# Calculators, Predictors, Conversions Charts

Click on the link or graphic to open the calculators in a new window.

general health and fitness | calories, body fat, BMI | miscellaneous sport calculators
pace calculators | race times predictors | heart rate | VO2 Max | distance conversion charts | weather charts

## Calorie, Body Fat, BMI Calculators

Formula for caloric expenditure

Formula to determine number of calories needed to support life. Normal resting metabolism is related to body size, amount of muscle tissue, rate of growth, age, sex, thyroid and adrenal activity, and pregnancy and lactation. Resting metabolic expenditure is increased by infection and following trauma. During periods of stress, when insufficient fuel is supplied as food, energy is derived from tissue breakdown. Each of conditions should be considered when computing nutritional needs.

To determing caloric expenditure, calculate basal energy expenditure (BEE) by using the following equations:
Men: BEE = 66 + (13.7 X W) + (5 X H) - (6.8 X A)
Women: BEE = 655 + (9.6 X W) + (1.7 X H) - (4.7 X A)

W is actual (or desired) weight in kg (weight in kg = weight in pounds/2.2)
H is actual height in cm (height in com = height in inches x 2.5)
A is age in years

Activity:
The BEE is increased to adjust for activity level:
Very sedentary: + 20%
Sedentary: + 30%
Moderate: + 40%
Very heavy: + 50%
Fever: an adjustment is made for calories by adding 7% of the BEE to the total for each degree F raised (13% for each degree C).

## Miscellaneous Sport Calculators

Simple Science Heart Rate

Approximate maximum HR = 220 - age
Approximate training zone target: lower limit = 0.6 x max HR, upper limit = 0.8 x max HR

Bike Fit

Frame size (cm, center-to-center) = inseam (cm) x 0.65
Saddle height (cm, from center of bottom bracket to top of saddle) = inseam (cm) x 0.883

Inseam - Crankarm Length

inseam of less than 74 cm = 165 mm crankarm
inseam of 74 to 80 cm = 170 mm crankarm
inseam of 81 to 86 cm = 172.5 mm crankarm
inseam of 87 to 93 cm = 175 mm crankarm

(Crankarm is measured from the center of the bottom bracket axle to the center of the pedal mounting hole.)

Length Conversions:
to get centimeters: multiply inches by 2.54
centimeters to inches: x 0.394

to get meters: multiply feet by 0.305, or yards by 0.914
meters to feet: x 3.28, meters to yards: x 1.094

to get kilometers: multiply miles by 1.61
kilometers to miles: x 0.62

## Distances Conversion Chart

```
1 yard =    .9144 meter      100 yards = 91.4400 meters
220 yards = 201.1680 meters
440 yards = 402.3360 meters  880 yards = 804.6720 meters

1 meter =   1.094 yards      100 meters = 109.400 yards
200 meters = 218.800 yards
400 meters = 437.600 yards   800 meters =  875.200 yards

1 mile =  .609 kilometers = 1760 yards = 5280 feet
1 kilometer = .6214 miles = 1094 yards = 3281 feet

Kilometers to Miles        Miles to Kilometers
-----------------------------------------------
1 km =   .6214 miles       1 mile =  1.609 km
2 km =  1.2418 miles      2 miles =  3.218 km
3 km =  1.8642 miles      3 miles =  4.827 km
4 km =  2.4856 miles      4 miles =  6.436 km
5 km =  3.1070 miles      5 miles =  8.045 km
6 km =  3.7284 miles      6 miles =  9.654 km
7 km =  4.3498 miles      7 miles = 11.263 km
8 km =  4.9712 miles      8 miles = 12.872 km
9 km =  5.5926 miles      9 miles = 14.481 km
10 km =  6.2140 miles     10 miles = 16.090 km
11 km =  6.8354 miles     11 miles = 17.699 km
12 km =  7.4568 miles     12 miles = 19.308 km
13 km =  8.0782 miles     13 miles = 20.917 km
14 km =  8.6996 miles     14 miles = 22.526 km
15 km =  9.3210 miles     15 miles = 24.135 km
20 km = 12.4280 miles     20 miles = 32.180 km
25 km = 15.5350 miles     25 miles = 40.225 km
30 km = 18.6420 miles

1 marathon = 26 miles + 385 yards = 42.186 km

```

## Weather Charts

Probability of Precipitation (POP) and Terminology

POP is the likelihood of occurrence (expressed as a percent) of a precipitation event at any given point in the forecast area. The National Weather Service (NWS) uses two different methods to indicate the chance of precipitation for a specific area: numerical or in non-numerical terms. The "Expression of Uncertainty" category is used for widespread precipitation and the "Equivalent Areal Coverage" for convective (i.e., showery) events. Below is a table of these two methods with the corresponding POP.

```POP		Expression of Uncertainty	Equivalent Areal Coverage
0%		None Used			None Used
10%		Slight Chance (seldom used)	Isolated or few
20%		Slight Chance			Widely Scattered
30-50%		Chance				Scattered
60-70%		Likely				Numerous
80-100%		None Used			None Used
```
There are other qualifying terms which are used with the above non-numerical expressions. For example:
```     For duration - brief, occasional, intermittent, frequent.
For intensity - very light, light, heavy, very heavy.
VERY LIGHT		less then .01 inches
LIGHT			.01 to .10 inch per hour
MODERATE		.10 to .30 inch per hour
HEAVY			.30 inch per hour
```

Wind Direction and Speed Terminology

A forecast wind (direction and speed) is included in the first two periods of the forecast. The wind is included in the third and/or fourth period if considered significant.

1. Wind direction is the direction where the wind is coming FROM and is based on an 8-point compass (NE, E, SE, etc.). Light wind (usually 5 mph or less) will be handled in the following ways:

```	LIGHT SOUTH WINDS (if direction is known),
LIGHT AND VARIABLE WINDS, or
LIGHT WINDS (where "light" implies a variable wind direction).```
2. Wind speed will be given in miles per hour. Following is a list of terms sometimes used to describe the wind speed.
```Speed range		Terms
0-5 mph			Light or Light and Variable
5-15 mph		None used
15-25 mph		Breezy (usually for mild weather)
Brisk (usually for cold weather)
20-30 mph		Windy
30-40 mph		Very Windy
40 mph or greater	Strong, Damaging, Dangerous, High
```
Note: A forecast can contain a peak wind speed in gusty situations. For example, "NORTHWEST WIND 20 TO 30 MPH WITH OCCASIONAL GUSTS TO 40 MPH.")

Terminology of Temperature

Numerical temperature values are represented in NWS forecasts in four ways:

1. "Near," "around," or "about" a specific value rounded to the nearest five zero. Above 100°F or below 10°F, any number will be used. For example:

`		NEAR 40, AROUND 15, ABOUT 85, or NEAR 106.`
2. A general range where the terms are defined by the following:
```		LOWER 50's	(50 - 54)
MID 50's	(53 - 57)
UPPER 50's	(56 - 59)
50's		(50 - 59)```
3. A specific range rounded to the nearest five or zero (except ranges below 10°F or above 100°F, any number may be used). For example, 70 to 75 or 102 to 108.

4. Specific numbers for site-specific locations: "Tri-State Area - 70/50/72".

Sky Cover Terminology

```Term				Opaque Coverage			Aviation
Clear or Sunny			< 1/10				Clear
Mostly Clear/Mostly Sunny	1/10 to 2/10			Scattered
Partly Cloudy/Partly Sunny	3/10 to 6/10			Scattered
Mostly Cloudy			7/10 to 8/10			Broken
Cloudy				9/10 to 10/10 opaque clouds	Overcast
```
Wind Chill Index

The wind chill index provided below shows the effective cooling on exposed skin. When the wind blows across the skin, it removes the insulating layer of warm air adjacent to the skin. When all factors are the same, the faster the wind blows, the greater the heat loss, which results in a colder feeling.

```	                          Temperature (° F)
35    30    25    20    15    10     5     0    -5   -10   -15   -20   -25   -30   -35   -40
mph
W   5	32    27    22    16    11     6     0    -5   -10   -15   -21   -26   -31   -36   -42	 -47
I  10	22    16    10     3    -3    -9   -15   -22   -27   -34   -40   -46   -52   -58   -65	 -71
N  15	16     9     2    -5   -11   -18   -25   -31   -38   -45   -51   -58   -65   -72   -78	 -85
D  20	12     4    -3   -10   -17   -24   -31   -39   -46   -53   -60   -67   -74   -81   -88	 -95
25	 8     1    -7   -15   -22   -29   -36   -44   -51   -59   -66   -74   -81   -88   -96	-103
S  30	 6    -2   -10   -18   -25   -33   -41   -49   -56   -64   -71   -79   -86   -93  -101	-109
P  35	 4    -4   -12   -20   -27   -35   -43   -52   -58   -67   -74   -82   -89   -97  -105	-113
E  40	 3    -5   -13   -21   -29   -37   -45   -53   -60   -69   -76   -84   -92  -100  -107	-115
E  45	 2    -6   -14   -22   -30   -38   -46   -54   -62   -70   -78   -85   -93  -102  -109	-117
D
```
Heat Index

The NWS has devised the "Heat Index" (HI), sometimes called the "apparent temperature." The HI is the temperature the body feels when the heat and humidity are combined. The table below is the Heat Index Chart. (Note: This chart is based upon shady, light wind conditions. Exposure to full sunshine can increase HI values by up to 15° F.)

```				Relative Humidity (%)
0     5    10    15    20    25    30    35    40    45    50    55    60    65    70    75    80    85    90    95   100
120   107   111   116   123   130   139   148
115   103   107   111   115   120   127   135   143   151
110    99   102   105   108   112   117   123   130   137   143   150
T  105    95    97   100   102   105   109   113   118   123   129   135   142   149
E  100    91    93    95    97    99   101   104   107   110   115   120   126   132   138   144
M   95    87    88    90    91    93    94    96    98   101   104   107   110   114   119   124   130   136
P   90    83    84    85    86    87    88    90    91    93    95    96    98   100   102   106   109   113   117   122
85    78    79    80    81    82    83    84    85    86    87    88    89   90     91    93    95    97    99   102   105	108
80    73    74    75    76    77    77    78    79    79    80    81    81   82     83    85    86    86    87    88    89	 91
75    69    69    70    71    72    72    73    73    74    74    75    75   76     76    77    77    78    78    79    79	 80
70    64    64    65    65    66    66    67    67    68    68    69    69   70     70    70    70    71    71    71    71   72
```
Heat Index and Possible Heat Disorders

80°F to 90°F: Fatigue possible with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity.
90°F to 105°F: Sunstroke, heat cramps and heat exhaustion possible with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity.
105°F to 130°F: Sunstroke, heat cramps, or heat exhaustion likely, and heatstroke possible with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity.
130°F or greater: Heat stroke/sunstroke highly likely with continued exposure.