege of Ashford.
The strategy at Ashford is mostly speculation. Since the battle was won mostly by Randyl Tarly's van we can assume that Robert was in possession of the field before the battle and was driven off by Tyrell. We can further assume that Robert would have been greatly outnumbered by Tyrell's entire host since he was defeated by just the van. If Robert had held the castle before the battle he would likely have retreated inside when faced with overwhelming numbers of foes or when the battle turned against him. Also, Ashford is sworn to Highgarden so Lord Ashford was likely a loyalist. From this I speculate that Robert was attempting to take the castle from the loyal Lord Ashford when Mace Tyrell arrived to relieve the siege. I speculate that Robert's reason for taking the castle was to provide a defence to the Stormlands against attack from the Reach.
Note C. The Tully Marriages.
We know from  that Hoster Tully fought for the Robels at the Battle of the Bells. Jon Arryn must have at least agreed to marry Lysa by this time, thus securing the Tully swords. However, the wording of  seems to suggest that Jon Arryn's cousin had died at the Battle of the Bells before the double wedding. I am therefore provisionally putting the betrothal before the BotB and the wedding after. This is an uncertain timing at best.
Note D. Aftermath of Battle of the Bells
At the Battle of the Trident the Robels were on the North bank. Robert was fleeing North when traped in Stoney Sept. Jon Darry rode to Stoney Sept after the battle to rally the defeated loyalists. Since Jon Darry would not have ridden to Stoney Sept if the Robels had still been in the vicinity I speculate that the Robels had moved on. Since Robert was going North when he was trapped and Robels later show up North of the Trident, I speculate that the Robels moved Northwards.
All page numbers are from the Bantam Books paperbacks. The total nmber of pages for each book, including prologue but excluding appendices, is given. Divide page numbers by the liste divider to get approximate US hardcover page numbers.
A Game of Thrones (807 pages) Hardcover divider 1.2
1. Jon Arryn raises banners in revolt rather than surrender Eddard and
Robert - Catelyn p25
2. Viserys and Queen flee to Dragonstone. Targaryen fleet smashed in storm. Dany born on DS. Ser Willem Darry takes Dany and Viserys to Braavos before the garrison betrays them. - Daenerys p30-31
3. Brandon Stark killed by Aerys Targaryen days before he was to wed Catelyn. Eddard found Lyanna on her deathbed. Robert killed Rhaegar at the Trident - Eddard p43-44
4. Eddard carried Ser Arthur's sword to Starfall where Ashara Dayne waited. - Catelyn p65
5. Eddard claims Jon's mother was called Wylla. - Eddard p110
6. Robert and Eddard fall out when Tywin presents Robert with corpses of Rhaegar's wife and children. Eddard fights the rest of the battles in the South alone. Lyanna's death later reconciles them. - Eddard p112
7. Eddard pursues remnants of Rhaegar's forces to KL. Tywin Lannister takes KL by treachery. Jaime Lannister kills Aerys and sits on Iron Throne. - Eddard p115-117
8. The Darrys fought for the Targaryens. 3 Darrys dies at the Trident. - Eddard p154
9. Ser Alliser Thorne fought for Targaryen at KL. - Tyrion p204
10. Rumour says Gregor Clegane killed Elia and her children at KL. - Eddard p313
11. Ser Barristan killed a dozen friends of Robert and Eddard at the Trident. - Eddard p353
12. Lyanna predicts Robert will cheat on his wife. - Eddard p379
13. Rhaegar had 4,000 knights and 36,000 archers, freeriders and footsoldiers at the Trident. - Daenerys p388
14. Eddard, Howland Reed and 5 others fight Oswell Whent, Gerold hightower and Arthur Dayne, all Kingsguard, at the tower of joy. - Eddard p424-427
15. Queen dies giving birth to Dany. - Daenerys p497
16. Rhaegar won the Tourney at Harrenhal. He presented the laurel of blue roses to Lyanna. - Eddard p630-631
A Clash of Kings (959 pages) Hardcover divider 1.37
20. Tyrell and Redwine besieged Stannis at SE for close to a year when Davos brought his onions. - Prologue p11
21. Mace Tyrell and Paxter Redwyne lead the siege of SE. Stannis built a fleet to take DS. - Prologue p17
22. It is common knowledge that Gregor Clegane killed Elia and babe. - Tyrion p276-277
23. 200 jars of wildfire were placed beneath the Sept of Baelor. - Tyrion p309
24. Davos brought food to SE. - Davos p619
25. Catelyn married Eddard sight unseen and sent him off to war straight away. - Catelyn p650
26. Ashara Dayne of Starfall, rumoured to be Jon's mother, is long dead. - Catelyn p655
27. In a vision, Rhaegar sings to his newborn son. - Daenerys p701
28. Brandon Stark rode to KL, caling on Rhaegar to 'come out and die' for what he did to Lyanna. Rhaegar wasn't there. Aerys arrested him, Elbert Arryn (Jon's heir) and others. He killed them all plus their fathers. Aerys killed Rickard and Brandon Stark in particularly cruel and bizarre fashion. - Catelyn p797-798
29. Rhaegar played the harp. His son Aegon, daughter Rhaenys and wife Elia of Dorne were all killed. - Daenerys p875-876
A Storm of Swords (1128 pages) Hardcover divider 1.2
33. Jon Arryn and Eddard marry the Tullys on the same day then go to rejoin Robert's rebellion. Jon Arryn's nephew and heir killed at KL with Brandon Stark, his cousin killed at Battle of the Bells, before his marriage to Lysa. Marrying Lysa is price Jon Arryn pays to get Hoster Tully to join the rebellion. - Catelyn p38-39
34. Rhaegar read a scroll and decided to become a warrior. - Daenerys p111-112
35. Davos brought Stannis fish at SE when Tyrell had him under siege. - Davos p144
36. Jaime joined the Kingsguard at the Tourney of Harrenhal. Tywin resigned the Handship. Aerys had four more Hands. Jaime killed Rossart, the last. Jaime then killed the King. - Jaime p156-160
37. Randyll Tarly, leading Mace Tyrell's van, defeats Robert indecisively at Ashford. 38. The Tourney of Harrenhal. Rhaegar and Lyanna probably fell in love. - Bran p338-342
39. Battle of the Bells at Stoney Sept. Robert was trying to rejoin Eddard. Lord Connington, the Hand whose arms included a griffin, took the town but Eddard and Hoster retook it. Denys Arryn died in the battle. - Arya p395-396
40. At Summerhall Robert won three battles in one day and brought prisoners back to SE. Robert converts Lords Cafferen and Grandison from supporters of Targaryen to rebels. Lord Cafferen was later killed at Ashford Castle by Randyll Tarly. Lord Grandison was wounded later on the Trident. - Davos p492-493
41. Siege of SE continues past fall of KL. - Davos p496
42. Robert rebels for pride and love/lust for Lyanna. - Jaime p505
43. "Dancing Griffins" lost the Battle of the Bells and Aerys realised Robert was a great threat. Aerys sends Lewyn Martell to take command of 10,000 Dornishmen coming up the Kingsroad. Jon Darry and Barristan Selmy rode to Stoney Sept to rally remains of "Dancing Griffins" men. Rhaegar returned from South and marshalled an army. Aerys called on Lannisters but got no reply. - Jaime p505-506
44. Aerys placed wildfire thoughout KL. - Jaime p506
45. Aerys suspected Lewyn Martell of betraying Rhaegar on the Trident. - Jaime p506
46. Eddard raced South with Robert's van after Trident but Tywin got to KL first. - Jaime p507
47. Jaime killed Rossart, the pyromancer Hand, then killed Aerys, then hunted down and killed the other pyromancers who planted the wildfire. - Jaime p507
48. Jon Arryn went to Sunspear the year after Robert took the throne. - Tyrion p527
49. Ashara Dayne, sister of Arthur Dayne, may have fallen in love with Eddard at the Tourney of Harrenhal. After Arthur Dayne died but before before Ned Dayne was born she threw herself into the sea. - Arya p597-598
50. Lord Goodbrook, a Tully bannerman, stayed loyal to Targaryen. Hoster Tully attacked him. - Arya p599
51. When Robert went to raise his banners he heard of the meeting at Summerhall and rode out to defeat the three lords before they could unite. - Davos p734
52. Amory Lorch killed princess Rhaenys. Gregor Clegane killed Elia and Prine Aegon. - Tyrion p910-911
53. Ser Barristan was wounded on the Trident, fighting for Rhaegar. - Jaime p915
54. Jaime joined the Kingsguard at 15. Jaime killed King Aerys. - Jaime p915
55. Jon Arryn married Lysa Tully for Hoster Tully's swords. - Sansa p1111