from the Panorama of Professions and Trades;
or Every Man's Book, by Edward Hazen.
Preface; The Agriculturist; The Horticulturist;
The Miller; The Baker; The Confectioner;
The Brewer, and the Distiller; The Butcher; The Tobacco Planter, and the
Tobacconist; The Manufacturer of Cloth; The Dryer, and the Calico Printer;
The Hatter; The Rope Maker; The Taylor; The Milliner, and the Lady's Dress-Maker;
The Barber; The Tanner, and the Currier; The Shoe and Boot Maker; The Saddler
and Harness Maker, and the Trunk-Maker; The Soap Boiler, and the Candle-Maker;
The Comb-Maker, and the Brush-Maker; The Tavern-Keeper; The Hunter; The
Fisherman; The Shipwright; The Mariner; The Merchant; The Auctioneer; The
Clergyman; The Attorney at Law; The Physician; The Druggist and Apothecary;
The Dentist; and The Teacher.
The Musician, and the Musical Instrument Maker; The Sculptor; The Painter;
The Engraver; The Copperplate Printer; The Lithographer; The Author; The
Printer; The Type Founder; The Stereotyper; The Paper Maker, and the Bookbinder;
The Bookseller; The Architect; The Carpenter; The Stone-Mason, and the Brick-maker,
& etc.; The Painter, and the Glazier; The Turner; The Cabinet-Maker,
and the Upholsterer; The Chair-Maker; The Carver, and the Glider; The Cooper;
The Wheelwright; The Potter; The Glass-Blower; The Optician; The Goldbeater,
and the Jeweller; The Silversmith, the Button Maker, & etc.; The Tin-Plate
Worker, & etc.; The Iron-Founder; The Blacksmith, and the Nailer; The
Cutler; The Gunsmith; and The Veterinary Surgeon.
The following work has been written for the use of schools and families,
as well as for miscellaneous readers. It embraces a class of subjects in
which every individual is deeply interested, and with which, as a more philosophical
inspector of the affairs of men, he should become acquainted.
They, however, challenge attention by considerations of greater moment than
mere curiosity; for, in the present age, a great proportion of mankind pursue
some kind of business as means of substance or distinction; and in this
country especially, such pursuit is deemed honorable and, in fact, indispensable
to a reputable position in the community.
Nevertheless, it is a fact that cannot have escaped the attention of persons
of observation, that many individuals mistake their appropriate calling,
and engage in employment for which they have neither mental nor physical
adaptation; some learn a trade who should have studied a profession; others
study a profession who should have learned a trade. Hence arise, in a great
measure, the ill success and discontent which so frequently attend the pursuits
For these reasons, parents should be particularly cautious in the choice
of permanent employment for their children; and, in every case, capacity
should be especially regarded, without paying much attention to the comparative
favor in which the several employments may be held; for a successful prosecution
of an humble business is far more honorable than inferiority or failure
in one which may be greatly esteemed.
To determine the particular genius of children, parents should give them,
at least, a superficial knowledge of the several trades and professions.
To do this effectually, a systematic course of instructions should be given,
not only at the family fireside and in the schoolroom, but also at places
where practical exhibitions of the several employments may be seen. These
means, together with a complement literary education, and some tools and
other facilities for mechanical operations, can scarcely fail of furnishing
clean indications of intellectual bias.
The course just proposed is not only necessary to a judicious choice of
a trade or profession, but also as means of intellectual improvement; and
as such it should be pursued, at all events, through the choice of an employment
where not in view.
We are endowed with a nature composed of many faculties both of the intellectual
and the animal kinds, and the reasoning faculties were originally designed
by the Creator to have the ascendancy. In the present moral condition of
man, however, they do not commonly maintain their right of precedence. This
failure arises from imbecility, originating, in part, from a deficiency
in judicious cultivation, and from the superior strength of the passions.
This condition is particularly conspicuous in youth, and shows itself in
disobedience to parents, and in various other aberrations from moral duty.
If, therefore, parents would have their children act a reasonable part,
while in the minority, and, also, after they have assumed their stations
in manhood, they must pursue a course of early instruction, calculated to
secure the ascendancy of the reasoning faculties.
The subjects for instruction best adapted to the cultivation of the young
mind are the common things with which we are surrounded. This is evident
from the fact, that it uniformly expands with great rapidity under their
influence during the first three or four years of life; for, it is from
them, children obtain all their ideas, as well as a knowledge of the language
by which they are expressed.
The rapid progress of young children in the acquisition of knowledge often
excites the surprise of parents of observation, and the fact that their
improvement is almost imperceptible, after they have attained to the age
of four or five years, is equally surprising. Why, is it often asked, do
not children continue to advance in knowledge with equal and increased rapidity,
especially, as their capabilities increase with age 1.
The solution of this question is not difficult. Children continue to improve,
while they have the means of doing so; but, having acquired a knowledge
of the objects within their reach, at least, so far as they may be capable
at the time, their advancement must consequently cease. It is hardly necessary
to remark, that the march of mind might be continued with increased celerity,
were new object or subject continually presented.
In supplying subjects for mental improvements, as they may be needed at
the several stages of advancement, there can be but little difficulty, since
we are surrounded by works both of nature and of art. In fact, the same
subjects may be presented several times, and, at each presentation, instructions
might be given adapted to the particular state of improvement in the pupil.
Instructions of this nature need never interfere injuriously with those
on the elementary branches of education, although the latter would undoubtedly
be considered of minor importance. Hand they been always regarded in this
light, our schools would now present a far more favorable aspect, and we
should have been farther removed from the ignora ce and the barbarism of
the middle ages.
Were this view of education generally adopted, teachers would soon find,
that the business of communication instructions to the young has been changed
from an irksome to a pleasant task, since their pupils will have become
studious and intellectual, and consequently, more capable of comprehending
explanations upon every subject. Such a course would also be attended with
the incidental advantage of good conduct on the part of pupils, inasmuch
as the elevation of the understanding over the passions uniformly tends
to this result.
For carrying into practice a system of intellectual education, the following
work supplies as great an amount of materials as can be embodied in the
same compass. Every article may be made the foundation of one lecture or
more, which might have reference not only to the particular subject on which
it treats, but also to the meaning and application of the words.
The articles have been concisely written, as must necessarily be the case
in all works embracing on great a variety of subjects. This particular trait,
however, need not be considered objectionable, since all who may desire
to read more extensively on any particular subject, can easily obtain works
which are exclusively devoted to it.
Prolix descriptions of machinery and the mechanical operations have been
studiously avoided; for it has been presumed, that all who might have perseverance
enough to read such details, would feel curiously sufficient to visit the
shops and manufactures, and see the machines and operations themselves.
Nevertheless, enough has been said, in all cases, to give a general idea
of the business, and to guide in the researches of those who may wish to
obtain information by the impressive method of actual inspection.
A great proportion of the whole work is occupied in recounting historical
facts, connected with the invention and progress of the arts. The author
was induced to pay especial attention to this branch of history, from the
consideration, that it furnishes very clear indication of the real state
of society in past ages, as well as at the present time, and also that it
would supply the reader with data, by which he might, in some measure, determine
the vast capabilities of man.
This kind of historical information will be especially beneficial to the
youthful mind, by inducing a habit of investigation and antiquarian research.
In addition to this, a knowledge of the origin and programs of the various
employments which are in active operation all around, will throw upon the
busy world an aspect exceedingly interesting.
It may be well, however, to caution the reader against expecting too much
information of this kind, in regard to most of the trades practiced in very
ancient times. Many of the most useful inventions were affected, before
any permanent means of record had been devised; and, in after ages, among
the Greeks and Romans, the useful arts were practiced almost exclusively
by slaves. The latter circumstance led to the general neglect by the writers
among these distinguished people.
The information which may be obtained from this work, especially when accompanied
by the inspection of the operations which it describes, may be daily applied
to some useful purpose. It will be particularly valuable in furnishing subjects
for conversation, and in preventing the mind from continuing in, or from
sinking into, a state of indifference in regard to the busy scenes of this
In the composition of this work, all puerile expressions have been avoided,
not only because they would be offensive to adult individuals of taste,
but because they are at least useless, if not positively injurious, to younger
persons. What parent of reflection world suffer his children to peruse a
book calculated to induce or confirm a manner of speaking or writing, which
he would not have them use after having arrived to manhood! Every sentence
may be rendered perfectly plain by appropriate explanations and illustrations.
No formal classification of the professions and trades have been adopted,
although those articles which treat of kindred subjects have been placed
near each other, and in that order which seemed to be the most natural.
The paragraphs of the several articles have been numbered for the especial
accommodation of classes in schools, but this particular feature of the
work need meet, with no serious objection from miscellaneous readers, as
it had no other effect, in reference to its use by them, than to give it
the aspect of a school-book.
While writing the articles on the different subjects, the author considered
several works which embraced the arts and sciences generally, as well as
many which were more circumscribed in their objects. He, however, relied
more upon them for historical fasts that for a knowledge of the operations
and processes which he hand occasions to detail. For this he depended, as
far as practicable, upon his own personal researches, although in the employment
of appropriate phraseology, he acknowledged his obligations to predecessors.
With the preceding remarks, the author submits his work to the public, in
the confident expectation, that the subjects which it embraces, that the
care which has been taken in its composition, and that the skill of the
artists employed in the embellishment, will secure to it an abundant and
1. The Miller belongs to that class of employments which relates to the
preparations of food and drinks for man. His business consists, chiefly,
is reducing the farinaceous grains to a suitable degree of fineness.
2. The simplest method by which grain can be induced to meal, or flour,
is rubbing or pounding it between two stones; and this was probable the
one first practiced in all primitive conditions of society as it is still
pursued among some tribes of uncivilized men.
3. The first machine for comminuting grain, of which we have any knowledge,
was a simple hand, mill, composed of a neither stone fixed in a horizontal
position, and an upper stone, which was put in motion with the hand by means
of a peg. This simple contrivance is still used in India, as well as in
some sequestered parts of Scotland, and on many of the plantations of the
Southern states of our Union. But, in general, where large quantities of
grain are to be ground, it has been entirely superseded by mills not moved
by manual power.
4. The modern corn and flour mill differs from that primitive hand-mill
in the size of the stones, in the addition of an apparatus for separating
the hulls and bran from the farinaceous part of the grain, and in the power
applied for putting it in motion.
5. The grinding surfaces of the stones have channels, or furrows, cut in
them, which proceed obliquely from the center to the circumference. The
furrows are cut slant wise on one side, and perpendicular on the other;
so that each of the ridges which they form, has a sharp edge; and, when
the upper stone is in motion, these edges pass one another, like the blades
of a pair of scissors, and cut the grain the more easily, as it falls upon
6. By a careful inspection of the following picture, the whole machinery
of a common mill may be understood.
A represents the water-wheel; B, the shaft to which is
attached the cog-wheel C, which sets on the trundle-wheel, D,
and this, in turn, sets on the movable stone. The spindle, trundle-head,
and upper stone, all rest entirely on the beam, F, which can be elevated
or depressed, at pleasure, by a simple apparatus; so that the distance between
th stone can be easly regulated, to grind either fine or coarse. The grains
about to be submitted to the action of the mill, is thrown into the hopper,
H, whence it passes by the shoe, or spout I, through a hole
in the upper stone, and then between them both.
Web Master's Note: The above drawing is the style of mill gearing
used in the restoration of the 1684 Frederick Philipse's Upper Mills on
the Pocantico River at Philipse Manor Hall, Philipsbough (North Tarrytown
and now Sleepy Hollow), New York, and would have been found used in mills
prior to the 1600's. It is the only mill in America that uses this system
of (millstone) drive train.
7. The upper stone is a little convex, and the other a little concave. There
is a little difference, however, between the convexity and the concavity
of the two stones; this difference causes the space between them to become
less and less towards them, is, consequently, ground finer, as it passes
out in that direction, in which it is impelled by the centrifugal power
of the moving stone.
8. If the flour, or meal, is not to be separated from the bran, the simple
grinding completes the operation; but, when this separation is to be made,
the comminuted grain, as it is thrown out from between the stones, is carried,
by little leathern buckets fastened to a strap, to the upper end of an octagonal
sieve, placed in an inclined position in a large box. The coarse bran passes
out at the lower end of the sieve, or bolt, and the flour, or fine particles
of bran, through the bolting-cloth, at different places, according to their
fineness. At the head of the bolt, the superfine flour passes; in the middle,
the fine flour; and at the lower end, the coarse flour and fine bran; which,
when mixed, is called canel, or shorts.
9. The best material of which mill-stones are made, is the burr-stone, which
is brought from France in small pieces, weighting from ten to one hundred
pounds. These are cemented together with plaster of Paris, and closely bound
around the circumference with hoops made of bar iron. For grinding corn
or rye, those made of sienite, or granite rock, are frequently used.
10. A mill, exclusively employed in grinding grain, consumed by the inhabitants
of the neighborhood, is called a grist or custom mill; and a portion of
the grist is allowed to the miller, in payment for his services. The proportion
is regulate by law; and, in our own country, it varies according to the
legislation of the different states.
11. Mills in which flour is manufactured, and packed in barrels for sale,
are called merchant mills. Here, the wheat is purchased by the miller, or
by the owner of the mill, who relies upon the difference between the original
cost of the grain, and the probable amount of its several products, when
sold, to remunerate him for the manufacture, and his investments of capital.
In Virginia, and, perhaps, in some of the other states, it is a common practice
among the farmers, to deliver to the millers their wheat, for which they
receive a specified quantity of flour.
12. The power most commonly employed to put heavy machinery in operation,
is that supplied by water. This is especially the case with regard to mills
for grinding grain; but, when this cannot be had, a substitute is found
in stream, or animal strength. The wind is also rendered subservient to
this purpose. The wind-mill was invented in the time of Augustus Caesar.
During the reign of this emperor, and probably long before, mules and asses
were employed by both the Greeks and Romans in turning their mills. The
period at which water-mills began to be used cannot be certainly determined.
Some writers place it as far back as the Christian era.
13. Wheat flour is one of the staple commodities of the United States, and
there are mills for its manufacture in almost every part of the country,
where wheat is extensively cultivated; but our most celebrated flour-mills
are on the Brandywine Creek, Delaware, at Rochester, New York, and at Richmond,
14. In our Southern states, hommony is a favorite article of food. It consists
of the flinty portions of Indian corn, which have been separated from the
hulls and eyes of the grain. To effect this separation, the corn is sometimes
ground very coarsely in a mill; but the most usual method is that of pounding
it in a mortar.
15. The mortar is excavated from a long of hard wood, between twelve and
eighteen inches in diameter. The form of the excavation is similar to that
of a common iron mortar, except that it is less flat at the bottom, to prevent
the corn from being reduced to meal during the operation. The pestle is
usually made by confining an iron wedge in the split end of a round stick,
by means of an iron ring.
16. The white flint corn is the kind usually chosen for hommony; although
any kind, possessing the requisite solidity, will do. Having been poured
into the mortar, it is moistened with hot water, and immediately beaten
with the pestle, until the eyes and hulls are forced from the flinty portions
of the grain. The part of the corn which has been reduced to meal by the
forgoing process, is removed by means of a sieve, and the hulls, by the
air of the wind.
17. Hommony is prepared for the table by boiling it in water for twelve
hours with about one fourth of its quantity of white beans, and some fat
bacon. It is eaten while yet warm, with milk or butter; or, if suffered
to get cold, is again warmed with lard or some other fat substance, before
it is brought to the table.
The Articles of the Preceding Pages,
According to the Paragraphs to which they refer.
1. In what does the business of the miller consist ?
2. What method of reducing grain to flour is the most simple ?
3. What is said of the hand- mill?
4. In what particular does the modern com or flour mill differ from the ancient hand-mill ?
5. What is said of the surfaces of the stones ?
6. What is said of the form of the two stones ?
7. Explain the machinery of the common mill, as exhibited by the picture in this paragraph.
8. In what manner is the comminuted grain bolted ?
9. Of what materials are millstones made ?
10. In what manner is the miller paid for his services in a grist mill ?
11. What is meant by a merchant-mill ?
12. What agent is most commonly employed to move heavy machinery ? and when was the windmill invented ?
13. Where are our most celebrated flour-mills ?
14. What is hominy ? and in what manner is it prepared ?
15. Describe the hominy mortar.
16. What kind of corn is commonly chosen for hominy ?
17. How is hominy prepared for the table?
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