ancient city-states: the rise of civilization
1. Sumer (Shinar), first city-state, the Sumerians ["Ubaidians"], pre-Semitic Hamitic inhabitants of Mesopotamia
Noah [Neptune] begot three sons, namely, (1) Sem, (2) Iapet, and (3) Ham. And, Ham begot three sons, namely, (1) Kush, (2) Mizraim, and (3) Phut.
(1) Kush, the first King of Kish, and the ancestor of the Kushites, the "Black African" race, according to the world’s genealogy of seventy [or seventy-two] nations recorded by Moses in "The Table of Nations" (Genesis 10), and founder of the Kushite/Nubian royal house.
(2) Mizraim, his brother, migrated to Egypt, called the "Land of Ham" in the Bible, and was the father of an eldest son and two younger twin sons. The eldest son, On, was the ancestor of Egypt’s priests; and, the twins, Pathros and Caphtor, split Egypt between them and founded the double kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt, or "Dynasty 0". Later, Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt and drove out their cousins, the Caphtorites [who took ships and settled pre-Minoan Crete]; and, Mene[s], united Egypt into one nation, and founded its first national dynasty. Mene[s], 1st King of Egypt, was the son of Narmer "The Scorpion", the Viceroy/King of Upper Egypt in Nimrod’s Sumerian Empire, and, his wife, Nimrod's sister, Quire, The kingdom of Lower Egypt, that is, of the Mizraimite-Caphtorites, was transferred from Lower Egypt to the Isle of Crete; and, transferred again from Crete to Troy [6th-7th Dyn.] at the time of the Minoan Conquest of Crete; and, from Troy, in North-West Turkey, after its epic fall fighting the Greeks and their allies [episode of "The Trojan Horse"], transferred again to Alba-Longa in Italy, which was the mother-city of Rome, whose emperors claimed the "world-throne" as Nimrod's successors.
(3) Phut, the other brother, was the ancestor of the North Africans, who dwelt west of Egypt, or Libyans, who gave "The Maghrib" [North Africa, west of Egypt] a dynasty of kings; one of whom a thousand years later gave land for a colony of Phoenicians under their queen, first ruler of Carthage.
2. Babel, Nimrod, 1st King
A. early years
The Kushite prince Nimrod, called AEthiops in Greek Mythology, is said in ancient literature to have been a very charismatic young man who slew a dragon [a dinosaur], which deed made him popular among the people of the Mesopotamian settlement of the human-race. He was described in ancient literature as big and strong and a very handsome, athletic "black man", whose looks dazzled the eyes of his female admirers, and whose charisma spellbound his male followers.
The first post-diluvian attempt by the human-race to institutionalize a government was made by Nimrod at Babel, in Sumeria, Mesopotamia, where the main body of the human-race had set up camp. He overthrew the post-diluvian Semitic "patriarchate" [the Semite-line: which according to the "Noahic Covenant", was given a divine mandate to rule as a series of hereditary patriarchs], and establishing in its place an Hamitic "monarchy", as the world’s first king as well as the first "world-king" since the entire human-race was re-unified by the monarchy or crown. Nimrod established a government at Babel over Sumeria; and extended his rule over other human settlements worldwide either by their consent or by force, and founded the world’s first empire. He was the first person in world-history to make war on his own species, say all the ancient sources.
Nimrod developed (1) a state, which was a monarchy, which was modeled after his understanding of Heaven's governmental-system to mirror it on earth, hence, it was a divine-monarchy, supposedly representing the kingdom of God on earth!; (2) a pagan religion, "zeroashtaism", based on his [and his successors’] identification with the "seed of the woman" of the "Edenic-Covenant" (Gen 3:15), with a priesthood and its schools, which supported the monarchy, whose royal ideology was the Sumerian religion, "zeroashtaism"; and (3) an economy, which commercial system has existed ever since. Nimrod attributed to himself divine honors claiming to be "the woman’s seed" of God’s prophecy to Adam and Eve, the "Edenic Covenant", (Gen. 3:15). Nimrod was the proto-type of the future "Anti-Christ" in the Bible; for it is "Christ", or "Messiah", to whom the prophecy of Genesis 3:15 applies. Nimrod invented money and introduced a monetary system and issued the first coinage. He introduced the calendar and the division of the day onto twenty-four hours. In fact, about everything we find in civilizations, weights, measurements, writing, etc., all began at Babel in Nimrod's empire.
His wife, Semiramis, appears as an evil queen in ancient literature. He was her 2nd husband, for her first husband had been Puluku [Peleg], the Semitic Patriarch, who had served in Nimrod’s empire as "viceroy of Syria". His son, Reu, grew up in the royal palace as an imperial prince. He was even considered "heir-expectant" of the throne until the birth of his half-brother, Bel, the first King of Babel or Babylon or Sumer, identified with Tammuz in Babylonian Mythology. Bel was the posthumous son of Nimrod and Queen Semiramis [his mother], who claimed him to be Nimrod-reborn, thus, still king, and sat him on the throne in order to maintain her position as queen-consort, and, at the same-time, the queen-mother. Nimrod's posthumous son, Bel, was identified as "the woman’s seed" of Genesis 3:15, the "madonna and child" cult, which was the dynasty’s royal ideology, which was actually the royal ideologies of all the ancient world’s dynasties, since it gives a divine-mandate, and gave Babel a line of kings, who were interpreted as successive incarnations of "the woman’s seed" in a dynasty of god-kings.
the Tower of Babel, the "confusion of tongues", & the "dispersion of the human-race"
The construction of the "Tower of Babel" was begun by Nimrod but was temporarily halted at the time of the "confusion of tongues" which sparked the "dispersion of the human-race" all over the globe. Nimrod was murdered during the chaos that followed the "confusion of tongues". His posthumous son, Bel, [with his mother, Queen Semiramis, as regent] succeeded his father in a much reduced empire, comprising only Mesopotamia [Sumeria]. He later completed the "Tower of Babel" project. There, at Babel, God "confused the tongues" of the human-race, and scattered the human-race throughout the world. It was at this time during the "great migrations" that Atlas and eight of his nine brothers, the sons of Iapet, the middle son of Noah [Neptune], called "Titans" in Greek Mythology, migrated from Morocco [where Mestor and his tribe remained behind] to the islands & coasts of the Atlantic Ocean, among whom were Ampher[us] [the Welsh Albion "Gawr"], whose tribe settled in the British Isles with him as Britain’s first king, the founder of the Bronze Age dynasty of "Sacral-Kings" of Britain and The Isles. These were proto-Picts, who originally populated the British Isles.
E. successor-state, 1st Dynasty
Bel, the posthumous son of Nimrod and Queen Semiramis, however, gathered together the remnants of the world-government-system and established the state of Babel or Sumer; and, Bel is [also] reckoned as the first King of Babel, or Sumer, and the ancestor of its dynasty, the Belgae [Baltheride] [Baalite], whose successors were represented by branches of Bel’s descendants as the kings of several Sumerian city-states. The royal house of the Phoenicians at Tyre, previously at Sidon, was Baalite. Bel completed the construction of the Tower of Babel, a ziggurat, the great-temple to their god [Satan], and completed the walls of Babylon, and completed most of the other projects begun by his father, such as the "united-nations" headquarters. He made Babel-Babylon into the world’s most splendid city, to symbolize its supposed status as the world’s capital-city.
There was a rivalry between Bel, and his descendants, verses Reu, and his descendants. Kingdom of Babel flourished for hundreds if not perhaps a thousand years, circa 4500-3500BC, under Bel's descendants, and fell at the time of the conquest of Mesopotamia by the Semitic-Sumerians, under Reu's descendants, displacing most of its native population, the Hamitic-Sumerians.
3. Salem: city-state
Reu, the heir of the Semitic patriarchate, has a descent-line unrecorded in the Bible. His descendants held sway at Salem, the site of the future Jerusalem. There is a large gap in the Bible genealogy between Reu and his "descendant", not "son", Serug. It appears that an ancient scribe thought the "Torah" needed a chronology, so he gave it one. The age-scale of the generations is the later chronology version of the text, whereas the text of just "begots" was the original manuscript written by Moses. Reu was a rival against his half-brother, Bel, for the world-throne, which essentially disappeared with the collapse of Nimrod’s world-empire due to the chaos that took place at the dispersion of the human-race, however, the concept of a "world-throne" was still there.
4. Egypt: national-state
Meantime, Mene[s], the son of Nimrod’s sister, Quire, and, her husband, Narmer "The Scorpion", the viceroy of Upper Egypt in Nimrod’s empire, following Nimrod’s death, claimed the world-throne in opposition to Reu and Bel, and, took up residence at Memphis, Egypt, where he established a state, a religion [an Egyptianized version of Sumerian "zeroashtaism"], and a culture, and, is reckoned as Egypt’s first king. He was the first pharaoh of Egypt’s 1st-Dynasty [9 kings].
5. Kish, city-state [1st Dynasty: 23 kings]
The successors of the Hamitic Sumerian kings of Babel, or Babylon, or Sumer, were the kings of Kish/Kush, the Sumerian city-state, whose dynasty is somewhere said to have been the first post-diluvian royal house [though Babel actually was], which is only a reference that Kush was onetime the dynasty’s residence.
The Baalite Dynasty re-emerges as the first dynasty of the Sumerian city-state of Kish [Kush]. The Sumerian city-state of Kish/Kush, its first dynasty, the Baalite Dynasty, was founded by Gaur (Galar), called the "first" King of Kish/Kush, the son of King Zi-U-Sudra of Babel, or Sumer, who was considered to represent the old Babel government-in-exile at Kish/Kush as its 11th king, but in reality he was actually the founder and the first king of the 1st-Dynasty of Kish/Kush. There were 23 kings in the 1st-Dynasty of Kish/Kush from King Gaur to King Agga, the last king of the 1st-Dynasty. The 1st-Dynasty of Kish obtained to empire under its king Etana, called "The Shepherd" [# 13 in list], about whom an epic survives. The heritage of Kish/Kush, whose kings were the heirs of the Kings of Babel and/or Sumer, who reigned as the emperors of the Sumerian Empire, was that of a "world-throne"; that is, until the time of the Akkadian Empire, their successors, which passed the heritage on to their "cultural descendants", the Babylonian emperors. The Sumerian emperors, the Babylonian emperors, and, the Romans emperors, in their turn, claimed worldwide dominion, sitting on the world-throne, and reigned as a dynasty of god-kings.The defeat and death of King Agge of Kish/Kush in battle fighting Enkhegal, King of Lagash, who threw-off the domination of Kish, gave Mesilim the opportunity to usurp the throne in Kish/Kush, dispossessing Kish's 1st Dynasty.
6. Lagash, city-state [1st Dynasty: 11 kings]
The kingdom of Lagash and its 1st Dynasty [11 kings] was founded at this time by Enkhegal, which dynasty of Lagash was contemporary with the 1st Dynasty of Ur [3 kings] and the 1st Dynasty of Erech [Uruk] [12 kings], both off-shoots of the 1st Dynasty of Kish [23 kings]; and, also, contemporary with the 2nd Dynasty of Kish [8 kings]. The grandson of King Enkhegal of Lagash, Ur-Nanshe of Lagash, threw-off the domination of Kish and went onto conquer nearly all of the Sumerian city-states, which became his vassal-states, and reigned as Sumerian emperor, which then was understood to mean "world-king". He created an empire for Lagash in Sumeria, maintained by his descendants, until its conquest by Erech.
Meantime, the [twin] sons of King Agga of Kish, namely, Mes-agga-sheri and Mes-anne-paddi, the Kushite co-heirs, both established themselves as kings of other Sumerian city-states: Mes-agga-sheri was the first King of Erech [Uruk] (7), the founder of its first dynasty [12 kings]; and, his [twin] brother Mes-anne-paddi was the first King of Ur (8), the founder of its first dynasty [3 kings].
7. Erech, city-state
Erech rose to empire, under its king, Utukhegal [# 7 in list], with the decline of Lagash, another Sumerian city-state, which submitted to its vassalage, and reigned as a Sumerian emperor. Another famous king of Erech was Gilgamesh [# 5 in list], whose epic survives of how he went to visit his ancestor, Uta-Napishtim, the Sumerian name for the English name Noah, identified with the Noah of the Bible, who was still alive, and, who, according to mythology, in his old age went to reside on a large island in the sea with his grandson Atlas, the 1st King of Atlantis [the legendary "lost continent", whose mountain-peaks are today the Azore Islands], to whom he tells the story of "The Flood", which is the Sumerian account of the Biblical account of "Noah’s Flood". King Enetarzi [En-entar-zi] of Lagash [formerly a priest, a younger son of King Enannatum II] lost the empire to King Lugal-Ke of Erech, who restored the empire of Erech.
8. Ur, 1st Dynasty [3 kings]
9. Awan, city-state [3 kings: Luli, Kuli, & Peli]
X. Kish, 2nd Dynasty [8/or 9 kings] was founded by Mesilim, or by his son Shulum.
The 2nd-Dynasty of Kish, the Sumerian city-state, was representative of the Semitic Reuite-Line, which reigned supreme in Sumeria for several generations, whose kings were descendants of Reu, the Sumerian imperial prince, whose descent-line, with gaps, is recorded in the Bible. Lugalmu, 8th/or 9th King of Kish, was the last king of the 2nd Dynasty. He was the first husband of Queen Kubau (Kubaba) [Kish, 3rd Dynasty], by whom he begot three sons: (1) Enuk-Duanni, King of Erech [2nd Dynasty]; (2) Puzur-Sin, King of Kish [4th Dynasty: 7 kings]; and (3) Ur-Zababa
10. Hamazi, city-state [2 kings]
Its king, Hatanis, reigned as Sumerian emperor; his son Zizi was defeated in battle and Hamazi was conquered by King Enuk-Duanni of Erech
X. Erech (Uruk), 2nd Dynasty
[3 kings: Enuk-Duanni, 1st King (above), father of Lugalure, 2nd King, father of Argandea, 3rd King, overthrown by King Lugalzaggisi of Umma]
Its king Urukagina was overthrown by Lugalzaggisi, King of Umma.
X. Ur, 2nd Dynasty [4 kings] was founded by Lugal-Melam [son of Puzur-ili, King of Erech]. His descendant, Lugal-Kakku, was overthrown by King Lugal-ane-mundu of Adab.
11. Adab, city-state [1 king]
King Lugal-ane-mundu of Adab reigned for a time as Sumerian emperor, and suppressed a rebellion of Elam, a Sumerian city-state.
12. Mari, city-state
Anpu, 1st King of Mari, who founded its 1st dynasty [6 kings]. His descendant, Iblul, the last king of the 1st-Dynasty of Mari, was slain by King Ar-Ennum of Ebla.
13. Ebla, city-state
King Ar-Ennum of Ebla conquered Mari and placed his younger son, Ibbi-Sipish, as King of Mari [2nd-Dynasty], while his elder son, Ebrium, succeeded him in Elba as its king. The son of King Iblul of Mari, Unzi, founded the Dynasty of Akshak [6 kings]. He overthrew Queen Kubau of Kish.
X. Kish, 3rd Dynasty
Queen Kubau (Kubaba) of Kish [3rd-Dyn.], widow of the late King Lugal-mu of Kish [2nd Dynasty], her husband. Kubau seized the throne on her husband’s death and reigned in Kish as the only monarch of the 3rd-Dynasty of Kish [1 ruler]. Kubau was the daughter [or grand-daughter] of an earlier Sumerian emperor. The death of her father and the conquest of their city-state left its royal family dispossessed and destitute; and, the young princess for a while was a tavern-keeper until her discovery and marriage to then Prince Lugal-mu of Kish. She led an energetic campaign to liberate Kish from Erech’s domination, and ends up actually taking the city-state, Erech. She deposed King Lugal-Ke of Erech and took his family hostage, that is, she dispossessed the 1st-Dynasty of Erech [12 kings], and placed her son, Enuk-Duanni, on the throne of Erech [2nd-Dyn.: 3 kings], whose son, Lugalure, maintained the kingdom, but, his son, Argandea, was overthrown by Lugalzaggisi, the King of Umma, another Sumerian city-state, who occupied Erech and founded Erech's 3rd Dynasty.
14. Umma, 1st Dynasty [or Erech, 3rd Dynasty]
The 3rd-Dynasty of Erech [1 king], was represented by Lugalzaggisi, King of Umma, who moved his seat to Erech. His military-conquests revived the empire of Erech. He conquered 1st-Dynasty Lagash, whose last king, Ur-Ukagine of Lagash, watched from a distance his city-state destroyed by Lugalzaggisi, who rose to reign as Sumerian emperor. He was later overthrown by Sargon of Agade.
15. Akkad (Agade), the Akkadians [12 kings]
The babe Sargon was found by Queen Kubaba of Kish [3rd-Dyn.], in a small basket. She had conquered Erech and numerous other Sumerian city-states, and ruled as empress over a vast empire. The Erech heir, Agga, was held prisoner by Queen Kububa, who made him her gardener. The mother of Sargon was a high-priestess, Azupirana, who, in fear for Sargon’s life mother to concealled his existence; and, he grew up as the foster-son of Queen Kubala of Kish.
King Unzi of Akshak overthrew Queen Kubau. He permitted the succession of her son, Pzu-Zin (Puzursin), who founds the 4th-Dynasty of Kish [7 kings]. His brother, Ur-Za-Baba (Urzababa), King of Kish, was overthrown by his cup-bearer, Sargon, the hostage Erech royal-heir.
Sargon (Sharrum-kin) deposed King Ur-Za-Baba of Kish [4th-Dyn.], usurped the throne as the 5th-Dynasty of Kish/Kush, and, went on to conquer all the Sumerian city-states, and revived the Sumerian empire, uniting it federally by simply establishing a new capital-city at Akkad [Agade], rather than at Kish. Hence, the 5th-Dynasty of Kish became the Dynasty of Akkad [Agade] [12 emperors]. Still, in Kish, the brother of Ur-Za-Baba, namely, Zimu-dar, reigned as Sargon’s vassal-king; and was succeeded by his son, Usi-watar, reckoned as a continuation of Kish’s 4th-Dynasty [7 kings], who were vassals to the Akkadian emperors.
the Akkadian Empire
01. Sargon I [nat. son], 1st King of Akkad [Agade], formerly King of Kish; adopted son of Queen Kubau; conquered the city-states of Mesopotamia & founded a great empire
= ?grand-dau of King Lugal-Zaggisi of Erech
deposed King Ur-Za-Baba of Kish [4th-Dyn.], usurped the throne as the 5th-Dynasty of Kish/Kush, and, went on to conquer all the Sumerian city-states, and revived the Sumerian empire, uniting it federally by simply establishing a new capital-city at Akkad [Agade], rather than at Kish. Hence, the 5th-Dynasty of Kish became the Dynasty of Agade [12 emperors]. Still, in Kish, the brother of Ur-Za-Baba, namely, Zimu-dar, reigned as Sargon’s vassal-king; and was succeeded by his son, Usi-watar, reckoned as a continuation of Kish’s 4th-Dynasty, who were vassals to the Akkadian emperors.
02. Man-Ishtusu, 3rd King, bro of Rimush, 2nd King
03. Narim-Sin "The Great", 4th King, son
(1)/(04A) Sar-Kali-Sharri, 5th King, was the father of three sons: (1) Igigi, 6th King; (2) Nanum, 7th King [father of Emi, 9th King]; & (3) Sunim [Su-Mum], 8th King [father of Elulu, 10th King]
(2)/(04B) Bingani-ar-ali, 9th King, the father of
05. Dudu, 11th King, the father of
06. Shu-Turul [Su-Durul], 12th King, deposed by Gutians
The military-exploits of Sargon’s descendants, especially those of King Naram-Sin of Agade, extended the Akkadian Empire beyond Mesopotamia into the Middle-East, Iran [Elam], South-East Europe, and whose army marched the entire length of North Africa, and, according to myth expelled the Atlanteans, the "giants" mentioned in the Bible [many of whose remains have been dug up], who can be verified to have actually existed in the early history of the human-race. The Akkadian Empire declined in power during the reigns of its later kings, and eventually was conquered by Indo-Europeans, the Gutians [ancestors of the Getae of Thrace, the Jutae of Denmark, and the Geats of Scandinavia], who, occupied Mesopotamia for about a hundred years. Prince Ur-Nigin of Agade [the son of its last king, Shudural] founded the 4th-Dynasty of Erech [5 kings], which emerged as a vassal-state during the occupation of Mespotamia by the Gutian kings, and flourished during the Gutian occupation, and kept the native Sumerian culture alive.
16. the Gutian Empire: 3 kings
Three Gutian kings [one list gives 21 kings] reigned over the Gutian Empire, about 100 years, until the Gutians were driven out of Mespotamia by Utu-Khegal of Erech
X. Erech, 4th-Dynasty/5th-Dynasty
Its king Utu-Khegal (Utuhegal) [son of Ur-Babbar, last king of 4th-Dynasty Erech], drove the Gutians out of Mesopotamia, and restores Sumerian civilization. He founds the 5th-Dynasty of Erech [1 king].
X. Lagash [3rd Dynasty]
Meantime, Puzur-Mama [founder of its 3rd-Dynasty], overthrows Lugalushumgal, last King of 2nd-Dynasty Lagash. Puzur-Mama begots Ur-Uttu and Ur-Mama, who begots King Ur-Baba of Lagash and his brothers Lugula, & Kakug. His successor was Ur-Baba's son-in-law, Gudea. [Ur-Baba was survived by two daughters, one married Gudea, and was the mother of Ur-Ningirsh, the father of Ugme; and the other daughter married Urgar, a Semitic prince, and was the mother of Nammakhni, [last] King of Lagash [2nd-Dyn.], who was overthrown by Ur-Nammu, King of Ur [3rd Dynasty].
X. Ur, 3rd Dynasty
It was during the confused political situation in Sumeria following the expulsion of the Gutians that the Sumerian prince Serug, "descendant" of Reu (above), representative of "the Reuite-Line", who had been appointed governor of Ur by the Gutians, even though he was a native Sumerian from Lagash, secured his position and declared himself King of Ur, founding its 3rd-Dynasty. Mesopotamia experienced its last renaissance of Sumerian culture during the period of the 3rd-Dynasty of Ur. The kings of 3rd-Dynasty Ur [10 kings], held sway over the whole of Mesopotamia and ruled as Sumerian emperors for about a hundred years.
The two sons of Serug were Ur-Nammu and Ur-Nahor [I]. Serug, acknowledged his vassalage to Erech‘s empire, but, his son, Ur-Nammu, 1st King the dynasty’s most illustrious king, broke free of Erech‘s domination, and, by his military-campaigns gave Ur its great empire. He overthrew King Utu-Khegal of Erech, and all the Sumerian city-states became his vassals, either by acknowledgement or by force. His son, Ur-Engur, 2nd King, succeeded Ur-Nammu in the empire. Ur-Engur died childless, and the throne passed to his uncle, Ur-Nahor [I], 3rd King. Ur-Nahor [I] was the father of three sons: Sulgi, Dungi, and Turgi. Turgi is identified with Terah in the Bible, the father of Abram [Abraham], of whom later. Ur-Nahor [I] was succeeded by his son, Sulgi, 4th King. Sulgi, was murdered by his brother Dungi, 5th King, who usurped the throne in prejudice of his late brother’s eldest son, Bur-Sin, 6th King, who overthrew his uncle, and took the throne. Bur-Sin, was succeeded in turn by his two brothers, Ama-Sin, 7th King, and Shu-Sin, 8th King, after which their cousin, Gimil, 9th King, the son of Dungi, their late uncle, usurped the throne in prejudice of the son of the late king Shu-Sin, namely, Ibi-Sin, 10th King. Later, upon Gimil‘s death, Ibi-Sin, the rightful heir, took the throne. He was the last king of 3rd-Dynasty Ur, whose idol-worship decayed the empire; which was conquered by Elam [1st Persian dynasty], another Sumerian city-state.
17. Elam, city-state, dominates Persia
The news of the defeat and death of King Ibi-Sin of Ur in battle versus King ..... of Elam [the father of Chedorlaomer, the King of Elam, who conducted a campaign in Palestine during Abraham’s time there] sent the royal house of Ur in flight along with thousands of refugees many hundreds of miles to the north out of harm’s way and took up residence at Haran [so-called by Prince Turgi/Terah in memory of his late middle son]. This historical episode is called the "Call of Abram" in the Bible, when God called Abram out of Ur, however, the Bible account omits many details. His father Terah [Turgi] remained a heathen who worship the pagan moon-god Allah, however, Abram "crossed-over" to the worship of Yahweh [anglicized as "Jehovah"], the "The One True God", with whom he made a covenant.
18. Isin, 1st Dynasty [15 kings]
19. Larsa [14 kings]
Its 14th king, Rimsin, conquered Isin and re-united Southern Mesopotamia, and reigned as a Sumerian emperor. Larsa was conquered by the "First" Babylonian Empire, under Hammurabi, 1st-Dynasty of Babylon[ia], which inherited "the Sumerian heritage".
(12) Mari, dominated Sumeria.
Later, we find Assur, Babylon, and Larsa compete for dominance in Mesopotamia; during the increasing influence of the Elamite Empire, as well as the Egyptian [11th-Dynasty] Empire, and the Hittite Empire.
20. Assur, city-state was the first capital city of the Assyrians, whose first king is reckoned to have been Tudija, a Semitic prince.
21. Babylon, city-state [city-state of which Babel was a precinct] rose to empire under its 1st Dynasty, which was founded by Sumuabi, an Akkadian [Baalite] prince.
X. Isin, 2nd Dynasty [11 kings]
22. "SeaLand"/Zealand [3 dynasties]
X. Elam, controlled Persia, whose first dynasty descended from Elamite kings
The Babylonians descended from Ancient Sumerians and Babylonian culture was a continuation of Sumerian culture. The Babylonians were rivals of the Assyrians throughout their existence; they finally won upon the destruction of Nineveh, the Assyrian capital-city, and completely wiping-out Assyria, so much so that academia doubted the existence of Assyria until 19th century archaeologists discovered the remains of Nineveh. The Ossetians of Central Asia are suppose to be the remnant of the Assyrians.
David Hughes, 2005,RdavidH218@AOL.com