Private Anderson Mitchell of 58th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry


ANDERSON MITCHELL also known as ANDERSON SMITH
1839 - 1864
Written by Linda Durr Rudd

Anderson Mitchell was a member of a large family. He lived with his mother, brothers, sisters, grandmother Suckey, and other relatives on the John Mitchellís plantation near Union Church, Jefferson County, Mississippi. Anderson was born about 1839 in Jefferson County, the second of five sons. He was described as 5 feet 6 inches tall with black hair, eyes and complexion. Anderson worked as a field hand. His parents were Jacob Smith born about 1810 in North Carolina and Sidney Mitchell born about 1815 in Mississippi. Jacob was a slave on the neighboring Dougald McMillan's plantation.

Andersonís siblings were:

Edny, daughter of Jacob and Sidney Smith was born about 1830 on the Mitchell's plantation. She was a member of the Union Church Presbyterian Church in Jefferson County, MS. She was received and baptized November 20, 1853. Edna married Unknown Brown. She is in her parents 1880 Census household, listed as Edna Brown, a 46 year old widow.
Calley, daughter of Jacob and Sidney Smith was born about 1834 on the Mitchell's plantation.
William, son of Jacob and Sidney Smith was born about 1836 on the Mitchell's plantation. He was a member of the Union Church Presbyterian Church, and was received and baptized November 20, 1853. William was married but no information was found about his wife. He served with Company G, 58th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. William died in the army.
Caroline, daughter of Jacob and Sidney Smith was born about 1837. Caroline was a member of the Union Church Presbyterian Church, and was received and baptized November 30, 1853. She married Fortune Brown. They had at least two children: Willie born in 1869 and Sidney Ann born in 1873.
Bluford, son of Jacob and Sidney Smith was born about 1840 on the Mitchell's plantation. He enlisted August 25, 1863 at Natchez, MS, with Company G, 58th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. Bluford was the lone survivor of the five brothers who served with the Colored Troops. He was discharged April 30, 1866 at Vicksburg, MS. He married Harriet Unknown. Their known children were: Lucretia, Martha Ann, Frances and Mitchell. Bluford made claims for a pension based on injury to hip and back. Claims of 1893, 1894, 1896, 1898, were rejected on the ground that he was not disabled for manual labor in a pensionable degree. Bluford died about 1898 in Natchez.
Willis, son of Jacob and Sidney Smith was born about 1842 on the Mitchell plantation. He enlisted August 30, 1863 at Natchez, MS, with Company A, 6th Regiment, United States Colored Heavy Artillery. Willis died July 11, 1864, of a stomach hemorrhage, in the Regimental Hospital in Natchez.
Daniel, son of Jacob and Sidney was born about 1843. Daniel served with Company G, 58th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. Daniel died in the army.

Edny, Caroline and William names are on the 1857 servant membership list of Union Church Presbyterian Church.

The Mitchell and McMillan family were familial connected. John Mitchellís daughter Sarah Mitchell married Dougald McMillan July 12, 1824 in Jefferson County, MS. Sarah was also known as Sallie. The McMillan family lived near Caseyville, Copiah County, MS. Both families were members of the Union Church Presbyterian Church.

"Old Man" John Mitchell died February 22, 1859 in Jefferson County, MS. John had made provisions for the distribution of his property prior to his death. In 1852, he made a deed of gift giving his son John Irvin Mitchell 45 slaves. Anderson and his family, with the exception of his sister Edny, were deeded to John Irvin. The 1852 will of John gave 16 slaves to his daughter Sarah which included Edny.

John Irvin Mitchell owned 69 slaves per the 1860 Jefferson County Slave Schedule. Sarah Mitchell McMillanís husband Dougald McMillan owned 90 slaves per the 1860 Copiah County Slave Schedule.

After the death of "Old Man Mitchell," Anderson and his brothers were hired out to various farms in the community. Anderson was hired out to work for Archibald Smith on his Shadyside Plantation in Jefferson County. Hannah, a slave of Archibald Smith, met Anderson and they asked for the permission of Archibald Smith "to take up with each other" and began to live together as man and wife as was the custom of the day. Their son Abraham Mitchell was born between 1860 and 1861. Hannah is recorded on Archibald Smithís plantation ledger as having given birth to two sons, one in 1860 and one in 1861.

Anderson and his brothers returned to the Mitchell farm and lived with their family. Anderson tried to maintain his relationship with Hannah and their son by visiting them Saturday through Sunday afternoons. Sam Smith, the son of Archibald Smith, did not want Anderson on his fatherís plantation. Sam shot Anderson with a load of bird shots to discourage the relationship. Samís efforts were successful and Anderson discontinue going to the SmithĎs plantation.

Betsy was raised with Anderson on the Mitchell farm. She was also transferred from "Old Man Mitchell" to his son John via the senior John's 1852 deed of gift. John Irving Mitchell granted Anderson and Betsy permission to marry. Some of the witnesses said they were married one Sunday evening by Reverend John B. Bowen who was a missionary among the slaves. The wedding may have taken place at the home of Betsyís mother, Nancy Prades. Others said that they "took up with each other" and were known in the community as man and wife. Their son Jacob was born shortly before or shortly after Anderson left the Mitchell farm during the late summer of 1863.

Anderson "ran away to the Yankees," and enlisted with Company G, 58th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry in Natchez, MS, September 17, 1863. Anderson died January 24, 1864 at the Post Hospital in Natchez of *small pox and *dysentery.

The wives of Anderson remained in the Union Church-Caseyville area, married and bore other children.

Anderson's first wife Hannah married Charles Levi.
1870 Census - Caseyville, Lincoln County, MS - Page 101
Charles Levi 40, Hannah 25, ABLE 12, James 10, William 8, Kate 2
1880 Census - Beat 5 - Caseyville, Lincoln County, MS - Page 130
Charles Levi 55, Hannah 42, James 16, William 13, Mary E. 11, Clemmy 9, Eddy 7, Melissa 4

Abraham applied for his fatherís pension as a minor child at the time of Andersonís death. Abrahamís case as well as his brother Jacob were referred for special examination to determine the merits of the case. The special agent sent by the Pension Board to investigate Abrahamís claim found many problems. The marriage of Abrahamís parents could not be verified. Abrahamís paternity claim couldnít be proved. Hannah reputation as a moral woman was questioned. Abraham use of three different surnames; Levi, Mitchell and Smith required explantation. Abraham was in the Mississippi State Penitentiary in Jackson, MS, for stealing a wagon load of cotton when his Uncle Bulford Smith encouraged him to apply for his fatherís pension.

The witnesses for Abraham were classified as having poor reputations or being very bias. Three of his witnesses were his Uncle Bluford Smith, Aunt Flora Jackson Wright and Charles Stewart. Abraham could not present a reputable white person to testify about his paternity and the marriage between his parents. Hannahís slave owner Archibald Smith and his son Sam were deceased. Archibald's daughter Mary Ann had married but Abraham did not know her married name. The investigator findings were that a marriage of any type did not exist between Anderson and Hannah, and that Abraham was not the legitimate son of Anderson Mitchell. The investigator recommended to the Pension Board that the claim of Abraham Levi-Mitchell-Smith be rejected.

Betsy, the second wife of Anderson, married Charles Sartin. Charles was the slave of Duncan McArn of Union Church, Jefferson County, MS. Charles was listed on McArn 's 1864 list of slaves.
1870 Census - Union Church, Jefferson County, MS - Page 6
Charles Sartin 36, Betsey 35, Larry 18, Isom 9, Harriett 13, JAKE 10, Ellis 2, infant 1, Nancy McDougald 75
1880 Census - Beat 1 - Jefferson County, MS - Page 133
Charles Sartine 46, Elizabeth 37, Isham 16, Joseph 15, Ellis 13, Charles 9, Mary 6, Emily 5, Henson 1, JAKE SMITH 19

Jacob Smith lived with his grandparents Jacob and Sidney Smith when he was a young child. The grandparents took the young child when his mother married Charles Sartin. Jacob lived with his grandparents for a few years before he was returned to his mother.

Jacob, also, applied for his fatherís pension as a minor child at the time of his fatherís death. Some of the same problems that Abraham had with his application occurred with Jakeís. Character and reputation of his mother Betsy and the validity of the marriage were questioned.

Jacob and Sidney Smith, Jacobís grandparents, had applied for their son Willisí bounty but was given Andersonís bounty money. Both grandsons applied not knowing that Sidney had received the $146 bounty money. Being fearful of going to prison, Jacob and Sidney told the investigator that Anderson did not leave a widow nor did he leave children. Jacob the grandson testified that he had spoken with his grandmother concerning her testimony and that they had made things right between them.

Reverend John Bowen was a witness for Jacob. Bowen was a minister among the Negroes from 1850 through and after the Civil War. Bowen could not remember performing the ceremony for Anderson and Betsy but remembered both of them. The Mitchell farm was part of his ministering itinerary.

Testimony was given by Reverend Bowen concerning the character of Jacob Smith, Sarah Joshua, Calvin McCormick, Felix Mason, Jacob, and Sidney Smith, witnesses for Jacob. He testified that they were steady, industrious and truthful Negroes. Bowen said that he "believed implicitly in the justice of Jacobís claim." He said that the old people Jacob and Sidney have always said that Jacob was Andersonís son with Betsy.

The findings of Jacobís case were that a slave marriage existed between Anderson and Betsy and that Jacob was the legitimate son of Anderson Mitchell. The investigator recommended to the Pension Board that the claim of Jacob Smith be accepted.

Abraham disappears from the records after his 1890 testimony. Anderson's first wife Hannah Levi, mother of Abraham, died April 1883. Betsy Sartin, Anderson second wife and mother of Jacob, died March 16, 1887. Jacob married Priscila Unknown. The couple raised two sons; Nathan b. 1886 and Anderson b. 1890. Jacob died of old age July 24, 1923 near Barlow, Copiah County, MS.

The Smith family continued to fight for their rights as American citizens. Anderson's nephew Lamar Smith b. 1892 was a civil rights activist. Lamar was a 63 year old farmer and World War II veteran who organizied black voter registration. He was shot to death at close range on the crowded lawn of the Lincoln County courthouse in Brookhaven, MS, on August 13, 1955. No one was convicted of the murder.

Today, descendants of the Smith family remain in Jefferson and Lincoln Counties.



Old Time Disease
*Dysentery is inflamation of the colon with frequent passage of mucous and blood.
*Small Pox is a contagious disease with fever and blisters.


REMEMBERING THOSE WHO TESTIFIED IN ANDERSONíS MILITARY PENSION CASE

Thaddeus H. Allen - Minister and Pension Solicitor - Thaddeus filed a pension and bounty claim for Abraham Mitchell. He did not know Abraham Mitchell prior to the Civil War. Thaddeus served with Company H, 58th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. (1880 Census - THADDEUS ALLEN 34, Lorette 28, Elijah 1, Beat 5, Lincoln County, MS - Page 143)

Rev. John B. Bowen - Elder in the Methodist Episcopal Church and Missionary to the slaves from 1850 through and after the Civil War. He preformed many marriage, baptism, and burial ceremonies among the Negro people. (1870 Census - J. B. BOWEN 43, R. L. 32, L. M. 9, I. R. 8, P. P. 4, Lena 2, Jefferson County, Union Church, MS - Page 2)

Robert Bryant - Robert testified about the relationship between Jacob Smith and his grandparents Jacob and Sidney Smith. Robert was a slave of John McDaniel of Veto, Franklin County, MS. (1880 Census - ROBERT BRYANT 29, Amanda 29, Artemis 8, Adelaide 7, Lynch 3, Melissa 1 - Beat 1, Jefferson County, MS - Page 146)

Robert Burnett - He was present at the marriage of Anderson and Betsy. Robert served with Company C, 58th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. Robert was a slave of John Torrey of Union Church, Jefferson County, MS. (1870 Census - ROBT BURNETT 34, Jane 34, Anderson 17, James 15, Laura 12, Molly 5, Robt 2, Alise 4 months - Jefferson County, Union Church, MS - Page 68)

Ellis Freeman - Ellis was with Betsy a day before her death and attended her funeral. (1880 Census - Nicholas Smith 36, Oma Smith 28, Rachel Smith 15, Pollie Smith 13, Sinclair Smith 11, Flora Smith 8, Sarah Smith 6, Alma Smith 4, Zion McMallan 24, ELLIS FREEMAN 20, Augusta Stewart 13 - Lincoln County, Beat 5, MS - Page 119)

Robb Holmes - Robert did not know Anderson or his brothers prior to the War. He testified that he knew Anderson died in the army because he served in the same regiment and company with Anderson and his brothers. (1870 Census - ROBT HOLMES 41, Patsey 44, Eliza 19, Matt 17, Julia 12, Charlie 9, Mary Lou 4 - Fayette, Jefferson County, MS - Page 71)

Sarah Joshua - She was a sister of Sidney Smith and the wife of Joe Joshua. Sarah testified about the relationship between Anderson and Betsey. (1870 Census - Joseph Joshua 38, SARAH JOSHUA 28, Allen Daniels 8, Susan Daniels 3, George Owen 10, Suckey Mitchell 74 - Jefferson County, Union Church, MS - Page 68)

Felix Mason - He was a former slave of John Irvin Mitchell. Felix married Susan, a slave of Charles McLean of Jefferson County, MS. He was a witness to the marriage of Betsey and Anderson. Felix stated that Reverend John Bowen married the couple. (1870 Census - FELIX MASON 63, Susie 55, Irvin 14, Patsy 11 - Jefferson County, Union Church, MS, Page 24)

Calvin McCormick aka Calvin Williams - He testified about the relationship between Anderson and Betsy. He was a slave of John McCormick. Calvin served with the 6th Regiment, United States Colored Heavy Artillery. (1870 Census - CALVIN MCCORMICK 23, Mariah McCormick 21, Dora McCormick 1, Amy Carter 14, Union Church, Jefferson County, MS - Page 24)

Abraham Mitchell aka Abraham Smith aka Abraham Levi - Abraham was the son of Anderson with Hannah. He testified about what he was told about his paternity. (1870 Census - Charles Levi 40, Hannah Levi 25, ABLE LEVI 12, James Levi 10, William Levi 8, Kate Levi 2, L. Harrison 20, Hannah Harrison 25 - Caseyville, Lincoln County, MS - Page 101)

Bluford Mitchell aka Bulford Smith - Bluford was the brother of Anderson. He served in the same company and regiment with brother Anderson. Bluford testified about his brotherís marriages and children. (1870 Census - BLUEFORD SMITH 30, H. 25, Crecy 6, Martha 3 - Caseyville, Lincoln County, MS - Page 97)

Eddy Mitchell aka Eddie (Atty) Whalem - He was 1st cousin to Anderson. Eddieís mother Mary and Andersonís mother Sidney were sisters. Henderson Whalem was Eddie's father. Eddie testified that he was a witness to the marriage between Betsy and Anderson. Eddie served with the 6th Regiment, United States Colored Heavy Artillery. (1870 Census - ED WINDHAM 40, Fannie Windham 27, Ephraim Gibbs 7, Geo Windham 4, James Windham 3, Edward Windham, Jr., 11 months - Fayette, Jefferson County, MS - Page 172)

Jacob Mitchell aka Jacob Smith - Jacob was the son of Anderson with Betsy. Jacob testified about his paternity and about his relationship with his grandparents, Jacob and Sidney Smith. (1870 Census - Charles Sarter 36, Betsey 35, Larry 18, Isom 9, Harriett 13, JAKE 10, Joe 4, Ellis 2, Infant 1, Nancy McDougald 75 - Union Church, Jefferson County, MS - Page 6)

Alice Montgomery - She was a sister of Betsy. She testified about the relationship of Anderson and Betsy. Alice was a slave of John Mitchell. (1870 Census - ALICE MONTGOMERY 30, Gilbert 16, Charlie 6, Ellen 8 - Union Church, Jefferson County, MS - Page 23)

Jacob and Sidney Smith - They were the parents of Anderson Smith. Jacob was a former slave of Dougald McMillan and Sidney was a former slave of John Mitchell. They testified about their sonís relationship with Betsy and Hannah. (1870 Census - JACOB SMITH 55, SIDNEY 52, Lenice 22, Susie A 14, Phillis 12 - Union Church, Jefferson County, MS - Page 20)

Charles Stewart - He served in the same company and regiment with Anderson Mitchell. He testified that Hannah Mitchell and Anderson Mitchell were married according to slave custom. Charles was a former slave of John Irvin Mitchell. (1870 Census - CHAS STEWART 45, Callie 17 - Union Church, Jefferson County, MS - Page 22)

Mollie Whalem - She was present when Jacob Mitchell was born.

Flora Wright aka Flora Jackson - Flora testified that Jacob Smith was the son of Anderson and Betsey. She was a daughter of Jacob Smith, half sister of Anderson. She was a slave of Dougald McMillan in Copiah County. Flora first married Jim Jackson during the days of slavery. After Jim's death, she married Allen Wright October 18, 1888 in Adams County, MS.

Caroline Ann Taylor, slave of Samuel Darden of Jefferson County, was Allen's first wife. Allen and Caroline married in Natchez by a white chaplain soldier. Caroline died after 1870.

Allen served with Company A, 63rd Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. He enlisted about October 15, 1863. While traveling with his command from Jackson, MS, to Trenton about January 7, 1864, Allen fell from the top of a crowded car, falling to the frozen ground, severely injuring his back and body. Allen suffered paralysis of the legs and bladder. Allen was discharged September 05, 1865 from Natchez City Hospital. He received his pension.

Allen died January 27, 1890, due to complications of his injuries, in Natchez. Flora died December 28, 1916 in Washington, Adams County, MS.
(1880 Census - Allen Wright 67, FLORA JACKSON 47, Nancy Jackson 27, George Washington 11, James Washington 4, John Washington - Washington, Adams County, MS - Page 212)



SOURCES

Anderson Mitchell's Federal Military Pension Records
Bluford Mitchell's Federal Military Pension Records
Allen Wright's Federal Military Pension Records
Compiled Military Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers who Served with the United States Colored Troops - 6th USCHA - Microfilm Number: 39151
John Mitchell's Jefferson County Probate Records - Docket Number 113 - Microfilm Number: 12197
John Mitchell's Jefferson County Will - Page 70 - Microfilm Number: 12054
John Mitchell's Jefferson County Deed Book Records - Deed Book H - Page 217 - Microfilm Number: 12013
Union Church Presbyterian Church Records - Microfilm Number: 36274
Dougald McMillan's Copiah County Probate Records - Microfilm Number: 8212
Archibald Smith Collection, 1850-1957 - Microfilm Number: 36204
McArn (Duncan) and Family Papers Collection - Special Manuscript Collection: Z/1487, Box 8
All microfilms and manuscript collection were found at the Mississippi Department of Archives and History
Jacob (Jake) Smith's Death Certificate - MS1923-14912
Flora Wright's Death Certificate - MS1916-22420
1840 Jefferson County Federal Census - MS
1850 Jefferson County Federal Census - MS
1860 Copiah County Slave Schedule - MS
1860 Jefferson County Slave Schedule - MS
1870 Jefferson County Federal Census - MS
1870 Lincoln County Federal Census - MS
1880 Lincoln County Federal Census - MS
1880 Jefferson County Federal Census - MS

Private John Culver of the 58th Regiment, United States Colored Troops

Private Calvin McCormick of the 6th Regiment, United States Colored Heavy Artillery

Private Eddy Mitchell of the 6th Regiment, United States Colored Heavy Artillery

Remembering Their Names