of Pierce Mill by the Miller,
"Or Why I Learned to Love Oliver Evans and Hate the Past."
Milling Process and Methods of Milling at the Time of Pierce Mill
The milling process is simple, it can be divided into three steps:
Grinding other Grains: The meal box sifter most often was used
for these types of grains.
1. Corn, field corn used to grind into corn meal. A corn mill which had
one millstone and ground just ground corn, often called a "corn cracker."
There is a regional differences to the milling of corn.White corn is milled
in the South, while yellow corn is milling in the North. In central and
eastern Pennsylvania, they mill roasted corn into meal. Corn is the poorest
in nutritional of the cereal grains. It has no export value. In Europe corn
is mainly used for animal feeds and is almost unknown as a human food product.
Corn is the English word for grain, mainly wheat, rye, oats, or barley.
When talk of our corn they call it maze. In England, a corn mill would grind
anything but what we call corn or maze. Corn contains no explosive dust.
Products from the milling of corn are: 1. Corn meal (bolted and unbolted).
2. Corn flour (bolted). 3. Corn grits (cereal). 4. Corn bran (used mainly
for animal feeds).
2. Buckwheat, is not a cereal grain, it is a flowering herb, used as a cereal
grain. Buckwheat in German is "buckweizen" meaning "beech
wheat" because of its similarity in appearance to beech nuts. A three
sided seed. Buckwheat originated in central Asia, spread to China and Japan.
Then it was taken to Europe in the middle ages. The Dutch and German settlers
brought it to New Amsterdam (America) in 1626. Buckwheat is call by the
farmers, "the poor man's crop" because sometimes its yield is
not as much as they planted. It will grow on rocky and poor soils where
other crops will not grow. Buckwheat is nutritionally superior to the other
cereal grains. It is natures highest source of natural protein in the plant
kingdom. It does not contain gluten for those allergic to wheat. Buckwheat
also is sold in Eastern Europe as Kasha, which is roasted buckwheat groats.
Buckwheat contains no explosive dust but it is very dust when milled. The
bolting of buckwheat requires finer screens than that are used for making
whole wheat flour. The products of buckwheat are: 1. Buckwheat flour (bolted).
2. Buckwheat cereal or middlings. 3. Buckwheat hulls (a non-digestable food
3. Rye, a hardy annual, is widely grown for grain and as a cover crop. Rye
is most often used in bread making and rye whiskey. Rye has a problem with
the fungus ergot which is similar to the chemical composition of LSD. It
is not effected by the milling or the baking process. Rye is also used in
making pumpernickel breads. The products of rye are" 1. Rye flour and
whole rye flour (bolted). 2. Rye meal and pumpernickel flour (bolted). 3.
4. Barley, a cereal grain is used in malt beverages, in breakfast foods
and soups. Barley is often sold as "pearled" barley which means
that the bran is rubbed off. The products of barley are: 1. Barley flour
(bolted). 2. Barley cereal.
4. Oats, a cereal grain, which a reed instruments are made from oat straw.
Oats can be ground into flour but it is mainly used as a porridge (meal
made from oats) made from millstone ground or rolled oats. Rolled oats,
a new process milled on smooth roller mills, and quick oats is rolled oats
ran through a roller mill cutting the oats into three to five pieces, thus
reducing the cooking time. Oats have problems with moisture in the storage
and milling of its products. Oats are covered in a hull, which is totally
non eatable. To remove the oat hull, often the oats are roasted in a kiln
to crack open the hull, then it is run through a pair of hulling stones
to separate the hulls from the oats. The millers knew for years that oat
bran was good for people before it was discovered by nutritionalist. Some
products made form oats are: 1. Oat flour (bolted). 2. Oat meal (millstone
and roller milled). 3. Oat bran.
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Copyright 2002 by T.R. Hazen.