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References about Tiwanaku (previously known as Tiahuanaco)

Carlos Ponce-Sangines "Tiwanaku: Espacio, Tiempo y Cultura", 1972.

David Browman, "New Light on Andean Tiwanaku", American Scientist 69 (1081).

Alan L Kolata, The Tiwanaku, 1993.

Marc Bermann, Lakurmata "Household Archaeology in Prehispanic Bolivia", 1994.


1. Abbott, M. B., Binford, M. w., Brenner, M., and Kelts, K. B., 1997, A 3500 14C yr high-resolution record of water-level changes in Lake Titcaca, Bolivia/Peru. Quaternary Research, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 169-180.

2. Binford, M. W., Kilata, A. L., Brenner, M., and others, 1997, Climatic variation and the rise and fall of an Andean civilization. Quaternary Research, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 235-248.

3. Ortloff, C. R., and Kolata, A. L., 1993, Climate and collaspe: Agro-ecological perspective on the decline of the Tiwanaku state. Journal of Field Archaeology. vol. vol. 20, pp. 195-221.

4. Wirrman, D., Mourguiart, P., and Fernado De Almereida, L., 1990, Low holocene level (7700 to 3650 years ago) of Lake Titicac (Bolivia) Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology. vol. 59, pp. 315-323.

5. Dejoux, C., and Iltis, A., eds. Lake Titcaca, A Synposium of Limnological Knowledge. Kluwer Academic, Boston.

--------- Browman, David L., 1981, New Light on Andean Tiwanaku. American Scientist. vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 408-419.

Bruhns, Karen, 1994, Ancient South America. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Burger, Richard, 1992, Chavin and the Origins of Andean Civilization. Thames and Hudson, New York.

Isbell, William H., 1988, City and State in Middle Horizon Huari. In Richard W. Keatinge, ed., pp. 164-189, Peruvian Prehistory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Kolata, Alan L., 1991, The Technology and Organization of Agricultural Production in the Tiwanaku State. Latin American Antiquity. vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 99-125

Kolata, Alan L., 1993, The Tiwanaku: portrait of an Andean civilization. Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge.

Kolata, Alan L., 1996, Tiwanaku and Its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, University of Chicago, Chicago.

Kolata, Alan L., and Sangines, Carlos Ponce, 1992, Tiwanaku: The City at the Center. Ancient Americas: Art from Sacred Landscapes. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.

Moseley, Michael E., 1992, The Incas and Their Ancestors: The Archaeology of Peru. Thames and Hudson, London.

A fun URL is located at: "Underwater Archaeological Research in Lake Titicaca, Bolivia."


Bandelier, Adolf The Islands of Titcaca and Koati, 1910

Bennet, Wendell Excavations at Tiwanaku in Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, 1934

Bennet, Wendell Excavations in Bolivia in Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, 1936

Bennet, Wendell A Revised Sequence for the South Titicaca Basin in A Reappraisal of Peruvian Archaeology, 1948

Bennet, Wendell Cultural Unity and Disunity in the Titicaca Basin in American Antiquity, 1950

Berenguer, Jose La Problematica Tiwanaku en Chile: vision retrospectiva in Revista Chilena de Antropologia, 1978

Bermann, Marc Continuity and Change in Household life at Lukurmata in Domestic Architecture, Ethnicity and Complemantarity in the South Central Andes, 1993

Bermann, Marc Lukurmata: Household Archaeology in Prehispanic Peru, 1994

Bermann, Marc Domestic Life and Vertical Integration in the Tiwanaku Heartland in Latin American Antiquity, no date given

Berman, Marc and Jose Estevez Castillo Domestic Artifact Assemblages and Ritual Activities in the Bolivian Formantive in Journal of Field Archaeology, 1995

Browman, David Toward the Development of the Tiwanaku State in Advances in Andean Archaeology, 1978

Browman, David Tiwanaku Expansion and Altiplano Economic Patterns in Estudios Arqueologicos, 1980

Browman, David New Light on Ancient Tiwanaku in American Scientist, 1981

Browman, David Tiwanaku: Development of Interzonal Trade and Economic Expansion in the Altiplano in Social and Economic Organization in the Prehispanic Andes, 1981

Browman, David Cultural Primacy of Tiwanaku in the Development of a Later Peruvian States in Dialogo Andino, 1985

Erickson, Clark Waru-Waru: Una Tecnologia Agricola del Altiplano Prehispanico in Boletin del Instituto de Estudios Aymaras, 1984

Erickson, Clark Applications of Prehistoric Andean Technology: Experiments in Raised Field Agriculture, Huatta, Lake Titicaca in Prehispanic Agricultural Fields in the Andean Region, 1987

Erickson, Clark An Archaeological Investigation of Raised Field Agriculture in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Peru, PhD dissertation, U. of Illinois, 1988

Erickson, Clark, Raised Field Agriculture in the Lake Titicaca Basin in Expedition, 1988

Escalante Moscoso, Javier F Arquitectura Prehisipanica en los Andes Bolivianos, 1993

Kolata, Alan The Agricultural Foundations of the Tiwanaku State in American Antiquity, 1986

Kolata, Alan The Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization, 1993

Kolata, Alan Tiwanaku and its Hinterland, 1996