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Schizophrenia Disorder

Diagnostic criteria - Schizophrenia Disorder

A. Characteristic symptoms: Two (or more) of the following, each present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated):

(1) delusions
(2) hallucinations
(3) disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence)
(4) grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior
(5) negative symptoms, i.e., affective flattening, alogia, or avolition

Note: Only one Criterion A symptom is required if delusions are bizarre or hallucinations consist of a voice keeping up a running commentary on the person's behavior or thoughts, or two or more voices conversing with each other.

B. Social/occupational dysfunction: For a significant portion of the time since the onset of the disturbance, one or more major areas of functioning such as work, interpersonal relations, or self-care are markedly below the level achieved prior to the onset (or when the onset is in childhood or adolescence, failure to achieve expected level of interpsonal, academic, or occupational achievement).

C. Duration: Continuous signs of the disturbance persist for at least 6 months. This 6-month period must include at least 1 month of active-phase symptoms) and may include periods of prodromal or residual symptoms. During these prodromal or residual periods, the signs of the disturbance may be manifested by only negative symptoms or two or more symptoms listed in Criterion A present in an attenuated form (e.g., odd beliefs, unusual perceptual experiences).

D. Schizoaffective and Mood Disorder exclusion: Schizoaffective Disorder and Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features have been ruled out because either (1) no Major Depressive, Manic, or Mixed Episodes have occurred concurrently with the active-phase symptoms; or (2) if mood episodes have occurred during active-phase symptoms, their total duration hs been brief relative to the duration of the active and residual periods.

E. Substance/general medical condition exclusion: The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition.

F. Relationship to a Pervasive Developmental Disorder: If there is a history of Autistic Disorder or another Pervasive Developmental Disorder, the additional diagnosis of Schizophrenia is made only if prominent delusions or hallucinations are also present for at least a month (or less if successfully treat). (p. 285-6)

(1994) American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic And Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association

Links to Schizophrenia Disorder websites:
  • A Review of Schizophrenia
  • The Abnormal Schizophrenic Brain
  • Adjunctive Treatments in Schizophrenia: Pharmacotherapies and Electroconvulsive Therapy
  • All About Schizophrenia - Mental Health Net
  • Altered Neural Circuits in Schizophrenia
  • At Risk for Psychosis
  • Blood Mismatch May Cause Schizophrenia
  • Brain Anatomy and Schizophrenia: New Data
  • British Columbia Schizophrenia Society - Victoria Branch
  • C-Sections Urged For Schizophrenia-Prone Mothers
  • Case History: Reducing Depot Treatment
  • Catherine's Depression and Mental Health Homepage
  • Clozapine Comes With Money-back Offer
  • Cognitive Loss in Schizophrenia
  • Conventional Antipsychotic Medications for Schizophrenia
  • Coping with Schizophrenia
  • Cost of Relapse in Schizophrenia
  • Deinstitutionalization: What Will It Really Cost?
  • Diagnosis
  • Doctor's Guide to Schizophrenia Information & Resources/
  • Drug Can Reduce Cost of Treating Schizophrenia by $8,000 a Year
  • Drug Makers Go Head to Head Over Best Schizophrenia Treatment
  • Earlier Detection and Intervention in Schizophrenia
  • Early Detection & Intervention for Initial Episodes of Schizophrenia
  • Early Intervention Key in Psychosis Program
  • Excerpts From "Surviving Schizophrenia"
  • The Experience of Schizophrenia
  • Facts for Families
  • Families in the Treatment of Schizophrenia
  • Family Interventions for Schizophrenia
  • Friends
  • Futurcom in Psychiatry
  • High Price of Hunger
  • How Much Does Insight Matter?
  • Hurt Brains and Schizophrenia
  • An Innovative Approach to Vocational Rehabilitation
  • Insight from a Schizophrenia Patient with Depression
  • Is Schizophrenia New in the World?
  • Internet Mental Health: Schizophrenia
  • Lack of Support for Relatives
  • Learning How to Work
  • Living with Schizophrenia
  • Long-Acting Depot Neuroleptics
  • Low-dose Strategy Can Benefit Schizophrenics
  • Managing Schizophrenia
  • MEDLINE Plus - Schizophrenia
  • Mental Health Clinical Research Center, University of Iowa (Iowa MH-CRC)
  • Mental Health Articles - Schizophrenia
  • Mysteries of Tardive Dyskinesia
  • National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD)
  • National Institute of Mental Health
  • National Schizophrenia Fellowship
  • Nervous System Disease and Mental Health Resources
  • New Clinician/Patient Tools being Developed for Prospective Monitoring
  • Newsgroup:
  • The New Pharmacology of Schizophrenia
  • New Schizophrenia Drug OK'd
  • The Outcome of Schizophrenia
  • Paranoid Conditions: A Guide for Families
  • Poor Treatment = Increased Criminality
  • Positive and Negative Symptoms: A Follow-Up
  • The Prodromal Phase of First-episode Psychosis
  • Psychological Interventions for Schizophrenia
  • Rh and Schizophrenia
  • Risk Factors for Schizophrenia
  • Risk Factors of Psychosis
  • Risperdal® Oral Formulation New Treatment Option
  • Risperidone (RISPERDAL) Patient/Family Information
  • Risperidone (RISPERDAL): Schizophrenia Management Plan
  • Risperidone: Efficacy and Safety
  • The Royal College of Psychiatrists 'Help is at Hand' Leaflet Series
  • Schizoaffective Disorder
  • Schizoaffective Disorder
  • The Schizophrenia Homepage
  • The Schizophrenia Homepage
  • Support for carers
  • Schizophrenia: A Handbook For Families
  • Schizophrenia Society of Canada
  • Schizophrenia Australia
  • Schizophrenia- University of Groningen Research Project
  • Schizophrenics Anonymous
  • Schizophrenia Society of Ontario
  • The Schizophrenia Home Page
  • Schizophrenia Fellowship of NSW, Inc.
  • Schizophrenia Support Organizations
  • Schizophrenia Digest
  • SCHIZOPHRENIA - Open the Doors
  • Schizophrenia
  • Schizophrenia
  • Schizophrenia and Homelessness
  • Schizophrenia and the Hunger Winter
  • Schizophrenia and the Sexes
  • Schizophrenia, Male and Female
  • Schizophrenia: A Handbook For Families
  • Schizophrenia: Courses and Outcome
  • Schizophrenia: Early Signs
  • Schizophrenia: Early Warning
  • Schizophrenia: Hidden Torment
  • Schizophrenia: Questions And Answers
  • Schizophrenia: Rehabilitation
  • Schizophrenia: Returning Home
  • Schizophrenia: Symptoms and Management at Home
  • Schizophrenia: The Medications
  • Schizophrenia: Understanding The Disease
  • Schizophrenia: Youth's Greatest Disabler
  • Schizophrenic Women and Men
  • Smoking and Schizophrenic Patients
  • Study Sheds Light on Why Thoughts Go Awry in Schizophrenia
  • Time Trends in Schizophrenia
  • Treatment
  • Treatment of Schizophrenia 1999
  • Two Roads to Schizophrenia
  • Understanding & Responding to Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • Understanding Schizophrenia: A Guide for People with Schizophrenia and Their Families
  • VA-Yale Schizophrenia Biological Research Center
  • Vitamin E in Tardive Dyskinesia
  • Vocational Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia
  • Watching Where the Money Goes
  • What is Schizophrenia?
  • You Have Been Asking About ... Risperidone
  • Young Adults Experiencing Psychosis Remain Undiagnosed


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    [ Schizophrenia | Schizophrenia Subtypes | Schizoaffective Disorder | Delusional Disorder ]
    [ Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders ]
    ** Please use caution when reading any of the disorders listed above.
    Do not panic because you find a couple of symptoms that match a specific personality disorder.
    We all have symptoms that can apply to one or another disorder
    but what makes it a disorder is a "pervasive pattern"
    and that is how the psychiatrists and psychologists
    determine if it is a specific disorder.**
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