American History Class
Monticello Middle School

Mr. Stephens

Chapter 4
The English Colonies

October 7 - October 21

. . . . In 1605 a company of English merchants asked the Crown for the right to found a new settlement in North America. They asked to settle in a region called Virginia. At the time, Virginia extended from present-day Maine to South Carolina. In 1606 King James I granted the request. He promised the London Company the rights to “all the lands ...rivers ...[and] commodities [goods]” along part of the Virginia coast. The company’s efforts, wrote King James, “may in time bring ...a settled and quiet government.”

England’s King James I held a conference in 1604 to meet with Protestant leaders. They wanted to reform the Church of England, also known as the Anglican Church. The leaders criticized the power held by Anglican bishops. As they talked, the king grew restless. Finally, he interrupted one of the reformers and began shouting furiously. “While I am in England I will have bishops to govern the Church.” The king had plans for those who asked for reform, too. James stated, “I will make them conform themselves [become Anglicans] or I will harry [drive] them out of this land.

In the early 1600s John Winthrop wrote to his wife, Margaret. He worried that “this land [England] grows weary of her inhabitants.” As an Englishman, John Winthrop was fond of his country. As a Puritan, however, he believed that the members of his church were no longer welcome in England. Winthrop believed that the time was coming when they would have to leave their comfortable life behind. He later wrote that the Puritans would have to seek a new home to “be better preserved from the common corruptions [sins] of this evil world.”

The English ship the Ark sailed into Chesapeake Bay. As it did, one passenger, Father Andrew White, looked out in wonder. He called the Potomac the “greatest river I have seene, so that the Thames is but a little finger to it.” The Ark and its sister ship, the Dove, landed along the banks of the Potomac in March 1634. Most of the colonists on board were Catholic. On the riverbank, the colonists made a cross out of a large tree to celebrate their first Catholic mass in the new colony.

From Indentured Servitude to Racial Slavery

. . . In the early years of the (Virginia) colony, many Africans and poor whites -- most of the laborers came from the English working class -- stood on the same ground. Black and white women worked side-by-side in the fields. Black and white men who broke their servant contract were equally punished.

All were indentured servants. During their time as servants, they were fed and housed. Afterwards, they would be given what were known as "freedom dues," which usually included a piece of land and supplies, including a gun. Black-skinned or white-skinned, they became free. . . .

. . . the indentured servants, especially once freed, began to pose a threat to the property-owning elite. The colonial establishment had placed restrictions on available lands, creating unrest among newly freed indentured servants. In 1676, working class men burned down Jamestown, making indentured servitude look even less attractive to Virginia leaders. Also, servants moved on, forcing a need for costly replacements; slaves, especially ones you could identify by skin color, could not move on and become free competitors. . . (PBS link)

Reading Checks:

1. What role did indentured servants and enslaved Africans have in Virginia’s economy?
2. What was the Mayflower Compact, and why was it important?
3. What role did religion and the Church play in the Massachusetts Bay Colony?

The following requirements
must be completed.
How they are fulfilled is your choice.
The methods you choose must be pre-approved.

"Old School"
Using the Cornell Note-taking method,
Cornell Template

Please complete each
Review Section
in the textbook
as instructed below

American History

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Section 1
The Virginia Colony
  1. Complete - indentured servants
  2. Complete entire question
  3. Complete entire question
  4. Complete entire question
  5. Do not complete

Section 2
The Pilgrims' Experience

1. Complete - sect
- Puritans
- Separatists
- Pilgrims
3. Complete entire question
4. Complete item “b” only
5. Complete entire question

Study Guide

Section 3
The New England Colonies
  1. The New England Colonies
    1. Complete
    - covenant
    2. Complete:
    - Great Migration
    - Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
    3. Complete entire question
    4. Complete
    - "a" only
    5. Complete entire question

Alternative Assessment ???
Practice Test

Study Guide

Test 4.2
Section 4
The Southern & Middle Colonies
  1. Complete entire question
  2. Complete
    1. Toleration Act of 1649
    2. Peter Stuyvesant
    3. Quakers
    4. William Penn
  3. Complete entire question
  4. Complete entire question
  5. Complete entire question


Practice Test

Study Guide

Test 4.2

Old School
Practice Tests

Possible Alternative Assessments
If you would like to complete an alternative
Assessment rather than take the "Old School" test(s),
please choose one of the following or create an
appropriate alternative assessment of your own.
If you choose to complete an alternative assessment,
you must have approval when we begin the chapter assignment.

To replace a test, choose one per test.

Textbook Page 103 - 108

* Section 3 - Homework Practice - See Mr. Stephens

* page 106 "The Chapter at a Glance" - see Mr. Stephens

Textbook page 106 - (minimum 2 paragraphs each)

. Understanding Main Ideas
Section 1
1. What factors made it difficult for the Jamestown settlement to survive?

Section 2
2. In what ways did American Indians help the Pilgrims survive in Plymouth?

Section 3
3. How did Puritan dissenters such as Roger Williams contribute to the development of self-government in the colonies?

Section 4
4. Contrast the founding and settlement of the Carolinas, Georgia, and Maryland.

Geography - How did climate and geography affect the colonies’ development?

Economics - Why were indentured servants and enslaved Africans more important to the southern colonies’ economies than to New England’s?

Analyzing Information: from Chapter 2 - - Very Important
How did the Protestant Reformation affect European colonization of the Americas in the 1600s?

As always, you may select one of the above alternative assessments, choose one of your (with my approval), or take a traditional written test. You may also choose an alternative assessment and take the written test. Only the higher grade will be recorded.

Printable Copy

Replacement Point


Ohio Social Studies Standards
Chapter 4


Old School
What's on the test?
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It is not our abilities that show us what we truly are. It is our choices. - - Albus Dumbledore