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Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington

b. Dec. 28, 1882, Kendal, Westmorland, Eng.

d. Nov. 22, 1944, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire

English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician who did his greatest work in astrophysics, investigating the motion, internal structure, and evolution of stars. He also was the first expositor of the theory of relativity in the English language.

Early life.

Eddington was the son of the headmaster of Stramongate School, an old Quaker foundation in Kendal near Lake Windermere in the northwest of England. His father, a gifted and highly educated man, died of typhoid in 1884. The widow took her daughter and small son to Weston-super-Mare in Somerset, where young Eddington grew up and received his schooling. He entered Owens College, Manchester, in October 1898, and Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 1902. There he won every mathematical honour, as well as Senior Wrangler (1904), Smith's prize, and a Trinity College fellowship (1907). In 1913 he received the Plumian Professorship of Astronomy at Cambridge and in 1914 became also the director of its observatory.

From 1906 to 1913 Eddington was chief assistant at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, where he gained practical experience in the use of astronomical instruments. He made observations on the island of Malta to establish its longitude, led an eclipse expedition to Brazil, and investigated the distribution and motions of the stars. He broke new ground with a paper on the dynamics of a globular stellar system. In Stellar Movements and the Structure of the Universe (1914) he summarised his mathematically elegant investigations, putting forward the thesis that the spiral nebulae, cloudy structures seen in the telescope, were galaxies like the Milky Way.

During World War I he declared himself a pacifist. This arose out of his strongly held Quaker beliefs. His religious faith also found expression in his popular writings on the philosophy of science. In Science and the Unseen World (1929) he declared that the world's meaning could not be discovered from science but must be sought through apprehension of spiritual reality. He expressed this belief in other philosophical books: The Nature of the Physical World (1928), New Pathways of Science (1935), and The Philosophy of Physical Science (1939).

During these years he carried on important studies in astrophysics and relativity, in addition to teaching and lecturing. In 1919 he led an expedition to Príncipe Island (West Africa) that provided the first confirmation of Einstein's theory that gravity will bend the path of light when it passes near a massive star. During the total eclipse of the sun, it was found that the positions of stars seen just beyond the eclipsed solar disk were, as the general theory of relativity had predicted, slightly displaced away from the centre of the solar disk. Eddington was the first expositor of relativity in the English language. His Report on the Relativity Theory of Gravitation (1918), written for the Physical Society, followed by Space, Time and Gravitation (1920) and his great treatise The Mathematical Theory of Relativity (1923)--the latter considered by Einstein the finest presentation of the subject in any language--made Eddington a leader in the field of relativity physics. His own contribution was chiefly a brilliant modification of affine (non-Euclidean) geometry, leading to a geometry of the cosmos. Later, when the Belgian astronomer Georges Lemaître produced the hypothesis of the expanding universe, Eddington pursued the subject in his own researches; these were placed before the general reader in his little book The Expanding Universe (1933). Another book, Relativity Theory of Protons and Electrons (1936), dealt with quantum theory. He gave many popular lectures on relativity, leading the English physicist Sir Joseph John Thomson to remark that Eddington had persuaded multitudes of people that they understood what relativity meant.

Copyright © 1994-2000 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Georges Lemaître

b. July 17, 1894, Charleroi, Belg.

d. June 20, 1966, Louvain

Belgian astronomer and cosmologist who formulated the modern big-bang theory, which holds that the universe began in a cataclysmic explosion of a small, primeval "super-atom."

A civil engineer, Lemaître served as an artillery officer in the Belgian Army during World War I. After the war he entered a seminary and in 1923 was ordained a priest. He studied at the University of Cambridge's solar physics laboratory (1923-24) and then at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (1925-27), where he became acquainted with the findings of the American astronomers Edwin P. Hubble and Harlow Shapley on the expanding universe. In 1927, the year he became professor of astrophysics at the University of Louvain, he proposed his big-bang theory, which explained the recession of the galaxies within the framework of Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity. Although expanding models of the universe had been considered earlier, notably by the Dutch astronomer Willem de Sitter, Lemaître's theory, as modified by George Gamow, has become the leading theory of cosmology.

Lemaître also did research on cosmic rays and on the three-body problem, which concerns the mathematical description of the motion of three mutually attracting bodies in space. His works include Discussion sur l'évolution de l'univers (1933; "Discussion on the Evolution of the Universe") and L'Hypothèse de l'atome primitif (1946; "Hypothesis of the Primeval Atom").

Copyright © 1994-2000 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.