in America., A General Overview.
This is one of the few flour and grist mills that had a clerestory monitor.
Note the sack host for raising sacks of grain from the wagon. A miller holding
the sack on the second floor, while another miller holds a wooden grain
shovel and broom on the third floor. Also note, the boy sitting on a grain
dump projecting from the wall of the mill, just left of the front doorway
where another miller is standing. The grain dump or sink is the Oliver Evans
method of introducing grain into the milling system from the exterior of
the mill directly from the farmer on a wagon to the mills elevators. The
chimney notes that the mill has a miller's office and the building is protected
by lighting rods. The ground cable runs up the side of the building. The
above grist or flour mill bears no resemblance to an English country mill.
Photograph is from a tintype.
During the seventeenth century the colonist who came from Europe brought
with them their grains to Virginia and Massachusetts. Along the eastern
shore of the content they built their first wind, and tidal powered mills.
There were few roads, mainly paths, and it was easier to get from place
to place by boat. In 1626 the Dutch brought buckwheat to New Amsterdam.
The Dutch settlers would develop the area into a milling and marketing center
for flour. During the seventeenth century most mills were simply carbon
copies of mills in Europe, built by the Dutch, German, and English. It was
not until the second half of the seventeenth century did someone think of
producing mill products from other than the local consumption. More land
was being cleared and more grain was being grown as time went on.
In the English settlements, the colonial trades and crafts were manipulated
with bounties, tariffs, and regulated markets that favored production of
goods other than flour. Millwrights were limited to building and maintaining
mills, millers were bound to operate mills, and millstone dressers dressed
millstones for the various mills in a route they could safely travel. The
food staple needs of the people living in the colonies along with the difficulties
of transportation limited the export flour trade during the seventeenth
century. It was not until the mid-eighteenth century did things begin to
change for the flour milling trade. In the State of Maryland, it was not
until 1740 they prohibited the export of flour and wheat feared by famine.
It was not until after 1750, did the markets in the West Indies, particularly
Barbados, Jamaica, and the Leeward Islands develop of the local sugar production
excluded practically every other form of agriculture. The Dutch out of New
Amsterdam first carried flour to the West Indies. Between 1763 and 1766,
Philadelphia, exported 350,000 barrels of flour, mainly to the West Indies.
One of the big developments in milling in the early colonies was the movement
away from the coast and tidal areas. This mean that mills that were once
powered only by wind and tidal power could now be built along inland streams.
Wind and tidal powered mills operate on an off-on basis. Wind does not always
blow to turn the sails of the windmill, and tidal powered mills operate
on a schedule of twice a day for about 5 to 6 hours each. Tidal power is
more dependable because it is not effect by the seasons flow along a stream,
and the water is saline so it does not freeze, like a stream powered mill
may be locked tight with ice during the winter months. Stream powered mills
meant that they could be built as the people moved away from the coast.
Colonial mills of America, whether wind, tidal or water powered, involved
a great deal of human labor. Millstone dressing and millwrighting required
a great deal of skill. The itinerant millstone dresser often had to lay
out the furrows on a blank millstone according to the direction that the
runner would turn. A millwright had to know what trees were used in the
forest to make the various parts of a mill, when to cut the wood, and how
long to season it. The job of the miller and his helpers required much less
skill, and a great deal of carrying sacks of grain and flour in the constant
heavy work involved with operating a mill. This method of milling was known
as "back and bag," because they mainly carried the bags
on their back up narrow ladders to the upper level of the mill. Traditional
laws usually fixed a miller's toll by law, the cost of labor figured most
important in the profit or loss of a mill's operation. Sometimes a millwright
built a mill and the gears would not operate properly and had to be redone.
A mill with a new water wheel could be shut down for a long time and a great
deal of losses if a new water wheel shaft was found to be defective after
a short period of operation. The mill owner and or mill might miss the harvest
season of being able to grind.
One of the most important things to fall out of favor during the seventeenth
century was some people's idea of wanting to recreate the feudal system
in America. This would have meant that the miller and the peasants would
have been bound to the lord of the land with soke rights. So in this place
developed the idea of the honest miller because people now had the freedom
to go to which ever mill they chose to go within reasonable travel. So then
during the eighteenth century the people's ideas about the mill began to
change. Originally in the very beginning of the seventeenth century, intelligent
people like millwrights and millstone dressers did not want to come to the
colonies but in the eighteenth century that all changed. Miller's in Europe
could escape the system that bound them to a mill and the lord of the land,
and they could perhaps get away from the stereotypes about the dishonest
Oliver Evans originated the idea of a mill where the grain and flour would
be moved mechanically, and not by the backs of children. One of the things
that Oliver Evans also did was change the craft system in the milling business.
With his publication of "The Young Mill-Wright and Miller's Guide,"
published in Philadelphia, in 1795, it meant that there was not a technical
manual for millwrights and millers. Before this everything was passed on
though the apprenticeship program, from one person to another, with no possibility
of improving or changing the technology of milling. In his work, Oliver
Evans described a continuous system of elevators, conveyors, and other automatic
devices all connected by a system of chutes, and bins. Oliver Evans system
of automated flour milling could best describe the process of milling wheat
as "from wagon to wagon again," with out the need for human
intervention. Evans's milling machinery represented the beginning and first
automation in an industrial process. The term industry did not come into
existence until 1812.
After the American Revolution, and until about 1830, Baltimore was the leading
flour milling trade center in America. Baltimore like may other cities along
the coast of America lay on the Fall Line. This meant that there was abundant
water power to operate mills, and boats could used the inland waterways
to gain access to the wheat growing and milling centers. In the Chesapeake
Coastal Pain and the Virginia Piedmont areas, the millers were quick to
adopt Oliver Evans automated flour milling machinery. Also by this time
many of the mills had changed form a custom or grist mill operation to a
merchant milling trade, and Evans' system was more suited for that type
of operation. Now the merchants could consider a trade exchange of flour
and grain for European manufactured goods needed by colonies. The wars of
Europe also greatly boosted the flour milling trade in America, the wars
of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars opened both the British
and French ports to American goods. During the period of the American Revolution,
American was closed off to the importation of English millstones, and the
merchant millers switched to the French millstones which was more suited
for making white flour. The merchant mills of the Brandywine and Baltimore
sold flour in England, the West Indies, and to even Wellington's army fighting
on the Iberian peninsula. The flour milling trade that had resulted in milling
prosperity lasted until 1814, when the English Corn Laws virtually shut
off any markets. Before the Napoleonic war, a barrel of flour sold for 4
dollars and fifty cents, but when the war started it rose to an all time
height of 11 dollars a barrel. Then afterwards the milling trade went into
This is where Isaac Pearce only makes sense in taring down the second mill
built on the site, that of William Deakin's Oliver Evans equipped mill,
was the the death of Oliver Evans in 1919. Mr. Pearce must have realized
that he could not build a larger stone flour mill without out paying a second
user fee to Oliver Evans and perhaps his estate. During this period of 1820
to 1860, merchant milling waited for the important technological developments
in farming, transportation, and grain storage to catch up with the mill
revolution that Evans' began in the 1780's.
The American Civil War meant rapid growth for mills in the North, but mills
in the South often fell victim to passing armies, like in any war, they
become targets to destroy the enemies bread basket. With the American adaptation
of the Greek or Norse water wheel the French developed the water turbine
in the 1840's, and well before the war water turbines were manufactured
in America. From the 1820's to the 1860's the water wheel's design changed
form being predominately wood to a metal based one. Inventions in Agricultural
machinery allowed farmers to handle grain in greater amounts. McCormick's
reaper (1831), Deer's plow (1837), Pitts brothers' thresher (1837), Gibbons'
grain drill (1840), combines with the building of the canal system cut freight
cost between distant wheat growing areas and the milling centers. Railroads
after 1830, were quick to tap the new agricultural lands for freight cargo.
The improved transportation created a surplus of agricultural goods that
forced farmers to specialize in wheat, corn, dairy, vegetables, or livestock.
In Buffalo, Joseph Dart installed Oliver Evans marine elevator leg and automatic
machinery into his mills. He also applied steam power to operate grain storage
elevators in 1837.
Besides the back and forth action of invention and innovation, new wheat
were imported into America. This brought a higher gluten content wheat and
one whose bran was more easily shattered than the soft wheat variety. The
Mennonites brought hard wheat to the plans of the United States and Canada,
by the 1860's. This meant that a new system of milling had to be developed,
a better grinding and separation ground what was necessary. As the milling
system went from Oliver Evans' automated flour milling, to "new process
milling" the millers struggled with the millstones and bolters to keep
up with the changes in wheats and milling. The largest water powered flour
mill in Minneapolis had 42 pairs of millstones. Water driven turbines came
on the market in the mid-nineteenth century but did not in themselves constitute
a revolution in the milling business.
The key machine that caused the milling revolution to happen was the middlings
purifier. The first practical middlings purifier was built by a French scientist,
Joseph Perngault, after noticing the phenomenon of dust particles penetrating
all the farthest corners of a pigeon hole desk and then setting down evenly
as if attracted to the wooden shelving of the desk itself. The purifier
was a large wooden box, where partially ground flour particles would settle
on silk screens in the organized horizontal narrow compartments. General
Cadwallader Colden Washburn bought one of the purifiers from Paris to Minneapolis
where in 1871, it was vastly improved by Edmond W. La Croix, and George
T. Smith, both experienced head millers. In 1873, Edmund La Croix and George
T. Smith, both in Minneapolis, patented a middlings purifier for better
separating the flour, middlings, bran and dust using air currents blown
through screens which dated from Ignaz Paur's invention of the purifier
in Austria, in 1807. What happened was the "famous purifier war"
between La Croix and Smith, Smith added moving brushes to unclog the silk,
and an endless discussion ensued as to who invented what, needless to say,
they both went their separate ways. It was not until La Croix introduced
the machine to America in 1870, did an inferior hard wheat could become
a superior wheat flour.
The big milling companies of Minneapolis brought the Hungarian system of
milling using iron rollers, corrugated rollers to America, which began to
replace the traditional millstone for grinding was now only used half as
much as it was used before. As early as the 1820's European inventors tried
various methods of grinding wheat between iron, porcelain covered or stone
rollers that do many things besides just grinding the wheat. The millers
of Pesth, Hungary enjoyed some success with rollers producing Hungarian
Flour, which was ghostly white flour that was never before sold to the public.
A successful roller mill was built in Fiume Hungary (now Rigeka in Yugoslavia).
A "Hungarian" type roller mill was set up in Milwaukee in 1876,
but was not successful because the true Hungarian method was not automatic
and entailed considerable hand transfer of the batches of flour and chop,
and constant sampling by tough on the part of the head miller.
Roller sawing or breaking was perfected in Hungary, that twisted the grain
rather than shearing it. It allowed more precise spacing between the grinding
surfaces and more even stock feeding than with the burr stones. However,
the roller milling system was not automatic in Hungary, it was not until
it came to American, did the mills of Minneapolis mesh the two system together.
The first important American mill to use rollers was Cadwalder C. Washburn's
Washburn Crosby Mill in 1878. The "experimental" roller mill was
not an all roller mill because the last stage of grinding was done with
millstones. John Stevens, an inventor from Neenah, Wisconsin, developed
in 1874 chilled steel roller mills for grinding flour and received a patent
for them in 1880. The main Pillsbury Mill in 1884, had a steam powered,
automatic all roller gradual reduction system that produced 5,000 barrels
of flour a day. The Minneapolis flour shipments rose from five to ten million
barrels between 1884 to 1894.
Several other inventions and adaptations improved the milling operation.
Germ scalpers, were machines that sifted off the wheat germ after flattening
it out came into used after R. L. Downton's invention in 1875. Carl Haggenmacher,
a Hungarian, patented a plansifter In 1888 that better separated the ground
flour between grindings. In 1886, O. M. Morse invented the "cyclone"
dust collector which reduced the hazard of dust explosion in flour mills.
Electric power came into used in operating mills in 1887. The westward expansion
brought new land under cultivation and new markets for farm products. The
freight cost for either wheat (grain) and flour were the same, milling centers
tended to coincide with the areas of most intense wheat cultivation. You
need three things to create a milling center, the first one is wheat, the
second one is transportation and the third one is being close the markets.
Pittsburgh never became a grain milling center because it did not have the
wheat growing centers around it. Rochester, Buffalo, Cincinnati, St. Louis,
and Minneapolis became the new milling centers of the United States. The
old former milling centers along the Fall Line was New Amsterdam, the Brandywine,
Wilmington, Baltimore, Georgetown and Alexandra, and Richmond.
Before 1840, American millers ground soft wheat between millstones that
were set close together. "Low," "flat," or American
milling extracted as much flour as possible in one grinding. The close grinding
pulverized the wheat kernel, flour particles, germ, bran and middlings all
together. The wheat germ enzymes and the moisture from bran injured the
flour's keeping quality. From the 1840's to the 1860's millers were experimenting
with "half-high" grinding, that used smaller diameter middling
stones and more bolters for sifting during the process of extracting and
reducing the middlings. Finally in 1870's, millers (mainly in Minneapolis)
were experimenting again with the European technique of "high"
grinding and "gradual reduction." "New process" milling
that involved several pairs of millstones (usually 3 to 5) grindings with
the millstones set progressively closer together as the material became
progressively smaller. The initial breaks stripped off the outer most bran
covering and granulated the middlings (the part of the kernel; between the
inner endosperm and the outer pericarp layers). Increased bolting and sifting
between grindings helped separate the bran and middlings from the flour.
high grinding and gradual reduction produced a finer flour and more flour
per bushel of wheat. Minneapolis flour shipments rose from one to five milling
barrels between 1876 and 1884. At one time Oliver Evans automatic flour
milling system was the high-tech of the milling industry, and now Cadwalder
C. Washburn, Charles A. Pillsbury, and George H. Christian took the lead
by installing machinery into their flour mills in Minneapolis so all across
America, the American housewife wanted Minneapolis style flour.
When Minneapolis style flour was first made, it was difficult to get the
American housewife to used it because of the wheat cleaning, and milling
operations they stripped all of the flavor and taste out of the flour. They
tried putting additives into the flour and discovered that street sweepings
off of the the streets of Minneapolis gave the flour its taste that it once
had. In the process of the growth and development of Minneapolis as the
world's largest flour milling center, mills back in east either went out
of business because it became cheaper for the mills of Minneapolis to get
wheat and ship flour to the easier markets, than the mills in the east to
get wheat from their traditional markets. Some mills when out of business,
and others installed smaller versions of the roller milling system into
their millstone mills so they too, could make Minneapolis style white flour.
Hard spring wheat grown in the Minnesota and the Dakotas after 1865, required
certain improvements in the gradual reduction milling system. There is its
different growth habit that it grows best in an arid climate, hard spring
wheat sold for twice as much as soft wheat did in the east. The automatic,
all roller mill using gradual reduction system of milling was used in the
large scale milling operations of Minneapolis. Even 20 years after the roller
milling revolution basically began in America, by 1890 most of the flour
made in America was still made with millstones. In 1873, a trade journal
began being published in Ottawa, Illinois, "American Miller,"
whose pages heralded the endeavors of the Western flour millers who were
building monster flour mills on "the platform" at the Falls of
Saint Anthony and making flour out of previously despised inferior hard
red wheat. Small country mills began to order rollers from jobbers and millwrights
so they too could make Minneapolis style flour. Anyone who owned two millstones
or a roller mill was a miller, and the same arcane profession as the people
In the passing years there was a decline for flour in foreign markets. Europeans
developed their milling systems where they required more wheat and less
flour from America. Between 1889 and 1899, wheat exports rose from 46 to
138 million bushels. Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas produced enormous quantities
of hard wheat, while California and Washington grew large amounts of white
wheat. The growth of the southwest and Pacific coast wheat regions reduced
the milling industry that was replaced by truck farms and orchards in those
areas. Kansas City, Dallas, Seattle and San Francisco developed as flour
milling centers along with new grain markets. Buffalo, New York, on the
Great Lakes took the lead in from Minneapolis as the largest flour milling
center after 1920. Wheat production continued to rise until just after World
War 1. Then the Great Depression, World War 2, both wheat production and
flour consumption fell drastically. One of the ways that milling companies
responded to the decline in the demand for flour was with advertising which
became increasingly important after 1900. Washburn Crosby's "Gold Metal"
flour and Pillsbury's "Best" became well know trade names, and
even small mills around the country sold their brand of flour in addition
to their own.
After the American Civil War millers increasingly sold bran and middlings
for animal feed. New uses for wheat flour products was developed such as
starch, waxes, paints, and making monosodium glutamate. Breakfast cereals
came into existence, with Henry d. Perkey, John Harvey Kellogg, and Charles
W. Post developed popular cereals, shredded wheat, wheat and corn flakes,
and grape nuts. General Mills (formerly Washburn Crosby Company) introduced
"Wheaties" in the 1920's. Speciality flours like all purpose flour,
and mills manufactured cake and pastry flour, pancake flours that included
leavening ingredients after 1900. General Mills introduced "Bisquick"
in 1930, and then ready to use boxed flour mixes came out. In 1914, the
National Research Council recommended that flour for military use be vitamin
enriched. Then after the war, millers commonly added thiamine, riboflavin,
niacin, and iron to household flour. The impact of enriched flour may never
be fully known because it has been combined with chemically bleached white
flour. I suggest that everyone get a copy of William Dufty's book, "Sugar
Blues Exposing Sugar, the killer in your diet - offering you a life-saving,
sugar-free way to health." It is a classic work on the subject
of sugar, process foods, white flour, mayonnaise tobacco, its refining and
consumption, and its ultimate physiological and psychological effects on
the human body and mind.
The modern system of flour milling takes out 12 natural nutrients out of
wheat and adds back in three "artificial ingredients." They bleach
flour with either chlorine or nitrogen oxide gases. Chlorine gas is a carcinogenic
agent and causes cancer, and nitrogen oxide gas has caused fits in laboratory
In Ellen and Vrest Orton's book, "Cooking with Whole Grains,"
states that stone ground flour ins not only more nutritious but it is infinitely
more flavorful. "Must of our national illness is caused by crazes for
food that is (1) white, (2) refined, (3) keepable. All these crazes are
exemplified in white flour. The best food chemist are the earth and the
sun, which produce the whole wheat that the steel rollers of the white flour
millers spoil,. White flour makes white faces........food is stuff to be
eaten fresh, not to be "kept" as if it were an heirloom......Wholemeal
flour naturally does not "keep" because the germ in it is alive.
Germless white flour "keeps" because it is dead, because it is
as dead as Portland cement powder,, all its original goodness having been
sifted out of it. Let them "keep" their flour who have no care
to keep their health." This is after all a millstone grinding mill,
and there is no need to make enriched bleached flour!
I should add this footnote to the program: Sometime during the late 1950's
and 1960's they began to experiment with new method of reducing wheat into
flour. First they tried running a stream of wheat over a piece of stainless
steel and then subjecting it to high pressure bursts of air. Later they
tried using laser to pulverize the wheat but they eventually discovered
that the traditional methods of grinding wheat using millstones and roller
mills works the best.
There are only a few mills that are still run by water power, many of these
are of the museum type operations that are capable of grinding flour and
meal for demonstrations, claiming to be authentic and educational. The some
millstone mills have survived the roller mill revolution mainly grinding
organically grown stone ground flours and meals. It causes one to ask, why
did more small mills survive the post industrial era? The idea of quitting
without a fight is not part of the American character. Possibly the answer
is that the customers of these small mills were the ones who gave up.The
history of the milling industry is full of stories where hardheaded businessmen
tried to ignore the proverbial "bottom line." A great number of
factors accumulate when business fall victim to things that are not logically
linked to the profit motive. Even the huge milling companies of Minneapolis
today are so diversified that many of the giants produce very little flour
in that city today. Many small mills have slowed their disappearance by
turning to the feed business, however, today that business has also died
because of farmers no longer farming. Many people who admire mills and are
concerned with heath still want their flour and meal from stone ground flour
mills, but in todays world, there are less and less people who bake. The
small country mills are sometimes put of business by health regulations,
or the loss of being capable of running on water power. The small mill in
may places are considered a nuisance to the building of community development
in a modern world where the people are dependent upon strip and shopping
malls instead of local industries. Mills are no longer considered assets
to a local communiy. Even many mill museums have lost part of their original
character and appeal because they are now surrounded by urban development.
Recently the Park Ranger and I drove to Ellicott City, Maryland, and we
toured the Wilkins-Rogers' Washington Flour Mill in part the old Ellicott
Mill complex. They used to be located in the old Pioneer Flour Mill in Georgetown
before redevelopment forced them to move to another location, that of the
Ellicott City Continental Milling. They are famous for their Indian Head
Corn Meal which is produced on two run of millstones that were brought from
their old plant between Potomac and 33rd Streets in Georgetown, Washington,
D.C, where they were powered by the overflow water from the C & O Canal.
They look more like a Minneapolis mill that the Ellicott Mill that occupied
the spot in 1772. The mill is at least the fifth mill to stand on the site.
The present mill was rebuilt in 1941 after a fire destroyed the previous
mill. They are a large commercial flour mill that produces 125 thousand
pounds of flour every 24 hours. The gentleman was me how much flour do I
grind at Peirce Mill. I told him on a good day I might grind possibly 400
pounds of grain. This is also the amount that management decided that the
mill could grind daily and maintain a minimum wear and tare on the mill's
machinery. He told me, "You don't grind flour at Peirce Mill, you grind
out words." I guess, he was right, we do grind out more words than
grain in any given day here at the mill. Thank you.
The mill was the pride of "New Process" milling, and 3,000
pounds of flour dust was collected in two rooms underneath the millstones.
While every effort was made to control dust to protect the mill workers
from the "miller's cough" little was know how to safety exhaust
dust using fans. The flour in a hundred pound sack if it was evenly dispersed
in a confined room 20 feet square, and ignited, the force of the explosion
could lift the warehouse and 20,000 barrels of flour 100 feet into the air.
Flour dust is more explosive than gun powder and 35 times more explosive
than coal dust.
A little after seven o'clock on the evening of May 2, 1878, the Washburn
"A" New Process Mill blew up, leveling the seven story limestone
building to a gaping hole in the ground, and carrying the destruction to
five of the country's best flour mills. It blew debris a mile across the
Mississippi River and broke the windows of the Pillsbury Mill. Hence, the
old joke that they throw stones at us. The force of the explosion razed
solid walls, six feet thick at their base, to their very foundations. The
disaster happened at a time when the shifts were changing and only eighteen
men lost their lives, including all of the fourteen who were in the Washburn
Mill. One thought about the cause of the explosion was that workmen were
lowering a lit lantern into a bin at the time. Another concluded that one
or more of the millstones may have run dry, making a spark which started
In an interview following the explosion, Governor Washburn announced, his
plan to rebuild the mill. He said, "In the new structure I shall adopt
the Hungarian system of gradual reduction using rollers, and shall dispense
with a great amount of machinery heretofore used, substituting hand labor,
which is safer, and I am not sure it is also more economical. I propose
to build for an abundance of room and thorough ventilation." There
is a story that tells how Governor Washburn while sitting in this huge armchair
waved his cigar (price not recorded) at the assembled insurance adjustors,
and told them he expected 100 cents on the dollar for his exploded mill
complex, even though the policies did not cover explosions per say. And
the companies paid without cavil.
In 1880 the new mill contained no fewer than thirty-eight dust rooms, in
place of the two of the old mill. The new mill had a multiplication of process,
with finer adjustments. Gradual reduction and the use of roller mills instead
of millstones. The next stage in the development of flour milling was to
improve upon the Hungarian system to use time and space more efficiently.
At least they knew for sure now that it was not ghosts, demons or evil spirits
that caused mill to blow up. Hell fire would happen, filling the mill's
interior with flame, and no one could escape from it.
Program's Source: Interpretive programs by Theodore R. Hazen,
Master Miller (mill operator), Millwright, Curator of Molinology, Site Supervisor,
and Lead Interpreter, Pierce Mill, Rock Creek Park, National Park Service,
National Capital Region, The Department of the Interior, 1984-1995, "The
History of Flour Milling in America."
Suggested Topics for Further Discussion:
1. Mill restoration trade off.
2. Dressing millstones.
3. The training and recruitment of millers.
4. Costuming of millers and helpers.
5. Revenue for restored mills.
6. Historical restoration, the use of millwrights verses mill consultants
7. Operation procedures of restored mills, historical operations versus
8. Grinding and milling to meet and maintain health regulations.
9. Grinding and milling different grains.
10. Preservation of a dying craft, the apprenticeship program.
11. Interpretive programs for old mills.
12. Field trips to the old mill.
Selected Bibliography: For Further Reading.
Listed below are some of the books and periodicals that may be helpful in
understanding the overall history of flour and grist mills in Minnesota,
America, and of the United States.
Note: If you can collect all or most of these titles, you will have the
basic milling reference library.
Apps, Jerry & Allen Strang, "Mills of Wisconsin and the Midwest,"
Wisconsin, Tamarack Press, 1980.
Bathe, Grenville and Dorothy Bathe, "Oliver Evans: A Chronicle of
Early American Engineering," Philadelphia, Historical Society of
Bennett, Richard and John Elton, "History of Corn Milling,"
published in 4 volumes, reprinted New York, Burt Franklin, 1964.
Colwell, James L., "From Stone to Steel: American Contributions
to the Revolution in Flour Milling," in the Rocky Mountain Social
Science Journal, volume 6, number 2, pages 20 to 31, October 1969.
Dunwiddie, Foster W., "The Six Flouring Mills on Minnehaha Creek,"
in Minnesota History, volume 44, pages 162-175, Spring 1975.
Edgar, William C., "The Metal of Gold: A Story of Industrial Achievement,"
Minneapolis, the Bellman Company, 1915.
Engart, Henry S., "Notes on Gristmills and Milling in Pennsylvania,"
in the Bucks County Historical Society Papers, Doylestown, Pennsylvania,
Bucks County, Historical Society, 1937, volume 7, pages 104-136.
Espenschied, Charles, "Some Random Recollections," Minneapolis,
The Miller Publishing Company, 1926.
Evans, Oliver, "The Young Mill-Wright and Miller's Guide,"
1795 in 15 editions to 1860.
Ferguson, Eugene S., "Oliver Evans, Inventive Genius of the American
Industrial Revolution," Greenville, Delaware, Hagley Museum, 1980.
"Flour Milling," in Roots, An Educational Service of the
Minnesota Historical Society, volume 3, number 2, Winter 1974, pages 1 to
31, with accompanying "Teacher's Guide."
Fossum, Paul R., "Early Milling in the Cannon River Valley,"
in Minnesota History, volume 11, pages 271 to 282, September 1930.
Freese, Stanley, "Windmills and Millwrighting," Canbury,
New Jersey, A. S. Barnes and Company, 1972.
Garber, Dwight W., "Waterwheels and Millstones: A History of Ohio
Gristmills and Milling," The Ohio Historical Society, Historic
Ohio Building Series, number 2, Columbus, Ohio, 1970.
Gibson, Louis H., "Gradual Reduction Milling: A Treatise on the
Art of Modern Milling," Minneapolis, C. M. Palmer, 1885.
Ginger, Ray, "Age of Excess: The United States From 1877 to 1914,"
New York, Macmillan, 1965.
Haines, Tom, "Flouring Mills Of Montana Territory," Missoula,
Montana, Friends of the University of Montana Library, 1984.
Hamilton, Edward P., "The Village Mill in Early New England,"
Old Sturbridge Village, Old Sturbridge Village Booklet Series, number 18,
Sturbridge, Massachusetts, 1964.
Hindle, Brooke, editor, "America's Wooden Age: Aspects of Its Early
Technology," Tarrytown, New York, Sleepy Hollow Restorations, 1975.
Howell, Charles, "Colonial Watermills in the Wooden Age,"
in "America's Wooden Age: Aspects of Its Early Technology,"
Tarrytown, New York, Sleepy Hollow Restorations, 1975.
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